Finland

$53,982.6
5.54M
Ranking
72/ 82
Original Score

* As some Indicators can be skipped where data is unavailable, the maximum overall and Domain scores are not identical for each country. Country rankings are generated from ratios of the maximum scores and the achieved scores.

71/ 392
Executive partner
Central European Institute of Asian Studies
Index Year
2022
Layer Scores

The Indicators have been classified by the stage of the influence process at which they occur. Some Indicators correspond to exposure to PRC influence, e.g. the presence of Confucius Institutes. Others test for pressure – such as visa denials to academics or journalists. Finally, some Indicators capture the effect of PRC influence, such as national policy changes in favor of PRC interests.
The individual Layer scores for each country are tallied and displayed via rankings.

Exposure

22%

Exposure assesses the conditions that make the target country vulnerable to PRC's influence, e.g. in terms of economic dependence, or the receiving of some form of benefit.

Pressure

19%

Pressure measures the actions that the PRC directly or indirectly exerts over the target country in order to change the behavior of people in the target country, e.g. in terms of threatening economic punishment to provoke/prevent a political decision.

Effect

9%

Effect evaluates the degree of accommodations the target country makes to the PRC, and the actual effects and impacts on the target country.

In 2021, Finland had a GDP per capita of US$53,983 and a total population of 5.54 million people.

Finland established diplomatic relations with the People's Republic of China in 1950. Finland was ranked 5th in Reporters Without Borders' 2022 World Press Freedom Index, and Free in Freedom House's 2022 Global Freedom Status, with a score of 100/100.

Domain Scores
Country Percentage
Index Average

Percentage scores do not suggest some degree out of a “completely influenced” level of 100%. The percentages express the country’s score out of the total achievable amount based on the Indicators for each Domain.

  • Media
    27.3% / 30.1%
  • Academia
    22.5% / 34%
  • Economy
    9.1% / 33.6%
  • Society
    13.6% / 23.6%
  • Military
    9.1% / 23.4%
  • Law Enforcement
    9.1% / 30.2%
  • Technology
    22.7% / 40.8%
  • Domestic Politics
    25.0% / 37.2%
  • Foreign Policy
    25.0% / 41%

Media

The Media Domain evaluates how PRC entities influence public debate and media coverage about the PRC in the Index country.

1.
Exposure

In my country, there are media organizations that belong to the World Chinese Media (世界华文媒体) network.

Yes

Answer ( 1 / 4 )

More

Skipped

2 countries chose this answer

0/ No

42 countries chose this answer

1/ Few, but insignificant

19 countries chose this answer

2/ More than a few, but insignificant

4 countries chose this answer

3/ Few, but significant

13 countries chose this answer

4/ More than a few, and significant

2 countries chose this answer

80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

Supporting Evidence

Not Found

  1. http://www.eztv.vip/about/aboutus/

    Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Richard Turcsányi

    Hide
    2.
    Exposure

    In my country, there are journalists or media organizations which are members of the Belt and Road Media Cooperation Alliance/Union, the Belt and Road News Alliance, or other Belt and Road media networks that connected to PRC (e.g. Belt and Road Media Community, Belt and Road Journalists Network, Belt and Road News Network, or B&R TV Networks).

    No

    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

    More

    Skipped

    1 countries chose this answer

    0/ No

    39 countries chose this answer

    1/ Few, but insignificant

    23 countries chose this answer

    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

    4 countries chose this answer

    3/ Few, but significant

    14 countries chose this answer

    4/ More than a few, and significant

    1 countries chose this answer

    81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

    Supporting Evidence

    No evidence exists to suggest otherwise.

        Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Richard Turcsányi

        Hide
        3.
        Exposure

        In my country, there are journalists, media organizations or online influencers who have attended all-expenses paid media tours in PRC.

        No

        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

        More

        Skipped

        11 countries chose this answer

        0/ No

        15 countries chose this answer

        1/ Few, but insignificant

        15 countries chose this answer

        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

        5 countries chose this answer

        3/ Few, but significant

        23 countries chose this answer

        4/ More than a few, and significant

        13 countries chose this answer

        71 countries answered this indicator; 11 countries skipped this indicator

        Supporting Evidence

        No evidence exists to suggest otherwise.

            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Richard Turcsányi

            Hide
            4.
            Exposure

            In my country, there are journalists, media organizations or online influencers who have received trainings from PRC state-owned media or PRC-connected entities.

            No

            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

            More

            Skipped

            3 countries chose this answer

            0/ No

            37 countries chose this answer

            1/ Few, but insignificant

            16 countries chose this answer

            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

            2 countries chose this answer

            3/ Few, but significant

            14 countries chose this answer

            4/ More than a few, and significant

            10 countries chose this answer

            79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

            Supporting Evidence

            No evidence exists to suggest otherwise.

                Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Richard Turcsányi

                Hide
                5.
                Exposure

                In my country, PRC state-media (including print, radio, and video) is broadcasted or distributed in a local language.

                Yes

                Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                More

                Skipped

                1 countries chose this answer

                0/ No

                24 countries chose this answer

                1/ Few, but insignificant

                22 countries chose this answer

                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                7 countries chose this answer

                3/ Few, but significant

                18 countries chose this answer

                4/ More than a few, and significant

                10 countries chose this answer

                81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                Supporting Evidence

                "赫尔辛基时报" has been started in Jan. 2021 until now(see the URL2 below). No obvious political contents, unlike the English language ‘China News’ section which has more political contents and mentions ‘cooperation with People's Daily Online’ but the editor is unreachable despite repeated attempts to inquire about the terms of contract over the past two years.

                1. http://www.chinanews.se/web/template/common/about.html
                2. https://cn.helsinkitimes.fi/

                  Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Richard Turcsányi

                  Hide
                  6.
                  Exposure

                  In my country, there are local media outlets wholly or partly owned by PRC citizens or corporations.

                  No

                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                  More

                  Skipped

                  2 countries chose this answer

                  0/ No

                  44 countries chose this answer

                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                  19 countries chose this answer

                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                  3 countries chose this answer

                  3/ Few, but significant

                  14 countries chose this answer

                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                  0 countries chose this answer

                  80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                  Supporting Evidence

                  No evidence exists to suggest otherwise.

                      Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Richard Turcsányi

                      Hide
                      7.
                      Exposure

                      In my country, there are media outlets that have delivered cheap or free contents provided by PRC state-fund media.

                      Yes

                      Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                      More

                      Skipped

                      3 countries chose this answer

                      0/ No

                      22 countries chose this answer

                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                      21 countries chose this answer

                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                      6 countries chose this answer

                      3/ Few, but significant

                      23 countries chose this answer

                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                      7 countries chose this answer

                      79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                      Supporting Evidence

                      Not Found

                      1. https://www.helsinkitimes.fi/china-news.html

                        Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Richard Turcsányi

                        Hide
                        8.
                        Exposure

                        In my country, there are regular PRC state-media or government advertisements inserted within local newspapers, online news websites or social media.

                        Yes

                        Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                        More

                        Skipped

                        1 countries chose this answer

                        0/ No

                        38 countries chose this answer

                        1/ Few, but insignificant

                        13 countries chose this answer

                        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                        7 countries chose this answer

                        3/ Few, but significant

                        15 countries chose this answer

                        4/ More than a few, and significant

                        8 countries chose this answer

                        81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                        Supporting Evidence

                        In September 2019, Finland's largest newspaper Helsiging Sanomat (HS) published a frontpage add paid for by the Hong Kong SAR Government amplifying Beijing's propaganda about the HK protests. The editor of HS tried to defend its decision by claiming that social marketing falls under freedom of speech but it was very controversial among HS staff members and concerned segments of the wider public. In July 2021, HS and three other mainstream Nordic newspapers printed on their frontpage a common message of solidarity with Hong Kong's media freedom.

                            Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Richard Turcsányi

                            Hide
                            9.
                            Pressure

                            In my country, there are journalists who have had pressure exerted on them by the PRC, including (but not limited to) public denouncement, revocation of journalist ID, denial of visa.

                            Yes

                            Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                            More

                            Skipped

                            1 countries chose this answer

                            0/ No

                            57 countries chose this answer

                            4/ Yes

                            24 countries chose this answer

                            81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                            Supporting Evidence

                            Mari Manninen, a Finnish journalist Helsingin Sanomat, told me that she and her colleagues' harassment experience was very light compared with other countries. Her book Kiinalainen juttu has couple of cases mentioned, where she also tells about Finnish researchers and business men declining her interviews out of fear.

                            1. https://atena.fi/kirjat/kiinalainen-juttu

                              Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Richard Turcsányi

                              Hide
                              10.
                              Effect

                              In my country, there are incidents of media outlets censoring views critical of the PRC government.

                              Yes

                              Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                              More

                              Skipped

                              4 countries chose this answer

                              0/ No

                              51 countries chose this answer

                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                              11 countries chose this answer

                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                              3 countries chose this answer

                              3/ Few, but significant

                              9 countries chose this answer

                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                              4 countries chose this answer

                              78 countries answered this indicator; 4 countries skipped this indicator

                              Supporting Evidence

                              In this article, it is suggested that Finnish media may have been promoting Finnish businesses by avoiding to upset the Chinese government but the only supportive reference cited is Mari Manninen's 2019 book

                              1. https://researchportal.tuni.fi/en/publications/silence-is-golden-finnish-chinese-relations-and-freedom-of-speech

                                Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Richard Turcsányi

                                Hide
                                11.
                                Effect

                                In my country, there are media personalities (including reporters, journalists or commentators) or celebrities who deny the existence of human rights abuses in the PRC (e.g. a media personality that doubts there are re-education camps for Uyghurs in Xinjiang).

                                Yes

                                Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                                More

                                Skipped

                                2 countries chose this answer

                                0/ No

                                44 countries chose this answer

                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                18 countries chose this answer

                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                4 countries chose this answer

                                3/ Few, but significant

                                9 countries chose this answer

                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                5 countries chose this answer

                                80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                Supporting Evidence

                                A slight case of elite capture in January 2022 during the Winter Olympics boycott when former Finnish Prime Minister Esko Aho (also mentioned in a recent EU report as a case of elite capture by Moscow) was interviewed by CGTN to spread 'positive news' but no explicit doubting or denial of human rights abuses

                                1. https://news.cgtn.com/news/2022-01-06/Former-Finnish-PM-hopes-for-more-trust-globally-after-Beijing-2022-16BMrXAJW7K/index.html

                                  Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Richard Turcsányi

                                  Hide

                                  Academia

                                  The Academia Domain measures how the PRC state attempts to restrict academic freedom by influencing or interfering with the Index country’s academic and educational activities.

                                  1.
                                  Exposure

                                  In my country, universities have established research partnerships with PRC-connected entities. (e.g. Huawei, Tencent or Alibaba)

                                  Yes

                                  Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                  More

                                  0/ No

                                  9 countries chose this answer

                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                  11 countries chose this answer

                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                  6 countries chose this answer

                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                  31 countries chose this answer

                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                  25 countries chose this answer

                                  82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                  Supporting Evidence

                                  Not Found

                                  1. https://seura.fi/asiat/tutkivat/seura-tutki-kiinan-kannykkajatti-huawei-antaa-miljoonia-suomen-yliopistoille-mita-se-haluaa/

                                    Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Richard Turcsányi

                                    Hide
                                    2.
                                    Exposure

                                    In my country, there are Confucius Institutes/Classrooms.

                                    No

                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                    More

                                    0/ No

                                    5 countries chose this answer

                                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                                    14 countries chose this answer

                                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                    5 countries chose this answer

                                    3/ Few, but significant

                                    31 countries chose this answer

                                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                                    27 countries chose this answer

                                    82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                    Supporting Evidence

                                    As the article "Helsinki University closes China-funded Confucius Institute", Helsinki University terminated the contract with its on-campus Confucius Institute (see the URL below).

                                    1. https://yle.fi/news/3-12500430

                                      Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Richard Turcsányi

                                      Hide
                                      3.
                                      Exposure

                                      My country plans to include, or does include, Chinese as a foreign language in K12 or primary education, and receives free or subsidized (e.g. offered below market price) educational books and teachers from PRC.

                                      No

                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                      More

                                      Skipped

                                      1 countries chose this answer

                                      0/ No

                                      46 countries chose this answer

                                      4/ Yes

                                      35 countries chose this answer

                                      81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                      Supporting Evidence

                                      No evidence exists to suggest otherwise.

                                          Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Richard Turcsányi

                                          Hide
                                          4.
                                          Exposure

                                          In my country, one or more think tanks and academic research centers belong to PRC-affiliated networks/associations (such as: the Silk Road Think Tank Association, Silk Road Think Tank Network [SiLKS], Belt and Road Studies Network, University Alliance of the Silk Road, University Consortium of the 21st Century Maritime Silk Road).

                                          No

                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                          More

                                          Skipped

                                          2 countries chose this answer

                                          0/ No

                                          40 countries chose this answer

                                          1/ Few, but insignificant

                                          17 countries chose this answer

                                          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                          7 countries chose this answer

                                          3/ Few, but significant

                                          14 countries chose this answer

                                          4/ More than a few, and significant

                                          2 countries chose this answer

                                          80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                          Supporting Evidence

                                          No evidence exists to suggest otherwise.

                                              Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Richard Turcsányi

                                              Hide
                                              5.
                                              Exposure

                                              In my country, think tanks and academic research centers have received financial support from PRC-connected individuals or entities.

                                              Yes

                                              Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                                              More

                                              Skipped

                                              10 countries chose this answer

                                              0/ No

                                              21 countries chose this answer

                                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                                              11 countries chose this answer

                                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                              11 countries chose this answer

                                              3/ Few, but significant

                                              19 countries chose this answer

                                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                                              10 countries chose this answer

                                              72 countries answered this indicator; 10 countries skipped this indicator

                                              Hide
                                              6.
                                              Exposure

                                              In my country, experts participate in PRC talent recruitment programs such as the Thousand Talents Program or Changjiang Scholars program.

                                              No

                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                              More

                                              Skipped

                                              3 countries chose this answer

                                              0/ No

                                              47 countries chose this answer

                                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                                              11 countries chose this answer

                                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                              6 countries chose this answer

                                              3/ Few, but significant

                                              10 countries chose this answer

                                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                                              5 countries chose this answer

                                              79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                                              Supporting Evidence

                                              No evidence exists to suggest otherwise.

                                                  Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Richard Turcsányi

                                                  Hide
                                                  7.
                                                  Exposure

                                                  In my country, scholars have taken trips to the PRC paid for by PRC-connected individuals or entities.

                                                  Skip

                                                  More

                                                  Skipped

                                                  13 countries chose this answer

                                                  0/ No

                                                  17 countries chose this answer

                                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                  15 countries chose this answer

                                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                  11 countries chose this answer

                                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                                  12 countries chose this answer

                                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                  14 countries chose this answer

                                                  69 countries answered this indicator; 13 countries skipped this indicator

                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                  Not Found

                                                    Supplementary Notes

                                                    Only personal knowledge available

                                                      Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Richard Turcsányi

                                                      Hide
                                                      8.
                                                      Pressure

                                                      In my country, organized PRC-connected student groups, such as Chinese Students and Scholars Associations (CSSAs), are involved in attempts to censor staff or students (e.g. by harassing students protesting human rights abuses in the PRC, or formally complaining about the identification of Taiwan as a country in lecture slides).

                                                      Yes

                                                      Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                                                      More

                                                      Skipped

                                                      1 countries chose this answer

                                                      0/ No

                                                      64 countries chose this answer

                                                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                      6 countries chose this answer

                                                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                      3 countries chose this answer

                                                      3/ Few, but significant

                                                      5 countries chose this answer

                                                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                      3 countries chose this answer

                                                      81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                      Not Found

                                                      1. https://tutkainlehti.fi/akateemisen-vapauden-portinvartija/

                                                        Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Richard Turcsányi

                                                        Hide
                                                        9.
                                                        Pressure

                                                        In my country, scholars or academics have been denied visas to travel to the PRC after expressing opinions or producing scholarship that is critical of the PRC.

                                                        No

                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                        More

                                                        Skipped

                                                        7 countries chose this answer

                                                        0/ No

                                                        64 countries chose this answer

                                                        1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                        1 countries chose this answer

                                                        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                        0 countries chose this answer

                                                        3/ Few, but significant

                                                        6 countries chose this answer

                                                        4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                        4 countries chose this answer

                                                        75 countries answered this indicator; 7 countries skipped this indicator

                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                        No evidence exists to suggest otherwise.

                                                            Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Richard Turcsányi

                                                            Hide
                                                            10.
                                                            Effect

                                                            In my country, PRC-connected entities have been involved in school or university curriculum design, such as courses about East Asian history, modern politics, etc.

                                                            No

                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                            More

                                                            Skipped

                                                            2 countries chose this answer

                                                            0/ No

                                                            64 countries chose this answer

                                                            4/ Yes

                                                            16 countries chose this answer

                                                            80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                            No evidence exists to suggest otherwise.

                                                                Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Richard Turcsányi

                                                                Hide
                                                                11.
                                                                Effect

                                                                In my country, there are confirmed reports of teachers or professors avoiding the discussion of sensitive political issues (e.g. Uyghur re-education camps, Taiwan independence, Tiananmen Square Massacre).

                                                                Yes

                                                                Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                More

                                                                Skipped

                                                                5 countries chose this answer

                                                                0/ No

                                                                65 countries chose this answer

                                                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                1 countries chose this answer

                                                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                1 countries chose this answer

                                                                3/ Few, but significant

                                                                6 countries chose this answer

                                                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                4 countries chose this answer

                                                                77 countries answered this indicator; 5 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                Not Found

                                                                1. https://yle.fi/news/3-12500430

                                                                  Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Richard Turcsányi

                                                                  Hide

                                                                  Economy

                                                                  The Economy Domain measures the PRC’s economic leverage in the Index country, and how this is used to influence economic policy or corporate behavior in ways that favor the PRC.

                                                                  1.
                                                                  Exposure

                                                                  The PRC is my country's number one trading partner (for trade in goods only).

                                                                  No

                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                  More

                                                                  0/ No

                                                                  51 countries chose this answer

                                                                  4/ Yes

                                                                  31 countries chose this answer

                                                                  82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                  No evidence exists to suggest otherwise.

                                                                      Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Richard Turcsányi

                                                                      Hide
                                                                      2.
                                                                      Exposure

                                                                      PRC-connected entities own more than 50% of my country’s sovereign debt.

                                                                      No

                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                      More

                                                                      Skipped

                                                                      1 countries chose this answer

                                                                      0/ No

                                                                      77 countries chose this answer

                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                      4 countries chose this answer

                                                                      81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                      No evidence exists to suggest otherwise.

                                                                          Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Richard Turcsányi

                                                                          Hide
                                                                          3.
                                                                          Exposure

                                                                          The PRC is the top customer for my country’s extractive industries.

                                                                          No

                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                          More

                                                                          0/ No

                                                                          62 countries chose this answer

                                                                          4/ Yes

                                                                          20 countries chose this answer

                                                                          82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                          No evidence exists to suggest otherwise.

                                                                              Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Richard Turcsányi

                                                                              Hide
                                                                              4.
                                                                              Exposure

                                                                              In my country, PRC-related entities own, operate or substantially control critical infrastructure (e.g. ports, power plants, digital data centers, etc) or sensitive sectors (biotech, raw materials, etc.)

                                                                              No

                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                              More

                                                                              0/ No

                                                                              36 countries chose this answer

                                                                              4/ Yes

                                                                              46 countries chose this answer

                                                                              82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                              No evidence exists to suggest otherwise.

                                                                                  Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Richard Turcsányi

                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                  5.
                                                                                  Exposure

                                                                                  My country joined (or applied to join) the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB).

                                                                                  Yes

                                                                                  Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                  More

                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                  27 countries chose this answer

                                                                                  4/ Yes

                                                                                  55 countries chose this answer

                                                                                  82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                  Not Found

                                                                                  1. https://www.aiib.org/en/about-aiib/governance/members-of-bank/index.html

                                                                                    Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Richard Turcsányi

                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                    6.
                                                                                    Exposure

                                                                                    In my country, major businesses are members of the Silk Road Chamber of International Commerce, or of the Belt and Road Industrial and Commercial Alliance, or of the Belt and Road General Chamber of Commerce.

                                                                                    No

                                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                    More

                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                    41 countries chose this answer

                                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                                    41 countries chose this answer

                                                                                    82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                    Not Found

                                                                                    1. https://researchportal.tuni.fi/en/publications/silence-is-golden-finnish-chinese-relations-and-freedom-of-speech

                                                                                      Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Richard Turcsányi

                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                      7.
                                                                                      Pressure

                                                                                      My country has been the target of PRC economic coercion (e.g. trade or investment sanctions) that was specifically tailored at products or services that are highly dependent on the PRC market.

                                                                                      No

                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                      More

                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                      64 countries chose this answer

                                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                                      18 countries chose this answer

                                                                                      82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                      No evidence exists to suggest otherwise.

                                                                                          Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Richard Turcsányi

                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                          8.
                                                                                          Pressure

                                                                                          In my country, local businesses have been harassed, threatened, or boycotted, due to their activities or statements in support of causes deemed unacceptable by the PRC government (e.g. Taiwanese independence, Hong Kong democracy, Tibet or Xinjiang issues, etc).

                                                                                          No

                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                          More

                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                          2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                          65 countries chose this answer

                                                                                          4/ Yes

                                                                                          15 countries chose this answer

                                                                                          80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                          No evidence exists to suggest otherwise.

                                                                                              Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Richard Turcsányi

                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                              9.
                                                                                              Effect

                                                                                              My country has free-trade agreement(s) with the PRC (either bilateral or as part of regional agreement(s)) that primarily deals with trade in goods or services, including digital goods or services.

                                                                                              No

                                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                              More

                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                              51 countries chose this answer

                                                                                              4/ Yes

                                                                                              31 countries chose this answer

                                                                                              82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                              No evidence exists to suggest otherwise.

                                                                                                  Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Richard Turcsányi

                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                  10.
                                                                                                  Effect

                                                                                                  In my country, central or local governments have relaxed or removed regulatory restrictions, or have established special economic zones (or free trade zones, industrial parks, etc.) to attract investments or economic participation from the PRC.

                                                                                                  No

                                                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                  47 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                  4/ Yes

                                                                                                  35 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                  82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                  No evidence exists to suggest otherwise.

                                                                                                      Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Richard Turcsányi

                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                      11.
                                                                                                      Effect

                                                                                                      In my country, PRC-connected entities requisitioned infrastructure or land for failure to repay debts in a timely manner.

                                                                                                      No

                                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                      2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                      76 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                                                      4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                      80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                      No evidence exists to suggest otherwise.

                                                                                                          Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Richard Turcsányi

                                                                                                          Hide

                                                                                                          Society

                                                                                                          The Society Domain measures the extent and effectiveness of the PRC’s efforts to advance its soft power in the Index country, including its influence over the actions and views of local organizations and citizens.

                                                                                                          1.
                                                                                                          Exposure

                                                                                                          In my country, there are local groups or organizations with words like “Promotion of Peaceful Reunification” in their name, and they regularly publicize their views on Taiwan, Hong Kong, Tibet and Xinjiang issues.

                                                                                                          Yes

                                                                                                          Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                          1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                          49 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                          1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                          12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                          7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                          3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                          9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                          4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                          4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                          81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                          Finland Association for Promoting Peaceful Reunification of China (FAPPRC) established in 2017, connected to the United Front work department, it organised a counter-demonstration against pro-democracy demonstrations in solidarity with Hong Kong

                                                                                                          1. https://www.isdp.eu/content/uploads/2022/08/ISDP-Asia-Paper-Chinese-Influence-Matti-Puranen.pdf

                                                                                                            Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Richard Turcsányi

                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                            2.
                                                                                                            Exposure

                                                                                                            In my country, there are members and member organizations of United World Chinese Association (世界华人协会).

                                                                                                            No

                                                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                            1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                            62 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                                                            19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                            81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                            No evidence exists to suggest otherwise.

                                                                                                                Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Richard Turcsányi

                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                3.
                                                                                                                Exposure

                                                                                                                In my country, labor unions cooperate on exchanges or official visits to the All-China Federation of Trade Unions (ACFTU) in the PRC.

                                                                                                                No

                                                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                68 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                4/ Yes

                                                                                                                13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                No evidence exists to suggest otherwise.

                                                                                                                    Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Richard Turcsányi

                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                    4.
                                                                                                                    Exposure

                                                                                                                    In my country, there are local reports of personnel linked to the UFWD who make appearances at Chinese diaspora community events and activities (e.g. Lunar New Year events, Dragon Boat festival tournaments, etc).

                                                                                                                    Yes

                                                                                                                    Answer ( 2 / 4 )

                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                    2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                    50 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                    9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                    5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                    3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                    9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                    7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                    80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                    Not Found

                                                                                                                    1. https://yle.fi/aihe/artikkeli/2020/03/16/perussuomalainen-kiina-ilmio-kasikirjoitus

                                                                                                                      Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Richard Turcsányi

                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                      5.
                                                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                                                      In my country, there are PRC-connected professional associations that are closely engaged with their counterparts locally, such as All-China Journalists Association (中华全国新闻工作者协会), China Artists Association (中国艺术家协会), China Writers Association (中国作家协会) or All-China Women Federation (全国妇联).

                                                                                                                      Yes

                                                                                                                      Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                      2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                      33 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                      25 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                      8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                      3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                      8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                      6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                      80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                      6.
                                                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                                                      In my country, PRC-connected individuals or entities donate money or provide other types of support to religious communities and charities.

                                                                                                                      No

                                                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                      1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                      46 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                                                                      35 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                      81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                      No evidence exists to suggest otherwise.

                                                                                                                          Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Richard Turcsányi

                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                          7.
                                                                                                                          Exposure

                                                                                                                          In my country, the PRC government or PRC-connected entities distribute entertainment products (including: drama and TV shows) or related hardwares (e.g. OTT streaming players hosting PRC media channels) freely or at a cheap price.

                                                                                                                          No

                                                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                                          2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                          38 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                          1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                          21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                          4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                          3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                          11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                          4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                          6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                          80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                          No evidence exists to suggest otherwise.

                                                                                                                              Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Richard Turcsányi

                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                              8.
                                                                                                                              Effect

                                                                                                                              Cultural products (such as films and TV shows) produced by my country’s production studios typically portray the PRC in a positive light.

                                                                                                                              No

                                                                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                              7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                              60 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                              4/ Yes

                                                                                                                              15 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                              75 countries answered this indicator; 7 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                              No evidence exists to suggest otherwise.

                                                                                                                                  Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Richard Turcsányi

                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                  9.
                                                                                                                                  Effect

                                                                                                                                  In my country, celebrities regularly publish or share propaganda narratives from the PRC.

                                                                                                                                  No

                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                  67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                  10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                  0 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                  3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                  2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                  82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                  No evidence exists to suggest otherwise.

                                                                                                                                      Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Richard Turcsányi

                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                      10.
                                                                                                                                      Effect

                                                                                                                                      In my country, the national or local governments regularly publish or share propaganda narratives from the PRC (e.g. statements from the PRC government or embassies).

                                                                                                                                      No

                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                                      2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                      54 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                      12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                      2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                      3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                      7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                      5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                      80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                      No evidence exists to suggest otherwise.

                                                                                                                                          Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Richard Turcsányi

                                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                                          11.
                                                                                                                                          Effect

                                                                                                                                          In my country, a majority of citizens have positive views of the PRC government.

                                                                                                                                          No

                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                                                          7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                          50 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                          4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                          25 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                          75 countries answered this indicator; 7 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                          No evidence exists to suggest otherwise.

                                                                                                                                              Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Richard Turcsányi

                                                                                                                                              Hide

                                                                                                                                              Military

                                                                                                                                              The Military Domain gauges the bilateral military relationship between the PRC and the Index country, including PRC efforts to influence local military personnel.

                                                                                                                                              1.
                                                                                                                                              Exposure

                                                                                                                                              My country currently imports (or receives in-kind donation of) military or law-enforcement equipment or components of equipment from the PRC.

                                                                                                                                              No

                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                              36 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                              4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                              46 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                              82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                              No evidence exists to suggest otherwise.

                                                                                                                                                  Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Richard Turcsányi

                                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                                  2.
                                                                                                                                                  Exposure

                                                                                                                                                  My country currently exports military or law-enforcement equipment or components of equipment to the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                  No

                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                                                  1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                                  74 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                  4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                  7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                  81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                  No evidence exists to suggest otherwise.

                                                                                                                                                      Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Richard Turcsányi

                                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                                      3.
                                                                                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                                                                                      My country co-develops or co-produces military or law-enforcement equipment with the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                      No

                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                                                      1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                      66 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                      15 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                      81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                      No evidence exists to suggest otherwise.

                                                                                                                                                          Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Richard Turcsányi

                                                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                                                          4.
                                                                                                                                                          Exposure

                                                                                                                                                          In my country, there are reports that the PRC has expressed intentions or has taken actions to establish basing.

                                                                                                                                                          Yes

                                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                                                                          2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                                          67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                          4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                          13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                          80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                          Not Found

                                                                                                                                                          1. https://yle.fi/uutiset/3-11819140

                                                                                                                                                            Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Richard Turcsányi

                                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                                            5.
                                                                                                                                                            Exposure

                                                                                                                                                            In my country, the People’s Liberation Army (PLA) has participated in a humanitarian relief/disaster assistance (HADR) effort.

                                                                                                                                                            No

                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                                                            2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                            61 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                            19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                            80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                            No evidence exists to suggest otherwise.

                                                                                                                                                                Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Richard Turcsányi

                                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                                6.
                                                                                                                                                                Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                In my country, People’s Liberation Army (PLA) military personnel are permanently or rotationally deployed (excluding defense attaches and peacekeepers).

                                                                                                                                                                No

                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                77 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                No evidence exists to suggest otherwise.

                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Richard Turcsányi

                                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                                    7.
                                                                                                                                                                    Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                    In my country, members of the military have received professional military education from the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                    No

                                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                    48 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                    34 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                    82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                    No evidence exists to suggest otherwise.

                                                                                                                                                                        Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Richard Turcsányi

                                                                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                                                                        8.
                                                                                                                                                                        Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                        In my country, members of the military have received peacekeeping training from the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                        2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                        67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                        13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                        80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                        No evidence exists to suggest otherwise.

                                                                                                                                                                            Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Richard Turcsányi

                                                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                                                            9.
                                                                                                                                                                            Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                            In my country, high-ranking retired or current military and/or intelligence officers have received direct or deferred benefits from PRC-connected individuals or entities openly or covertly (e.g. have been appointed to lucrative positions as board members or consultants with PRC-invested firms, casinos, energy companies, etc.) during or in retirement from public service.

                                                                                                                                                                            No

                                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                            4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                            67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                            11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                            78 countries answered this indicator; 4 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                            No evidence exists to suggest otherwise.

                                                                                                                                                                                Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Richard Turcsányi

                                                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                10.
                                                                                                                                                                                Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                In my country, high-ranking retired or current military and/or intelligence officials advocate for more coordination with the People’s Liberation Army (PLA).

                                                                                                                                                                                No

                                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                68 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                No evidence exists to suggest otherwise.

                                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Richard Turcsányi

                                                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                    11.
                                                                                                                                                                                    Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                    My country cooperates with the People’s Liberation Army (PLA) on military exchange exercises, including drills and war games.

                                                                                                                                                                                    No

                                                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                    51 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                    31 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                    82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                    There were signs of cooperation back in 2012 but more recently relations seem to be at standstill.

                                                                                                                                                                                    1. https://www.armyrecognition.com/october_2012_new_army_military_defence_industry_uk/china_and_finland_want_to_exchange_military_collaboration_in_the_field_of_training_2310121.html
                                                                                                                                                                                    2. https://yle.fi/news/3-1182041

                                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Richard Turcsányi

                                                                                                                                                                                      Hide

                                                                                                                                                                                      Law Enforcement

                                                                                                                                                                                      The Law Enforcement Domain measures law enforcement cooperation between the PRC and the Index country, as well as the nature and extent of PRC-related criminal activity in the Index country.

                                                                                                                                                                                      1.
                                                                                                                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                      My country currently maintains an extradition treaty, legal mutual assistance or other similar arrangements with the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                                      No

                                                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                      32 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                      50 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                      82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                      No evidence exists to suggest otherwise.

                                                                                                                                                                                          Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Richard Turcsányi

                                                                                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                          2.
                                                                                                                                                                                          Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                          In my country, law enforcement authorities have signed cooperation agreements with the PRC on combatting terrorism.

                                                                                                                                                                                          No

                                                                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                          1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                          55 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                          4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                          26 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                          81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                          No evidence exists to suggest otherwise.

                                                                                                                                                                                              Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Richard Turcsányi

                                                                                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                              3.
                                                                                                                                                                                              Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                              In my country, PRC-connected gangs (such as Triad, 三合会) are known to be operating in my country.

                                                                                                                                                                                              No

                                                                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                              1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                              52 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                              4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                              29 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                              81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                              No evidence exists to suggest otherwise.

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Richard Turcsányi

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                  4.
                                                                                                                                                                                                  Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                                  In my country, there are reports of economic espionage targeting the private sector that were suspected to benefit PRC-connected entities.

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                  2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                  49 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                  7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                  3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                  12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                  9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                  80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. https://www.ess.fi/paakirjoitus-mielipide/4313356

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Richard Turcsányi

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                    5.
                                                                                                                                                                                                    Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                                    In my country, there are reports of cyber attacks targeting government, critical infrastructure, or enterprises that were suspected to be initiated from the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                    3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                    37 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                    9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                    4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                    3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                    14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                    15 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                    79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Uncovered in spring 2013, a large-scale spying of the IT networks at the Finnish Ministry for Foreign Affairs focused on data traffic between Finland and the European Union and is believed to have continued for four years. A more recent large-scale cyberattack targeting the Finnish Parliament with the Finnish Security Intelligence Service (FSIS) revealing for the first time that the attack was of PRC origin.

                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. http://yle.fi/uutiset/mtv3_large-scale_network_spying_uncovered_at_mfa/6911394
                                                                                                                                                                                                    2. https://yle.fi/news/3-11843748

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Richard Turcsányi

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                      6.
                                                                                                                                                                                                      Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                                      In my country, triads are known to have threatened or used violence to coerce, intimidate or punish Chinese dissidents.

                                                                                                                                                                                                      No

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                      2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                      67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                      5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                      3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                      3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                      3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                      2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                      80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                      No evidence exists to suggest otherwise.

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Richard Turcsányi

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                          7.
                                                                                                                                                                                                          Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                          My country has deployed video or internet surveillance systems from the PRC for law enforcement.

                                                                                                                                                                                                          No

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                          1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                          30 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                          4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                          51 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                          81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                          No evidence exists to suggest otherwise.

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Richard Turcsányi

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                              8.
                                                                                                                                                                                                              Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                              In my country, representatives of the PRC police force have had joint patrols with local law enforcement.

                                                                                                                                                                                                              No

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                              71 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                              4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                              11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                              82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                              No evidence exists to suggest otherwise.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Richard Turcsányi

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  9.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  My government has detained people at the request of the PRC for committing a crime involving engagements with social movements or resistance activities in Hong Kong, Xinjiang or for other human rights or civic rights issues.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  68 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  No evidence exists to suggest otherwise.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Richard Turcsányi

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      10.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      My country has deported Taiwan citizens to the PRC to face prosecution.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      71 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      No evidence exists to suggest otherwise.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Richard Turcsányi

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          11.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          My country has extradited or has deported individuals to the PRC, although such decisions had attracted criticisms from politicians, government employees or from local or foreign NGOs.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          61 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          No evidence exists to suggest otherwise.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Richard Turcsányi

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Hide

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Technology

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              The Technology Domain gauges the PRC’s influence over the technology sector in the Index country, including the activity and financial leverage of PRC companies, use of PRC hardware, and bilateral research partnerships.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              In my country, PRC-connected entities (such as China Mobile, China Unicom or China Telecom) or their subsidiaries provide telecom services.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              52 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              30 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              No evidence exists to suggest otherwise.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Richard Turcsányi

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  In my country, telecoms have signed agreements to adopt hardwares or technical specifications of 4G or 5G cellular networks that are produced or developed by Huawei, ZTE or other PRC enterprises.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  16 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  27 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  30 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  3.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  In my country, telecoms have adopted hardware or technical specifications by PRC-connected entities in internet/wifi/telecommunication service infrastructure projects, in addition to 4G/5G cellular network.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  24 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  23 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  74 countries answered this indicator; 8 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Much collaboration between telecommunication companies and Huawei as well as Nokia and Chinese companies on OPEN RAN, 5G, and patent issues with OPPO, much secrecy surrounds those

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. https://baijiahao.baidu.com/s?id=1705882204850573618&wfr=spider&for=pc

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Richard Turcsányi

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    4.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    In my country, PRC-connected entities are authorized vendors to supply tech-related equipment or services to our government, military or security services.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    28 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    53 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    No evidence exists to suggest otherwise.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Richard Turcsányi

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        5.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        In my country, central or local governments have collaboration (such as data collection or exchange agreement, or adoption of related hardwares) with the PRC government or PRC-connected entities on facial, voice recognition or other applications involving biometrics achieved by AI.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        42 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        No evidence exists to suggest otherwise.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Richard Turcsányi

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            6.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            In my country, one or more cities have procured, or have signed contracts with PRC-connected entities to establish “smart city” systems.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            35 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            25 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Salo city seems to have some partnership on smart city with Huawei but not much recent info

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. http://www.ceatec.org.cn/contents/452/3273.html

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Richard Turcsányi

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              7.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              In my country, financial institutions use the China Cross-Border Interbank Payment System (CIPS) clearing and settlement services system.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              63 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              18 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              No evidence exists to suggest otherwise.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Richard Turcsányi

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  8.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  In my country, PRC-connected venture capital invests in technology start-ups.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  32 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  18 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Tencent made one very large investment in Games Giant Supercell (84% acquired from SoftBank) and more recently fintech app Enfuce as well as earlier on in Finnish sportswear Amer with Chinese sportswear giant Anta

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. https://www.helsinkifintech.fi/news/tencent-bets-on-finnish-fintech-enfuce/

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Richard Turcsányi

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    9.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    In my country, companies have publicly announced that they had signed MOUs to collaborate on technological development (such as collaborations in A.I., Blockchain, Cloud Computing, Big Data) with PRC-connected entities.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    31 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Huawei on 5G and other areas

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. https://www.huaweicentral.com/huawei-announced-innovation-lab-in-finland-for-digital-finance-and-security/

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Richard Turcsányi

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      10.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      In my country, PRC-connected entities are shareholders or developers of the top five popular social media/messaging apps, based on usage.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      44 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      36 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      11.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      In my country, the central or local government(s) has collaborated with the PRC on endorsing the use of BeiDou satellite navigation system.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      64 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      17 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      No evidence exists to suggest otherwise.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Richard Turcsányi

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Hide

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Domestic Politics

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          The Domestic Politics Domain evaluates PRC efforts to influence the political landscape in the Index country, and the footprint of PRC security companies.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          In my country, politicians or government employees at the sub-national level are signing agreements with the PRC government or state-owned enterprises.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          20 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          23 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. http://belt.china.org.cn/2017-11/15/content_41894135.htm?f=pad&a=false

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Richard Turcsányi

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            In my country, local municipalities have sister-city ties (友好城市) with municipalities in the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            23 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. https://www.hs.fi/kotimaa/art-2000006221649.html

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Richard Turcsányi

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              3.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              In my country, politicians or government employees have taken trips to the PRC paid for by PRC-connected individuals or entities.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              22 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              16 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              16 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              73 countries answered this indicator; 9 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. https://www.iltalehti.fi/politiikka/a/18ff9c0f-77ee-45ff-a1d7-641ca1db4044

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answered by Richard Turcsányi, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                4.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                In my country, politicians or government employees visit the PRC and have meetings with PRC officials and think tanks.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 2 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                25 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                32 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                5.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                In my country, law enforcement and judicial related training offered the PRC-connected individuals or entities has been accepted by national or subnational governments.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                46 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                16 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                No evidence exists to suggest otherwise.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Richard Turcsányi

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    6.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    In my country, there are reports of politicians or political parties receiving campaign donations that originate in the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    60 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    0 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    78 countries answered this indicator; 4 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. https://www.hs.fi/politiikka/art-2000008599979.html

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Richard Turcsányi

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      7.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      In my country, groups with reported links to the United Front Work Department (UFWD) have hosted fundraisings or have provided other forms of support for government employees, politicians or parties.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      64 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. https://www.demokraatti.fi/vantaan-vihreissa-kuohuu-valtuutettu-lahti-kiina-kohun-jalkeen
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2. https://www.storm.mg/article/2446507

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Richard Turcsányi

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        8.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        In my country, groups with reported links to the United Front Work Department (UFWD) have made public statements opposing the candidacy of a local political candidate or party, claiming them being “anti-China”.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        78 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        0 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        0 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        No evidence exists to suggest otherwise.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Richard Turcsányi

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            9.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            In my country, politicians or government employees have publicly expressed positive views of the PRC government.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            37 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            10.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            In my country, politicians or government employees have received direct or deferred benefits from PRC-connected individuals or entities openly or covertly (e.g. have been appointed to lucrative positions as board members or consultants with PRC-invested firms, casinos, energy companies, etc.) during or in retirement from public office.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            40 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            0 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            18 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            73 countries answered this indicator; 9 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            No evidence exists to suggest otherwise.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Richard Turcsányi

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                11.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                In my country, security services (安保/保安) offered by private PRC companies are contracted by national or subnational governments.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                No evidence exists to suggest otherwise.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Richard Turcsányi

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Hide

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Foreign Policy

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    The Foreign Policy Domain gauges PRC efforts to achieve diplomatic objectives by influencing key actors in the Index country.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    My country’s legislature has a joint parliamentary friendship group, committee or other forms of sub-organizations with PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    25 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    57 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. https://yle.fi/uutiset/3-11246365

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Richard Turcsányi

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Representatives of a political party in my country’s national legislature have met officially with representatives of the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      20 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      40 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. https://yle.fi/aihe/artikkeli/2020/02/09/kiinalaiset-maksoivat-useita-mika-niikon-matkoja-kansanedustajan-kiina-yhteydet

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Richard Turcsányi

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        3.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        The PRC provides training to diplomats or civil servants on governance from my country (such as at 国家行政学院 or 中央党校).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        39 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        No evidence exists to suggest otherwise.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Richard Turcsányi

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            4.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            In my country, politicians or government employees have been pressured by PRC diplomats to change their political or diplomatic stances.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            41 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            No evidence exists to suggest otherwise.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Richard Turcsányi

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                5.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Citizens of my country have been detained in PRC or denied exit visas, and believed to be suffering from unfair legal treatments for political reasons, a.k.a. “hostage diplomacy”.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                61 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                No evidence exists to suggest otherwise.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Richard Turcsányi

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    6.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    The head of state, head of government or foreign minister of my country has denied Taiwan’s right to participate as a member, observer or guest in WHO.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    65 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    No evidence exists to suggest otherwise.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Richard Turcsányi

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        7.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        My country publicly supported the appointment of a PRC official to be the head of a United Nations agency (such as the FAO or ICAO) or other intergovernmental organizations (such as INTERPOL).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        62 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        73 countries answered this indicator; 9 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        No evidence exists to suggest otherwise.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Richard Turcsányi

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            8.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            My government has shown support of PRC's territorial claims (such as on the South China Sea arbitration ruling issued by the UNCLOS Arbitral Tribunal in July 2016; except claims over Taiwan, which are indirectly covered in indicator 6.)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Silence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            0/ My country has rejected PRC’s claim

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            24 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2/ My country has remained silent

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            36 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            4/ My country has adhered to PRC’s claim

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. https://um.fi/documents/35732/48132/finland_s_action_plan_for_southeast_asia

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Richard Turcsányi

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              9.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              My country has shown one of the following stances on PRC’s treatment of its Uyghur population.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Oppose

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              0/ My country has denounced PRC

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              31 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2/ My country has remained silent

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              32 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              4/ My country has voiced support to PRC’s stance

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              17 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. https://www.europarl.europa.eu/doceo/document/RC-9-2020-0432_FI.html

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Richard Turcsányi

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                10.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                My country has shown one of the following stances on PRC’s treatment of its Tibet population.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Silence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                0/ My country has denounced PRC

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2/ My country has remained silent

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                46 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                4/ My country has voiced support to PRC’s stance

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                No evidence exists to suggest otherwise.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Richard Turcsányi

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    11.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    My government has not publicly criticized the PRC’s imposition of the National Security Law on Hong Kong.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Oppose

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    0/ My country has denounced PRC

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    24 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2/ My country has remained silent

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    36 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    4/ My country has voiced support to PRC’s stance

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. https://www.mtvuutiset.fi/artikkeli/suomi-tuomitsee-sanan-ja-lehdistonvapauden-rajoittamisen-hongkongissa/8351384

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Richard Turcsányi

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