Estonia

$27,280.7
1.32M
Ranking
65/ 82
Original Score

* As some Indicators can be skipped where data is unavailable, the maximum overall and Domain scores are not identical for each country. Country rankings are generated from ratios of the maximum scores and the achieved scores.

82/ 392
Executive partner
Sinopsis
Index Year
2021
Layer Scores

The Indicators have been classified by the stage of the influence process at which they occur. Some Indicators correspond to exposure to PRC influence, e.g. the presence of Confucius Institutes. Others test for pressure – such as visa denials to academics or journalists. Finally, some Indicators capture the effect of PRC influence, such as national policy changes in favor of PRC interests.
The individual Layer scores for each country are tallied and displayed via rankings.

Exposure

24%

Exposure assesses the conditions that make the target country vulnerable to PRC's influence, e.g. in terms of economic dependence, or the receiving of some form of benefit.

Pressure

29%

Pressure measures the actions that the PRC directly or indirectly exerts over the target country in order to change the behavior of people in the target country, e.g. in terms of threatening economic punishment to provoke/prevent a political decision.

Effect

10%

Effect evaluates the degree of accommodations the target country makes to the PRC, and the actual effects and impacts on the target country.

In 2021, Estonia has a GDP per capita of US$ 27,280.70 and a total population of 1.32 million people, with the Chinese population comprising 420 people, or 0.013% of the total population.

Estonia established diplomatic relations with the People's Republic of China in 1991. Estonia was ranked 15th in Reporters Without Borders' 2021 World Press Freedom Index, and free in Freedom House's 2020 Global Freedom Status, with a score of 94/100.

Domain Scores
Country Percentage
Index Average

Percentage scores do not suggest some degree out of a “completely influenced” level of 100%. The percentages express the country’s score out of the total achievable amount based on the Indicators for each Domain.

  • Media
    15.9% / 30.1%
  • Academia
    47.7% / 34%
  • Economy
    9.1% / 33.6%
  • Society
    0.0% / 23.6%
  • Military
    9.1% / 23.4%
  • Law Enforcement
    25.0% / 30.2%
  • Technology
    25.0% / 40.8%
  • Domestic Politics
    29.5% / 37.2%
  • Foreign Policy
    27.5% / 41%

Media

The Media Domain evaluates how PRC entities influence public debate and media coverage about the PRC in the Index country.

1.
Exposure

In my country, there are media organizations that belong to the World Chinese Media (世界华文媒体) network.

No

Answer ( 0 / 4 )

More

Skipped

2 countries chose this answer

0/ No

42 countries chose this answer

1/ Few, but insignificant

19 countries chose this answer

2/ More than a few, but insignificant

4 countries chose this answer

3/ Few, but significant

13 countries chose this answer

4/ More than a few, and significant

2 countries chose this answer

80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

Supporting Evidence

No evidence available.

      Answered by Frank Jüris, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

      Hide
      2.
      Exposure

      In my country, there are journalists or media organizations which are members of the Belt and Road Media Cooperation Alliance/Union, the Belt and Road News Alliance, or other Belt and Road media networks that connected to PRC (e.g. Belt and Road Media Community, Belt and Road Journalists Network, Belt and Road News Network, or B&R TV Networks).

      No

      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

      More

      Skipped

      1 countries chose this answer

      0/ No

      39 countries chose this answer

      1/ Few, but insignificant

      23 countries chose this answer

      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

      4 countries chose this answer

      3/ Few, but significant

      14 countries chose this answer

      4/ More than a few, and significant

      1 countries chose this answer

      81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

      Supporting Evidence

      No evidence available.

      1. http://brmc.chnpec.com/cn/member.shtml
      2. https://brnalink.com/members.html

        Answered by Frank Jüris, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

        Hide
        3.
        Exposure

        In my country, there are journalists, media organizations or online influencers who have attended all-expenses paid media tours in PRC.

        No

        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

        More

        Skipped

        11 countries chose this answer

        0/ No

        15 countries chose this answer

        1/ Few, but insignificant

        15 countries chose this answer

        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

        5 countries chose this answer

        3/ Few, but significant

        23 countries chose this answer

        4/ More than a few, and significant

        13 countries chose this answer

        71 countries answered this indicator; 11 countries skipped this indicator

        Supporting Evidence

        No evidence available.

            Answered by Frank Jüris, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

            Hide
            4.
            Exposure

            In my country, there are journalists, media organizations or online influencers who have received trainings from PRC state-owned media or PRC-connected entities.

            No

            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

            More

            Skipped

            3 countries chose this answer

            0/ No

            37 countries chose this answer

            1/ Few, but insignificant

            16 countries chose this answer

            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

            2 countries chose this answer

            3/ Few, but significant

            14 countries chose this answer

            4/ More than a few, and significant

            10 countries chose this answer

            79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

            Supporting Evidence

            No evidence available.

                Answered by Frank Jüris, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                Hide
                5.
                Exposure

                In my country, PRC state-media (including print, radio, and video) is broadcasted or distributed in a local language.

                Yes

                Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                More

                Skipped

                1 countries chose this answer

                0/ No

                24 countries chose this answer

                1/ Few, but insignificant

                22 countries chose this answer

                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                7 countries chose this answer

                3/ Few, but significant

                18 countries chose this answer

                4/ More than a few, and significant

                10 countries chose this answer

                81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                Supporting Evidence

                CGTN-Russian provided by cable service provider STV.

                1. https://stv.ee/est/page/340/

                  Answered by Frank Jüris, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                  Hide
                  6.
                  Exposure

                  In my country, there are local media outlets wholly or partly owned by PRC citizens or corporations.

                  No

                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                  More

                  Skipped

                  2 countries chose this answer

                  0/ No

                  44 countries chose this answer

                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                  19 countries chose this answer

                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                  3 countries chose this answer

                  3/ Few, but significant

                  14 countries chose this answer

                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                  0 countries chose this answer

                  80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                  Supporting Evidence

                  No evidence available.

                      Answered by Frank Jüris, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                      Hide
                      7.
                      Exposure

                      In my country, there are media outlets that have delivered cheap or free contents provided by PRC state-fund media.

                      No

                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                      More

                      Skipped

                      3 countries chose this answer

                      0/ No

                      22 countries chose this answer

                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                      21 countries chose this answer

                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                      6 countries chose this answer

                      3/ Few, but significant

                      23 countries chose this answer

                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                      7 countries chose this answer

                      79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                      Supporting Evidence

                      Only as paid advertisements. Since Spring 2021 all major news outlets (DELFI, Postimees and SL Õhtuleht) have declared to stop publishing PRC paid advertisements.

                      1. https://news.err.ee/1608178030/chinese-embassy-advert-in-estonian-paper-denounces-uighur-genocide-claims

                        Answered by Frank Jüris, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                        Hide
                        8.
                        Exposure

                        In my country, there are regular PRC state-media or government advertisements inserted within local newspapers, online news websites or social media.

                        Yes

                        Answer ( 2 / 4 )

                        More

                        Skipped

                        1 countries chose this answer

                        0/ No

                        38 countries chose this answer

                        1/ Few, but insignificant

                        13 countries chose this answer

                        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                        7 countries chose this answer

                        3/ Few, but significant

                        15 countries chose this answer

                        4/ More than a few, and significant

                        8 countries chose this answer

                        81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                        Supporting Evidence

                        Not regularly and usually as a response to foreign or local media criticism of the PRC, or covering major PRC events. The majority of readers' comments suggest that readers are critical towards the PRC-produced content. SL Õhtuleht was last to stop publishing PRC adds.

                        1. https://www.ohtuleht.ee/1003564/hiina-suursaadik-eestis-riigi-julgeolek-tagab-hongkongi-oitsengu-ja-stabiilsuse
                        2. https://www.ohtuleht.ee/1013513/hiina-suursaadik-eestis-oleme-seitsme-aasta-jooksul-aidanud-hiinas-vaesusest-valja-ule-90-miljoni-inimese

                          Answered by Frank Jüris, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                          Hide
                          9.
                          Pressure

                          In my country, there are journalists who have had pressure exerted on them by the PRC, including (but not limited to) public denouncement, revocation of journalist ID, denial of visa.

                          Yes

                          Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                          More

                          Skipped

                          1 countries chose this answer

                          0/ No

                          57 countries chose this answer

                          4/ Yes

                          24 countries chose this answer

                          81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                          Supporting Evidence

                          Investigative journalists from the Baltic states wrote three articles about PRC influence activities in the region, which received strong criticism from PRC embassy in Tallinn saying that journalists' job is to promote good relations between the nations.

                          1. https://news.err.ee/978241/chinese-embassy-media-should-support-relations-between-china-and-estonia

                            Answered by Frank Jüris, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                            Hide
                            10.
                            Effect

                            In my country, there are incidents of media outlets censoring views critical of the PRC government.

                            No

                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                            More

                            Skipped

                            4 countries chose this answer

                            0/ No

                            51 countries chose this answer

                            1/ Few, but insignificant

                            11 countries chose this answer

                            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                            3 countries chose this answer

                            3/ Few, but significant

                            9 countries chose this answer

                            4/ More than a few, and significant

                            4 countries chose this answer

                            78 countries answered this indicator; 4 countries skipped this indicator

                            Supporting Evidence

                            No evidence of that.

                                Answered by Frank Jüris, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                Hide
                                11.
                                Effect

                                In my country, there are media personalities (including reporters, journalists or commentators) or celebrities who deny the existence of human rights abuses in the PRC (e.g. a media personality that doubts there are re-education camps for Uyghurs in Xinjiang).

                                No

                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                More

                                Skipped

                                2 countries chose this answer

                                0/ No

                                44 countries chose this answer

                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                18 countries chose this answer

                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                4 countries chose this answer

                                3/ Few, but significant

                                9 countries chose this answer

                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                5 countries chose this answer

                                80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                Supporting Evidence

                                No evidence available.

                                    Answered by Frank Jüris, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                    Hide

                                    Academia

                                    The Academia Domain measures how the PRC state attempts to restrict academic freedom by influencing or interfering with the Index country’s academic and educational activities.

                                    1.
                                    Exposure

                                    In my country, universities have established research partnerships with PRC-connected entities. (e.g. Huawei, Tencent or Alibaba)

                                    Yes

                                    Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                    More

                                    0/ No

                                    9 countries chose this answer

                                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                                    11 countries chose this answer

                                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                    6 countries chose this answer

                                    3/ Few, but significant

                                    31 countries chose this answer

                                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                                    25 countries chose this answer

                                    82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                    Supporting Evidence

                                    University of Tartu (leading university in Estonia and in the region) and Huawei have signed an MOU on supporting education, joint research and development of infrastructure.

                                    1. https://www.ut.ee/en/news/university-tartu-and-huawei-signed-memorandum-understanding
                                    2. https://icds.ee/en/academic-co-operation-with-the-peoples-republic-of-china-dangers-and-temptations/

                                      Answered by Frank Jüris, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                      Hide
                                      2.
                                      Exposure

                                      In my country, there are Confucius Institutes/Classrooms.

                                      Yes

                                      Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                      More

                                      0/ No

                                      5 countries chose this answer

                                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                                      14 countries chose this answer

                                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                      5 countries chose this answer

                                      3/ Few, but significant

                                      31 countries chose this answer

                                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                                      27 countries chose this answer

                                      82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                      Supporting Evidence

                                      There is one Confucius Institute at Tallinn University, which is Estonia's most important public university in humanities and third most important in general.

                                      1. https://www.tlu.ee/en/confucius-institute

                                        Answered by Frank Jüris, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                        Hide
                                        3.
                                        Exposure

                                        My country plans to include, or does include, Chinese as a foreign language in K12 or primary education, and receives free or subsidized (e.g. offered below market price) educational books and teachers from PRC.

                                        Yes

                                        Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                        More

                                        Skipped

                                        1 countries chose this answer

                                        0/ No

                                        46 countries chose this answer

                                        4/ Yes

                                        35 countries chose this answer

                                        81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                        Supporting Evidence

                                        Several Estonian public schools teach Chinese language.

                                        1. https://www.hm.ee/en/news/estonia-and-china-renewed-their-agreement-education-partnership

                                          Answered by Frank Jüris, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                          Hide
                                          4.
                                          Exposure

                                          In my country, one or more think tanks and academic research centers belong to PRC-affiliated networks/associations (such as: the Silk Road Think Tank Association, Silk Road Think Tank Network [SiLKS], Belt and Road Studies Network, University Alliance of the Silk Road, University Consortium of the 21st Century Maritime Silk Road).

                                          Yes

                                          Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                          More

                                          Skipped

                                          2 countries chose this answer

                                          0/ No

                                          40 countries chose this answer

                                          1/ Few, but insignificant

                                          17 countries chose this answer

                                          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                          7 countries chose this answer

                                          3/ Few, but significant

                                          14 countries chose this answer

                                          4/ More than a few, and significant

                                          2 countries chose this answer

                                          80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                          Supporting Evidence

                                          Estonian Foreign Policy Institute, University of Tartu and Tallinn University of Technology belong to the China-CEEC Think Tank Network 中国中东欧国家智库交流与合作网络

                                          1. https://archive.ph/hZEFD

                                            Answered by Frank Jüris, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                            Hide
                                            5.
                                            Exposure

                                            In my country, think tanks and academic research centers have received financial support from PRC-connected individuals or entities.

                                            No

                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                            More

                                            Skipped

                                            10 countries chose this answer

                                            0/ No

                                            21 countries chose this answer

                                            1/ Few, but insignificant

                                            11 countries chose this answer

                                            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                            11 countries chose this answer

                                            3/ Few, but significant

                                            19 countries chose this answer

                                            4/ More than a few, and significant

                                            10 countries chose this answer

                                            72 countries answered this indicator; 10 countries skipped this indicator

                                            Supporting Evidence

                                            No evidence available.

                                                Answered by Frank Jüris, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                Hide
                                                6.
                                                Exposure

                                                In my country, experts participate in PRC talent recruitment programs such as the Thousand Talents Program or Changjiang Scholars program.

                                                No

                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                More

                                                Skipped

                                                3 countries chose this answer

                                                0/ No

                                                47 countries chose this answer

                                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                11 countries chose this answer

                                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                6 countries chose this answer

                                                3/ Few, but significant

                                                10 countries chose this answer

                                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                5 countries chose this answer

                                                79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                No evidence available.

                                                    Answered by Frank Jüris, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                    Hide
                                                    7.
                                                    Exposure

                                                    In my country, scholars have taken trips to the PRC paid for by PRC-connected individuals or entities.

                                                    Yes

                                                    Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                                                    More

                                                    Skipped

                                                    13 countries chose this answer

                                                    0/ No

                                                    17 countries chose this answer

                                                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                    15 countries chose this answer

                                                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                    11 countries chose this answer

                                                    3/ Few, but significant

                                                    12 countries chose this answer

                                                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                    14 countries chose this answer

                                                    69 countries answered this indicator; 13 countries skipped this indicator

                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                    Karmo Tüür participated as Estonian Foreign Policy Institute (no longer works there) researcher at a China-CEEC Think Tank Network’s event.

                                                    1. https://archive.ph/XRXQc

                                                      Answered by Frank Jüris, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                      Hide
                                                      8.
                                                      Pressure

                                                      In my country, organized PRC-connected student groups, such as Chinese Students and Scholars Associations (CSSAs), are involved in attempts to censor staff or students (e.g. by harassing students protesting human rights abuses in the PRC, or formally complaining about the identification of Taiwan as a country in lecture slides).

                                                      Yes

                                                      Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                                                      More

                                                      Skipped

                                                      1 countries chose this answer

                                                      0/ No

                                                      64 countries chose this answer

                                                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                      6 countries chose this answer

                                                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                      3 countries chose this answer

                                                      3/ Few, but significant

                                                      5 countries chose this answer

                                                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                      3 countries chose this answer

                                                      81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                      Baltic Chinese Students and Scholars Association member Yin Jie 殷杰 (PhD student at The Estonian Academy of Music and Theatre) together with other Chinese students on University of Tartu's Facebook page denounced an article critical of the PRC's actions in Hong Kong.

                                                      1. https://baltic-china.webs.com/member
                                                      2. https://www.facebook.com/tartuuniversity/posts/our-two-students-from-hong-kong-litman-huang-and-aubrey-yung-write-about-the-ong/10157541118151472/

                                                        Answered by Frank Jüris, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                        Hide
                                                        9.
                                                        Pressure

                                                        In my country, scholars or academics have been denied visas to travel to the PRC after expressing opinions or producing scholarship that is critical of the PRC.

                                                        Yes

                                                        Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                        More

                                                        Skipped

                                                        7 countries chose this answer

                                                        0/ No

                                                        64 countries chose this answer

                                                        1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                        1 countries chose this answer

                                                        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                        0 countries chose this answer

                                                        3/ Few, but significant

                                                        6 countries chose this answer

                                                        4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                        4 countries chose this answer

                                                        75 countries answered this indicator; 7 countries skipped this indicator

                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                        Märt Läänemets, one of the leading experts on China, was denied visa for his Tibetan rights advocacy. Recently these restrictions have been lifted and he has participated in conferences held in the PRC.

                                                        1. https://icds.ee/wp-content/uploads/2020/04/ICDS_EFPI_Brief_Academic_Cooperation_with_the_PRC_M%c3%a4rt_L%c3%a4%c3%a4nemets_April_2020_cor.pdf

                                                          Answered by Frank Jüris, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                          Hide
                                                          10.
                                                          Effect

                                                          In my country, PRC-connected entities have been involved in school or university curriculum design, such as courses about East Asian history, modern politics, etc.

                                                          No

                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                          More

                                                          Skipped

                                                          2 countries chose this answer

                                                          0/ No

                                                          64 countries chose this answer

                                                          4/ Yes

                                                          16 countries chose this answer

                                                          80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                          No evidence available.

                                                              Answered by Frank Jüris, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                              Hide
                                                              11.
                                                              Effect

                                                              In my country, there are confirmed reports of teachers or professors avoiding the discussion of sensitive political issues (e.g. Uyghur re-education camps, Taiwan independence, Tiananmen Square Massacre).

                                                              Yes

                                                              Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                              More

                                                              Skipped

                                                              5 countries chose this answer

                                                              0/ No

                                                              65 countries chose this answer

                                                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                              1 countries chose this answer

                                                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                              1 countries chose this answer

                                                              3/ Few, but significant

                                                              6 countries chose this answer

                                                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                              4 countries chose this answer

                                                              77 countries answered this indicator; 5 countries skipped this indicator

                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                              University of Tartu magazine refused to publish an article critical of its cooperation with Huawei. The magazine is not widely read outside of the University.

                                                              1. https://news.err.ee/1056839/paper-university-of-tartu-refused-to-publish-article-on-huawei

                                                                Answered by Frank Jüris, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                Hide

                                                                Economy

                                                                The Economy Domain measures the PRC’s economic leverage in the Index country, and how this is used to influence economic policy or corporate behavior in ways that favor the PRC.

                                                                1.
                                                                Exposure

                                                                The PRC is my country's number one trading partner (for trade in goods only).

                                                                No

                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                More

                                                                0/ No

                                                                51 countries chose this answer

                                                                4/ Yes

                                                                31 countries chose this answer

                                                                82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                The PRC is Estonia's 15th largest export partner and 9th import partner.

                                                                1. https://data.stat.ee/profile/partner/cn?locale=en

                                                                  Answered by Frank Jüris, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                  Hide
                                                                  2.
                                                                  Exposure

                                                                  PRC-connected entities own more than 50% of my country’s sovereign debt.

                                                                  No

                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                  More

                                                                  Skipped

                                                                  1 countries chose this answer

                                                                  0/ No

                                                                  77 countries chose this answer

                                                                  4/ Yes

                                                                  4 countries chose this answer

                                                                  81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                  It does not.

                                                                      Answered by Frank Jüris, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                      Hide
                                                                      3.
                                                                      Exposure

                                                                      The PRC is the top customer for my country’s extractive industries.

                                                                      No

                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                      More

                                                                      0/ No

                                                                      62 countries chose this answer

                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                      20 countries chose this answer

                                                                      82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                      Extractive industries' exports to the PRC are limited.

                                                                      1. https://data.stat.ee/profile/product/94407

                                                                        Answered by Frank Jüris, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                        Hide
                                                                        4.
                                                                        Exposure

                                                                        In my country, PRC-related entities own, operate or substantially control critical infrastructure (e.g. ports, power plants, digital data centers, etc) or sensitive sectors (biotech, raw materials, etc.)

                                                                        Yes

                                                                        Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                        More

                                                                        0/ No

                                                                        36 countries chose this answer

                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                        46 countries chose this answer

                                                                        82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                        “The acquisition includes Linx's 470 kilometer submarine fiber network in the Baltic Sea, and its network operations centers (NOCs) in Moscow and Tallinn, Estonia. The acquisition also includes Linx's data center in Tallinn, which serves as Estonia's largest Internet Exchange (TLL-IX).”

                                                                        1. https://sg.news.yahoo.com/news/citic-telecom-cpc-completes-linx-100000155.html

                                                                          Answered by Frank Jüris, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                          Hide
                                                                          5.
                                                                          Exposure

                                                                          My country joined (or applied to join) the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB).

                                                                          No

                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                          More

                                                                          0/ No

                                                                          27 countries chose this answer

                                                                          4/ Yes

                                                                          55 countries chose this answer

                                                                          82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                          Estonia is not a member and has not applied to join.

                                                                              Answered by Frank Jüris, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                              Hide
                                                                              6.
                                                                              Exposure

                                                                              In my country, major businesses are members of the Silk Road Chamber of International Commerce, or of the Belt and Road Industrial and Commercial Alliance, or of the Belt and Road General Chamber of Commerce.

                                                                              No

                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                              More

                                                                              0/ No

                                                                              41 countries chose this answer

                                                                              4/ Yes

                                                                              41 countries chose this answer

                                                                              82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                              No evidence available.

                                                                                  Answered by Frank Jüris, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                  7.
                                                                                  Pressure

                                                                                  My country has been the target of PRC economic coercion (e.g. trade or investment sanctions) that was specifically tailored at products or services that are highly dependent on the PRC market.

                                                                                  No

                                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                  More

                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                  64 countries chose this answer

                                                                                  4/ Yes

                                                                                  18 countries chose this answer

                                                                                  82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                  Not in the given time-frame or recent years.

                                                                                    Supplementary Notes

                                                                                    yes to first half and no to second half of the sentence. After Dalai lama’s visit in 2011 dairy products access to CN market was denied, but the sector was no way dependent from CN market as the share of dairy exports to China never reached more than 0,88% of the total dairy exports coming from Estonia at the time.

                                                                                      Answered by Frank Jüris, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                      8.
                                                                                      Pressure

                                                                                      In my country, local businesses have been harassed, threatened, or boycotted, due to their activities or statements in support of causes deemed unacceptable by the PRC government (e.g. Taiwanese independence, Hong Kong democracy, Tibet or Xinjiang issues, etc).

                                                                                      No

                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                      More

                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                      2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                      65 countries chose this answer

                                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                                      15 countries chose this answer

                                                                                      80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                      Not in the given time-frame or recent years.

                                                                                        Supplementary Notes

                                                                                        See the previous indicator.

                                                                                          Answered by Frank Jüris, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                          9.
                                                                                          Effect

                                                                                          My country has free-trade agreement(s) with the PRC (either bilateral or as part of regional agreement(s)) that primarily deals with trade in goods or services, including digital goods or services.

                                                                                          No

                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                          More

                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                          51 countries chose this answer

                                                                                          4/ Yes

                                                                                          31 countries chose this answer

                                                                                          82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                          Estonia is part of the European common market.

                                                                                              Answered by Frank Jüris, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                              10.
                                                                                              Effect

                                                                                              In my country, central or local governments have relaxed or removed regulatory restrictions, or have established special economic zones (or free trade zones, industrial parks, etc.) to attract investments or economic participation from the PRC.

                                                                                              No

                                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                              More

                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                              47 countries chose this answer

                                                                                              4/ Yes

                                                                                              35 countries chose this answer

                                                                                              82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                              No evidence available.

                                                                                                  Answered by Frank Jüris, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                  11.
                                                                                                  Effect

                                                                                                  In my country, PRC-connected entities requisitioned infrastructure or land for failure to repay debts in a timely manner.

                                                                                                  No

                                                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                  2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                  76 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                  4/ Yes

                                                                                                  4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                  80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                  No evidence available.

                                                                                                      Answered by Frank Jüris, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                      Hide

                                                                                                      Society

                                                                                                      The Society Domain measures the extent and effectiveness of the PRC’s efforts to advance its soft power in the Index country, including its influence over the actions and views of local organizations and citizens.

                                                                                                      1.
                                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                                      In my country, there are local groups or organizations with words like “Promotion of Peaceful Reunification” in their name, and they regularly publicize their views on Taiwan, Hong Kong, Tibet and Xinjiang issues.

                                                                                                      No

                                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                      1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                      49 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                      12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                      7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                      3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                      9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                      4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                      81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                      No evidence available.

                                                                                                          Answered by Frank Jüris, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                          2.
                                                                                                          Exposure

                                                                                                          In my country, there are members and member organizations of United World Chinese Association (世界华人协会).

                                                                                                          No

                                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                          1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                          62 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                          4/ Yes

                                                                                                          19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                          81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                          No evidence available.

                                                                                                              Answered by Frank Jüris, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                              3.
                                                                                                              Exposure

                                                                                                              In my country, labor unions cooperate on exchanges or official visits to the All-China Federation of Trade Unions (ACFTU) in the PRC.

                                                                                                              No

                                                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                              1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                              68 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                              4/ Yes

                                                                                                              13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                              81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                              No evidence of that available.

                                                                                                                  Answered by Frank Jüris, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                  4.
                                                                                                                  Exposure

                                                                                                                  In my country, there are local reports of personnel linked to the UFWD who make appearances at Chinese diaspora community events and activities (e.g. Lunar New Year events, Dragon Boat festival tournaments, etc).

                                                                                                                  No

                                                                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                  2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                  50 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                  9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                  5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                  9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                  7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                  80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                  No evidence of that available.

                                                                                                                      Answered by Frank Jüris, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                      5.
                                                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                                                      In my country, there are PRC-connected professional associations that are closely engaged with their counterparts locally, such as All-China Journalists Association (中华全国新闻工作者协会), China Artists Association (中国艺术家协会), China Writers Association (中国作家协会) or All-China Women Federation (全国妇联).

                                                                                                                      No

                                                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                      2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                      33 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                      25 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                      8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                      3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                      8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                      6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                      80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                      No evidence of that available.

                                                                                                                          Answered by Frank Jüris, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                          6.
                                                                                                                          Exposure

                                                                                                                          In my country, PRC-connected individuals or entities donate money or provide other types of support to religious communities and charities.

                                                                                                                          No

                                                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                                          1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                          46 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                          4/ Yes

                                                                                                                          35 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                          81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                          No evidence of that available.

                                                                                                                              Answered by Frank Jüris, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                              7.
                                                                                                                              Exposure

                                                                                                                              In my country, the PRC government or PRC-connected entities distribute entertainment products (including: drama and TV shows) or related hardwares (e.g. OTT streaming players hosting PRC media channels) freely or at a cheap price.

                                                                                                                              No

                                                                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                              2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                              38 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                              21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                              4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                              3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                              11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                              6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                              80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                              Not in the given time-frame.

                                                                                                                                Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                Tallinn TV (on Tallinn city government payroll) aired documentary depicting Chinese propaganda on BRI, without any criticism at all. Viewership of Tallinn TV was low and it has been closed couple of years ago.

                                                                                                                                  Answered by Frank Jüris, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                  8.
                                                                                                                                  Effect

                                                                                                                                  Cultural products (such as films and TV shows) produced by my country’s production studios typically portray the PRC in a positive light.

                                                                                                                                  No

                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                                  7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                  60 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                  4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                  15 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                  75 countries answered this indicator; 7 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                  No such products identifiable in open sources.

                                                                                                                                      Answered by Frank Jüris, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                      9.
                                                                                                                                      Effect

                                                                                                                                      In my country, celebrities regularly publish or share propaganda narratives from the PRC.

                                                                                                                                      No

                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                      67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                      10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                      0 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                      3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                      3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                      2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                      82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                      No evidence of that available.

                                                                                                                                          Answered by Frank Jüris, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                                          10.
                                                                                                                                          Effect

                                                                                                                                          In my country, the national or local governments regularly publish or share propaganda narratives from the PRC (e.g. statements from the PRC government or embassies).

                                                                                                                                          No

                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                                                          2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                          54 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                          1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                          12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                          2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                          3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                          7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                          4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                          5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                          80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                          No evidence of that available.

                                                                                                                                              Answered by Frank Jüris, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                                              11.
                                                                                                                                              Effect

                                                                                                                                              In my country, a majority of citizens have positive views of the PRC government.

                                                                                                                                              No

                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                                              7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                              50 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                              4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                              25 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                              75 countries answered this indicator; 7 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                              Majority of citizens holds negative or neutral views of the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                  Answered by Frank Jüris, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                  Hide

                                                                                                                                                  Military

                                                                                                                                                  The Military Domain gauges the bilateral military relationship between the PRC and the Index country, including PRC efforts to influence local military personnel.

                                                                                                                                                  1.
                                                                                                                                                  Exposure

                                                                                                                                                  My country currently imports (or receives in-kind donation of) military or law-enforcement equipment or components of equipment from the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                  Yes

                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                                  36 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                  4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                  46 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                  82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                  Hikvision cameras are used in countless government facilities.

                                                                                                                                                  1. https://ekspress.delfi.ee/artikkel/92718953/eesti-politsei-suunas-riigihanke-kahtlase-kuulsusega-hiina-firmale

                                                                                                                                                    Answered by Frank Jüris, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                    2.
                                                                                                                                                    Exposure

                                                                                                                                                    My country currently exports military or law-enforcement equipment or components of equipment to the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                    No

                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                                    1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                    74 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                    7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                    81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                    No evidence of that available.

                                                                                                                                                        Answered by Frank Jüris, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                                                        3.
                                                                                                                                                        Exposure

                                                                                                                                                        My country co-develops or co-produces military or law-enforcement equipment with the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                                                        1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                                        66 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                        15 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                        81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                        No evidence of that available.

                                                                                                                                                            Answered by Frank Jüris, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                                            4.
                                                                                                                                                            Exposure

                                                                                                                                                            In my country, there are reports that the PRC has expressed intentions or has taken actions to establish basing.

                                                                                                                                                            No

                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                                                            2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                            67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                            13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                            80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                            No evidence of that available.

                                                                                                                                                                Answered by Frank Jüris, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                                5.
                                                                                                                                                                Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                In my country, the People’s Liberation Army (PLA) has participated in a humanitarian relief/disaster assistance (HADR) effort.

                                                                                                                                                                No

                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                61 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                No evidence of that available.

                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by Frank Jüris, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                                    6.
                                                                                                                                                                    Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                    In my country, People’s Liberation Army (PLA) military personnel are permanently or rotationally deployed (excluding defense attaches and peacekeepers).

                                                                                                                                                                    No

                                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                    77 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                    5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                    82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                    No evidence of that available.

                                                                                                                                                                        Answered by Frank Jüris, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                                                                        7.
                                                                                                                                                                        Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                        In my country, members of the military have received professional military education from the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                        48 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                        34 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                        82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                        Not within the given time-frame or recent years.

                                                                                                                                                                          Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                          In 2006 Riho Terras, who in 2011 became the Commander of the Defence Forces, received training in China. Link

                                                                                                                                                                          1. https://www.riigikogu.ee/wpcms/wp-content/uploads/2014/11/Eesti_v-lispoliitika_Hiina_suhtes_v-imalused_ja_valikud.pdf

                                                                                                                                                                          Answered by Frank Jüris, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                                                                          8.
                                                                                                                                                                          Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                          In my country, members of the military have received peacekeeping training from the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                          No

                                                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                          2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                          67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                          4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                          13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                          80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                          No evidence of that available.

                                                                                                                                                                              Answered by Frank Jüris, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                                                                              9.
                                                                                                                                                                              Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                              In my country, high-ranking retired or current military and/or intelligence officers have received direct or deferred benefits from PRC-connected individuals or entities openly or covertly (e.g. have been appointed to lucrative positions as board members or consultants with PRC-invested firms, casinos, energy companies, etc.) during or in retirement from public service.

                                                                                                                                                                              No

                                                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                              4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                              67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                              4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                              11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                              78 countries answered this indicator; 4 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                              No evidence of that available.

                                                                                                                                                                                  Answered by Frank Jüris, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                  10.
                                                                                                                                                                                  Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                  In my country, high-ranking retired or current military and/or intelligence officials advocate for more coordination with the People’s Liberation Army (PLA).

                                                                                                                                                                                  No

                                                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                  1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                  68 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                  4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                  13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                  81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                  No evidence of that available.

                                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by Frank Jüris, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                      11.
                                                                                                                                                                                      Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                      My country cooperates with the People’s Liberation Army (PLA) on military exchange exercises, including drills and war games.

                                                                                                                                                                                      No

                                                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                      51 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                      31 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                      82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                      Not within the given time-frame or in recent years.

                                                                                                                                                                                        Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                        PLA participated in Erna Raid military exercise and competition from 1998 to 2005 and winning it in 2002. Link

                                                                                                                                                                                        1. https://www.riigikogu.ee/wpcms/wp-content/uploads/2014/11/Eesti_v-lispoliitika_Hiina_suhtes_v-imalused_ja_valikud.pdf

                                                                                                                                                                                        Answered by Frank Jüris, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                        Hide

                                                                                                                                                                                        Law Enforcement

                                                                                                                                                                                        The Law Enforcement Domain measures law enforcement cooperation between the PRC and the Index country, as well as the nature and extent of PRC-related criminal activity in the Index country.

                                                                                                                                                                                        1.
                                                                                                                                                                                        Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                        My country currently maintains an extradition treaty, legal mutual assistance or other similar arrangements with the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                                        Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                        32 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                        50 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                        82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                        A legal assistance agreement in force since 2011.

                                                                                                                                                                                        1. https://vm.ee/en/countries/china?display=relations

                                                                                                                                                                                          Answered by Frank Jüris, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                          2.
                                                                                                                                                                                          Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                          In my country, law enforcement authorities have signed cooperation agreements with the PRC on combatting terrorism.

                                                                                                                                                                                          No

                                                                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                          1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                          55 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                          4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                          26 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                          81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                          No evidence of that available.

                                                                                                                                                                                              Answered by Frank Jüris, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                              3.
                                                                                                                                                                                              Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                              In my country, PRC-connected gangs (such as Triad, 三合会) are known to be operating in my country.

                                                                                                                                                                                              No

                                                                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                              1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                              52 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                              4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                              29 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                              81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                              No evidence of that available.

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answered by Frank Jüris, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                  4.
                                                                                                                                                                                                  Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                                  In my country, there are reports of economic espionage targeting the private sector that were suspected to benefit PRC-connected entities.

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                  2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                  49 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                  7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                  3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                  12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                  9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                  80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Known espionage cases allegedly involving PRC-linked entities include those against supercapacitors manufacturer Skeleton Technologies and package delivery robots manufacturer Cleveron (both Estonian unicorns – first company took 10 years of scientific research and 10 years of company building to reach current level).

                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. https://news.postimees.ee/6771074/chinese-intelligence-increasingly-setting-sights-on-estonia

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by Frank Jüris, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                    5.
                                                                                                                                                                                                    Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                                    In my country, there are reports of cyber attacks targeting government, critical infrastructure, or enterprises that were suspected to be initiated from the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                                                    No

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                    3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                    37 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                    9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                    4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                    3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                    14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                    15 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                    79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Not in the given time-frame.

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                      “It has been claimed that the cyberattack against the Estonian Ministry of Foreign Affairs was part of a wider Ke3Chang operation aimed at the foreign ministries of several EU member states that began in 2010 but reached its zenith in 2013-2014.” Link

                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. https://news.postimees.ee/6771074/chinese-intelligence-increasingly-setting-sights-on-estonia

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by Frank Jüris, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                      6.
                                                                                                                                                                                                      Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                                      In my country, triads are known to have threatened or used violence to coerce, intimidate or punish Chinese dissidents.

                                                                                                                                                                                                      No

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                      2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                      67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                      5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                      3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                      3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                      3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                      2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                      80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                      No evidence of that available.

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answered by Frank Jüris, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                          7.
                                                                                                                                                                                                          Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                          My country has deployed video or internet surveillance systems from the PRC for law enforcement.

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                          1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                          30 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                          4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                          51 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                          81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Hikvision cameras are used in countless government facilities.

                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. https://ekspress.delfi.ee/artikkel/92718953/eesti-politsei-suunas-riigihanke-kahtlase-kuulsusega-hiina-firmale

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answered by Frank Jüris, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                            8.
                                                                                                                                                                                                            Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                            In my country, representatives of the PRC police force have had joint patrols with local law enforcement.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            No

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                            71 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                            11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                            82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                            No evidence of that available.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answered by Frank Jüris, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                9.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                My government has detained people at the request of the PRC for committing a crime involving engagements with social movements or resistance activities in Hong Kong, Xinjiang or for other human rights or civic rights issues.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                68 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                No evidence of that available.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by Frank Jüris, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    10.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    My country has deported Taiwan citizens to the PRC to face prosecution.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    71 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    No evidence of that available.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answered by Frank Jüris, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        11.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        My country has extradited or has deported individuals to the PRC, although such decisions had attracted criticisms from politicians, government employees or from local or foreign NGOs.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        61 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        No evidence of that available.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answered by Frank Jüris, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Hide

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Technology

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            The Technology Domain gauges the PRC’s influence over the technology sector in the Index country, including the activity and financial leverage of PRC companies, use of PRC hardware, and bilateral research partnerships.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            In my country, PRC-connected entities (such as China Mobile, China Unicom or China Telecom) or their subsidiaries provide telecom services.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            52 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            30 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            No evidence available.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answered by Frank Jüris, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                In my country, telecoms have signed agreements to adopt hardwares or technical specifications of 4G or 5G cellular networks that are produced or developed by Huawei, ZTE or other PRC enterprises.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                16 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                27 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                30 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                As for 4G network, three major telcos (Telia, Elisa and Tele 2) use Huawei equipment. According to the regulation, high-risk technology must be phased out by 2030. The hardware and software used to build the 5G network must be risk-free by 2024.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. https://news.err.ee/1143507/huawei-plans-to-challenge-estonia-5g-ban

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answered by Frank Jüris, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  3.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  In my country, telecoms have adopted hardware or technical specifications by PRC-connected entities in internet/wifi/telecommunication service infrastructure projects, in addition to 4G/5G cellular network.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  24 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  23 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  74 countries answered this indicator; 8 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  “The acquisition includes Linx's 470 kilometer submarine fiber network in the Baltic Sea, and its network operations centers (NOCs) in Moscow and Tallinn, Estonia. The acquisition also includes Linx's data center in Tallinn, which serves as Estonia's largest Internet Exchange (TLL-IX).”

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. https://sg.news.yahoo.com/news/citic-telecom-cpc-completes-linx-100000155.htm

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by Frank Jüris, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    4.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    In my country, PRC-connected entities are authorized vendors to supply tech-related equipment or services to our government, military or security services.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    28 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    53 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    “The acquisition includes Linx's 470 kilometer submarine fiber network in the Baltic Sea, and its network operations centers (NOCs) in Moscow and Tallinn, Estonia. The acquisition also includes Linx's data center in Tallinn, which serves as Estonia's largest Internet Exchange (TLL-IX).” Estonian Defense Forces has a direct contract with CITIC, a major PRC state-owned enteprise, and three-quarters of the army’s external internet connection moves through CITIC’s devices and cable. CITIC has close ties to the PLA.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. https://sg.news.yahoo.com/news/citic-telecom-cpc-completes-linx-100000155.htm
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2. https://news.postimees.ee/6771074/chinese-intelligence-increasingly-setting-sights-on-estonia
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    3. http://congressionalresearch.com/98-197/document.php?study=chinas+military-owned+businesses
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    4. https://www.govinfo.gov/content/pkg/GPO-CRPT-105hrpt851/html/ch1bod.html

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by Frank Jüris, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      5.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      In my country, central or local governments have collaboration (such as data collection or exchange agreement, or adoption of related hardwares) with the PRC government or PRC-connected entities on facial, voice recognition or other applications involving biometrics achieved by AI.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      42 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      No evidence available.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answered by Frank Jüris, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          6.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          In my country, one or more cities have procured, or have signed contracts with PRC-connected entities to establish “smart city” systems.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          35 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          25 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          No evidence available.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answered by Frank Jüris, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              7.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              In my country, financial institutions use the China Cross-Border Interbank Payment System (CIPS) clearing and settlement services system.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              63 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              18 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              No evidence available.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answered by Frank Jüris, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  8.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  In my country, PRC-connected venture capital invests in technology start-ups.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  32 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  18 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  No evidence available.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by Frank Jüris, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      9.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      In my country, companies have publicly announced that they had signed MOUs to collaborate on technological development (such as collaborations in A.I., Blockchain, Cloud Computing, Big Data) with PRC-connected entities.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      31 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      No evidence available.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answered by Frank Jüris, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          10.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          In my country, PRC-connected entities are shareholders or developers of the top five popular social media/messaging apps, based on usage.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          44 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          36 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          No evidence suggesting that available.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. https://www.bestsales.ee/uudised/2020/02/06/uuring-eestlaste-interneti-ja-sotsiaalmeedia-kasutus-aastal-2020

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answered by Frank Jüris, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            11.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            In my country, the central or local government(s) has collaborated with the PRC on endorsing the use of BeiDou satellite navigation system.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            64 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            17 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            No evidence available.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answered by Frank Jüris, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Hide

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Domestic Politics

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                The Domestic Politics Domain evaluates PRC efforts to influence the political landscape in the Index country, and the footprint of PRC security companies.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                In my country, politicians or government employees at the sub-national level are signing agreements with the PRC government or state-owned enterprises.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                20 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                23 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                No evidence available.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by Frank Jüris, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    In my country, local municipalities have sister-city ties (友好城市) with municipalities in the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    23 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Estonian cities that have cooperation agreements with PRC counterparts are Tallinn (Beijing, Hangzhou, Chengdu), Maardu (Changchun), Tartu (Ningbo), Narva (Xiamen). Pärnu is on the verge of signing cooperation agreement with Qingdao.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. https://archive.vn/pnrVi
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2. https://www.eaa.ee/tiiu-kirsipuu-skulptuur-hiinas
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    3. https://www.tallinn.ee/est/Uudis-Hiinas-Chengdus-avati-Eesti-kunstniku-skulptuur
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    4. https://beijing.mfa.ee/et/eesti-ja-hiina/kohalike-omavalitsuste-koostoo/
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    5. https://parnu.postimees.ee/6706976/linn-kusib-volikogult-aktsepti-hiina-miljonilinnaga-sobrustamiseks
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    6. http://www.narva.ee/ee/linnakodanikule/tanane_narva/valis_ja_soprussuhted/page:535/subpage:2
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    7. https://archive.vn/70P1J

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by Frank Jüris, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      3.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      In my country, politicians or government employees have taken trips to the PRC paid for by PRC-connected individuals or entities.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      22 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      16 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      16 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      73 countries answered this indicator; 9 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      European Parliament EU-China Friendship Group member Yana Toom visited Beijing and Lhasa in August 2016 and the travel bill was picked up by CPAFFC. In November 2019, Toom visited Beijing and Shanghai to attend China-CEEC governing parties roundtable and the promotion symposium on China-CEEC subnational cooperation. This time her bill was picked up by the ILD.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. https://www.politico.eu/article/china-influence-european-parliament-friendship-group/
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2. https://www.europarl.europa.eu/mepdat/124700_TRAV_LEG9_1005488_EN.pdf
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      3. https://sinopsis.cz/wp-content/uploads/2019/11/ep.pdf
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      4. https://web.archive.org/web/20190827185701/https://www.europarl.europa.eu/ep-dat/124700_20-08-2016.pdf

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answered by Frank Jüris, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        4.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        In my country, politicians or government employees visit the PRC and have meetings with PRC officials and think tanks.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        25 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        32 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        The International Liaison Department has established relations with all the major parties in Estonia and interacts with their representatives.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. https://icds.ee/wp-content/uploads/2020/09/ICDS_EFPI_Brief_Chinas_Influence_Activities_in_Estonia_Frank_Juris_September_2020.pdf

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answered by Frank Jüris, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          5.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          In my country, law enforcement and judicial related training offered the PRC-connected individuals or entities has been accepted by national or subnational governments.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          46 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          16 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          No evidence available.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answered by Frank Jüris, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              6.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              In my country, there are reports of politicians or political parties receiving campaign donations that originate in the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              60 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              0 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              78 countries answered this indicator; 4 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              No evidence available.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answered by Frank Jüris, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  7.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  In my country, groups with reported links to the United Front Work Department (UFWD) have hosted fundraisings or have provided other forms of support for government employees, politicians or parties.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  64 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  No evidence available.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by Frank Jüris, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      8.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      In my country, groups with reported links to the United Front Work Department (UFWD) have made public statements opposing the candidacy of a local political candidate or party, claiming them being “anti-China”.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      78 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      0 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      0 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      No evidence available.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answered by Frank Jüris, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          9.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          In my country, politicians or government employees have publicly expressed positive views of the PRC government.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          37 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Former head of the Riigikog's Estonia-China parliamentary group Kalev Kallo compared the question of Huawei's reliability to a religious matter. MEP Yana Toom defended Huawei and China by criticizing the US spying and system of governance saying that "...the only victim is Huawei itself, finding itself a target of a trade and information war."

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. https://www.err.ee/1034724/kallo-ohud-seoses-huaweiga-on-usu-kusimus
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2. https://www.err.ee/1090900/yana-toom-huawei-and-good-america

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answered by Frank Jüris, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            10.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            In my country, politicians or government employees have received direct or deferred benefits from PRC-connected individuals or entities openly or covertly (e.g. have been appointed to lucrative positions as board members or consultants with PRC-invested firms, casinos, energy companies, etc.) during or in retirement from public office.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            40 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            0 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            18 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            73 countries answered this indicator; 9 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Three former ministers on Huawei’s payroll as lobbyists.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. https://icds.ee/wp-content/uploads/2020/09/ICDS_EFPI_Brief_Chinas_Influence_Activities_in_Estonia_Frank_Juris_September_2020.pdf

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answered by Frank Jüris, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              11.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              In my country, security services (安保/保安) offered by private PRC companies are contracted by national or subnational governments.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              No evidence available.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                On the other hand, does this count? Nuctech surveillance equipment at the Eastern boarder (also NATO’s eastern border) Link and at Tallinn airport (backup airport for NATO) Link . Hikvision cameras in countless government facilities Link

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. https://icds.ee/en/chinas-technological-rise-implications-for-global-security-and-the-case-of-nuctech/
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2. https://leht.postimees.ee/7196740/eesti-piiripunktide-rontgenid-osteti-hiina-riigifirmal
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                3. https://ekspress.delfi.ee/artikkel/92718953/eesti-politsei-suunas-riigihanke-kahtlase-kuulsusega-hiina-firmale

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answered by Frank Jüris, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Hide

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Foreign Policy

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                The Foreign Policy Domain gauges PRC efforts to achieve diplomatic objectives by influencing key actors in the Index country.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                My country’s legislature has a joint parliamentary friendship group, committee or other forms of sub-organizations with PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                25 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                57 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                There is the NPC China-Estonia Friendship Group and Riigikogu Estonia-China parliamentary group.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. https://www.riigikogu.ee/en/parliament-of-estonia/parliamentary-groups/parliamentary-group/7f8b227d-ec18-ce25-9cf7-ec1a0a265d2c/Eesti-Hiina%20parlamendir%C3%BChm/
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2. http://www.chinaembassy.ee/chn/dssghd/t1702457.htm

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answered by Frank Jüris, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Representatives of a political party in my country’s national legislature have met officially with representatives of the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  20 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  40 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Representatives from all major parties have interacted with the CCP International Liaison Department and attended its events.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. https://icds.ee/wp-content/uploads/2020/09/ICDS_EFPI_Brief_Chinas_Influence_Activities_in_Estonia_Frank_Juris_September_2020.pdf

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by Frank Jüris, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    3.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    The PRC provides training to diplomats or civil servants on governance from my country (such as at 国家行政学院 or 中央党校).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Skip

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    39 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      I have received invitation to the The 4th Workshop for European Young Leaders organized by China Diplomatic Academy 中国外交培训学院, but I did not participate. I have heard that at the 3rd Workshop an official from Parliament’s Chancellery participated in at the event. In short, there is no publicly available evidence of this happening.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answered by Frank Jüris, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        4.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        In my country, politicians or government employees have been pressured by PRC diplomats to change their political or diplomatic stances.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        41 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        The Chairman of Tibet support group Yoko Alender was pressured by the chairman of Foreign Affairs Commission, Enn Eesmaa (by the request of the PRC ambassador) to not meet with the Tibetan Parliament and government in exile. “The incident is one of at least four to have taken place over the past two years where the PRC embassy has protested Estonian politicians meeting with the Dalai Lama, members of the government in exile of Tibet or Taiwanese politicians. Last year, the PRC ambassador to Estonia Li Chao turned to the Riigikogu Foreign Affairs Committee, claiming that Alender’s conduct constituted meddling in PRC’s domestic affairs.”

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. https://news.postimees.ee/6769895/trojan-panda-the-heavy-hand-of-chinese-soft-power

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answered by Frank Jüris, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          5.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Citizens of my country have been detained in PRC or denied exit visas, and believed to be suffering from unfair legal treatments for political reasons, a.k.a. “hostage diplomacy”.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          61 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          No evidence available.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answered by Frank Jüris, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              6.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              The head of state, head of government or foreign minister of my country has denied Taiwan’s right to participate as a member, observer or guest in WHO.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              65 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              No evidence available.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answered by Frank Jüris, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  7.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  My country publicly supported the appointment of a PRC official to be the head of a United Nations agency (such as the FAO or ICAO) or other intergovernmental organizations (such as INTERPOL).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  62 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  73 countries answered this indicator; 9 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  PRC has not asked for Estonian support for its Human Rights Council candidacy.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. https://news.err.ee/1116554/reinsalu-china-not-asked-estonia-to-support-un-human-rights-council-bid

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by Frank Jüris, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    8.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    My government has shown support of PRC's territorial claims (such as on the South China Sea arbitration ruling issued by the UNCLOS Arbitral Tribunal in July 2016; except claims over Taiwan, which are indirectly covered in indicator 6.)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Oppose

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    0/ My country has rejected PRC’s claim

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    24 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2/ My country has remained silent

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    36 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    4/ My country has adhered to PRC’s claim

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Positively acknowledging ruling, but not calling for compliance.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. https://amti.csis.org/sides-in-south-china-sea/

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by Frank Jüris, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      9.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      My country has shown one of the following stances on PRC’s treatment of its Uyghur population.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Oppose

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      0/ My country has denounced PRC

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      31 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2/ My country has remained silent

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      32 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      4/ My country has voiced support to PRC’s stance

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      17 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      10.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      My country has shown one of the following stances on PRC’s treatment of its Tibet population.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Oppose

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      0/ My country has denounced PRC

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2/ My country has remained silent

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      46 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      4/ My country has voiced support to PRC’s stance

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Estonia joined Germany's action criticizing PRC policies in 2020.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. https://un.mfa.ee/group-statement-on-human-rights-in-china-in-the-third-committee-of-the-general-assembly/

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answered by Frank Jüris, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        11.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        My government has not publicly criticized the PRC’s imposition of the National Security Law on Hong Kong.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Oppose

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        0/ My country has denounced PRC

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        24 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2/ My country has remained silent

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        36 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        4/ My country has voiced support to PRC’s stance

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Hide
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