Ecuador

$5,934.9
17.8M
Ranking
58/ 82
Original Score

* As some Indicators can be skipped where data is unavailable, the maximum overall and Domain scores are not identical for each country. Country rankings are generated from ratios of the maximum scores and the achieved scores.

95/ 388
Executive partner
Fundación Andrés Bello - Centro de Investigación Chino Latinoamericano
Index Year
2022
Layer Scores

The Indicators have been classified by the stage of the influence process at which they occur. Some Indicators correspond to exposure to PRC influence, e.g. the presence of Confucius Institutes. Others test for pressure – such as visa denials to academics or journalists. Finally, some Indicators capture the effect of PRC influence, such as national policy changes in favor of PRC interests.
The individual Layer scores for each country are tallied and displayed via rankings.

Exposure

30%

Exposure assesses the conditions that make the target country vulnerable to PRC's influence, e.g. in terms of economic dependence, or the receiving of some form of benefit.

Pressure

12%

Pressure measures the actions that the PRC directly or indirectly exerts over the target country in order to change the behavior of people in the target country, e.g. in terms of threatening economic punishment to provoke/prevent a political decision.

Effect

19%

Effect evaluates the degree of accommodations the target country makes to the PRC, and the actual effects and impacts on the target country.

In 2021, Ecuador had a GDP per capita of U $5,935 and a total population of 17.88 million people. There is no information available on the Chinese population in the country.

Ecuador established diplomatic relations with the People's Republic of China in 1980. Ecuador was ranked 68th in Reporters Without Borders' 2022 World Press Freedom Index, and Free in Freedom House's 2022 Global Freedom Status, with a score of 71/100.

Domain Scores
Country Percentage
Index Average

Percentage scores do not suggest some degree out of a “completely influenced” level of 100%. The percentages express the country’s score out of the total achievable amount based on the Indicators for each Domain.

  • Media
    5.6% / 30.1%
  • Academia
    15.9% / 34%
  • Economy
    27.3% / 33.6%
  • Society
    6.8% / 23.6%
  • Military
    18.2% / 23.4%
  • Law Enforcement
    29.5% / 30.2%
  • Technology
    56.8% / 40.8%
  • Domestic Politics
    25.0% / 37.2%
  • Foreign Policy
    31.8% / 41%

Media

The Media Domain evaluates how PRC entities influence public debate and media coverage about the PRC in the Index country.

1.
Exposure

In my country, there are media organizations that belong to the World Chinese Media (世界华文媒体) network.

Skip

More

Skipped

2 countries chose this answer

0/ No

42 countries chose this answer

1/ Few, but insignificant

19 countries chose this answer

2/ More than a few, but insignificant

4 countries chose this answer

3/ Few, but significant

13 countries chose this answer

4/ More than a few, and significant

2 countries chose this answer

80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

Supporting Evidence

Not Found

  1. http://home.ecuaren.com/thread-8891-1-1.html
  2. https://www.worldchinesemedia.com/2015/05/12/56/

Supplementary Notes

Se ha encontrado información en el sitio web de World Chinese Media (世界华文媒体) que dice que dos de los miembros de la organización son de ecuador《 厄瓜多尔华人社区》,《 华人》月刊,《 华人》周报. Estos dos medios de comunicación han enviado miembros a participar en la Cumbre Internacional de Medios Chinos; aun así no ha sido posible comprobar si dichos medios pertenecen o no a la organización World Chinese Media.

    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

    Hide
    2.
    Exposure

    In my country, there are journalists or media organizations which are members of the Belt and Road Media Cooperation Alliance/Union, the Belt and Road News Alliance, or other Belt and Road media networks that connected to PRC (e.g. Belt and Road Media Community, Belt and Road Journalists Network, Belt and Road News Network, or B&R TV Networks).

    No

    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

    More

    Skipped

    1 countries chose this answer

    0/ No

    39 countries chose this answer

    1/ Few, but insignificant

    23 countries chose this answer

    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

    4 countries chose this answer

    3/ Few, but significant

    14 countries chose this answer

    4/ More than a few, and significant

    1 countries chose this answer

    81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

    Supporting Evidence

    No existen reportes ni sobre media en tv (link 1), ni en otro medio (link 2).

    1. http://en.videochina.org.cn/2017/0417/4741.shtml
    2. http://cn.brnn.com/414904/414908/index.html

      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

      Hide
      3.
      Exposure

      In my country, there are journalists, media organizations or online influencers who have attended all-expenses paid media tours in PRC.

      Skip

      More

      Skipped

      11 countries chose this answer

      0/ No

      15 countries chose this answer

      1/ Few, but insignificant

      15 countries chose this answer

      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

      5 countries chose this answer

      3/ Few, but significant

      23 countries chose this answer

      4/ More than a few, and significant

      13 countries chose this answer

      71 countries answered this indicator; 11 countries skipped this indicator

      Supporting Evidence

      Not Found

      1. https://kknews.cc/house/y39mnaa.html
      2. http://cn.brnn.com/n3/2019/0924/c414918-9617356.html

      Supplementary Notes

      No existen registros entre los años 2020 y 2022, a causa de la pandemia. China tampoco ha recibido a periodistas por tema de Pandemia, a excepción de aquellos que viajan a cubrir visitas oficiales. En este periodo no viajaron reporteros invitados y costeados por el Gobierno de la República Popular de China, la última comitiva estuvo integrada por el presidente de la Republica y ministros de Estado.

        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

        Hide
        4.
        Exposure

        In my country, there are journalists, media organizations or online influencers who have received trainings from PRC state-owned media or PRC-connected entities.

        No

        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

        More

        Skipped

        3 countries chose this answer

        0/ No

        37 countries chose this answer

        1/ Few, but insignificant

        16 countries chose this answer

        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

        2 countries chose this answer

        3/ Few, but significant

        14 countries chose this answer

        4/ More than a few, and significant

        10 countries chose this answer

        79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

        Supporting Evidence

        Not Found

        1. https://siau.senescyt.gob.ec/2022/03/30/seminario-para-periodistas-y-oficiales-nacionales-de-informacion-de-los-paises-hispanohablantes-de-america-latina/

        Supplementary Notes

        No se reporta en el periodo de estudio entrenamiento directo por las instituciones mencionadas; pero si becas entrenamiento en SENESCYT (digital) como el registrado en 2022 (ver link 1), Becas que son otorgadas por el gobierno de PCR.

          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

          Hide
          5.
          Exposure

          In my country, PRC state-media (including print, radio, and video) is broadcasted or distributed in a local language.

          Yes

          Answer ( 1 / 4 )

          More

          Skipped

          1 countries chose this answer

          0/ No

          24 countries chose this answer

          1/ Few, but insignificant

          22 countries chose this answer

          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

          7 countries chose this answer

          3/ Few, but significant

          18 countries chose this answer

          4/ More than a few, and significant

          10 countries chose this answer

          81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

          Supporting Evidence

          Los canales chinos están disponibles a través de operadoras de TV por cable privado y/o suscripciones "gold", por lo cual se sugiere que estos medios audiovisuales tienen poco impacto en estratos socioeconómicos medios y bajos. Otros medios, como Xinhua español disponibles en red.

          1. https://www.xtrim.com.ec/wp-content/uploads/2021/08/QUITO-PREMIUM-GOLD.pdf

            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

            Hide
            6.
            Exposure

            In my country, there are local media outlets wholly or partly owned by PRC citizens or corporations.

            No

            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

            More

            Skipped

            2 countries chose this answer

            0/ No

            44 countries chose this answer

            1/ Few, but insignificant

            19 countries chose this answer

            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

            3 countries chose this answer

            3/ Few, but significant

            14 countries chose this answer

            4/ More than a few, and significant

            0 countries chose this answer

            80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

            Supporting Evidence

            Not Found

              Supplementary Notes

              No se reportan datos, ni existen registros sobre que existan medios de comunicación con propietarios totales o parciales chinos. Existen pequeños periódicos de asociaciones de amistad, pero son de propiedad conjunta de chinos de ultramar (diáspora china).

                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                Hide
                7.
                Exposure

                In my country, there are media outlets that have delivered cheap or free contents provided by PRC state-fund media.

                Yes

                Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                More

                Skipped

                3 countries chose this answer

                0/ No

                22 countries chose this answer

                1/ Few, but insignificant

                21 countries chose this answer

                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                6 countries chose this answer

                3/ Few, but significant

                23 countries chose this answer

                4/ More than a few, and significant

                7 countries chose this answer

                79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                Supporting Evidence

                No existen registros actuales, los últimos fueron sobre acuerdos suscritos con el anterior Gobierno ecuatoriano en el año 2016 para la transmisión de telenovelas, series y películas chinas (ver link 1). Por ejemplo “el convenio fue entre Zhi Liming (representante de oficina de comunicación de China) y “En el Ojo Films”. Esta última es una productora con sede en Quito y tiene más de 10 años de experiencia. En su trayectoria resaltan sus trabajos para la Secretaría Nacional de Comunicación (Secom), para la Presidencia de la República, así como para otras entidades y proyectos promocionales del gobierno” (link1).

                1. https://bit.ly/3PTerEj

                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                  Hide
                  8.
                  Exposure

                  In my country, there are regular PRC state-media or government advertisements inserted within local newspapers, online news websites or social media.

                  No

                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                  More

                  Skipped

                  1 countries chose this answer

                  0/ No

                  38 countries chose this answer

                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                  13 countries chose this answer

                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                  7 countries chose this answer

                  3/ Few, but significant

                  15 countries chose this answer

                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                  8 countries chose this answer

                  81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                  Supporting Evidence

                  No existe dicha práctica ni son frecuentes en periódicos, redes sociales o noticia online de ecuador (ver enlaces 1 y 2). Tampoco en redes sociales, incluso con páginas relacionadas a intereses chinos se encuentran anuncios de “regular PRC state-media or government advertisements” (ver enlace 2).

                  1. https://www.primicias.ec/
                  2. https://www.elcomercio.com/tendencias/entretenimiento/artistas-conciertos-comercio-primera-temporada.html
                  3. https://www.facebook.com/groups/2393059611008401

                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                    Hide
                    9.
                    Pressure

                    In my country, there are journalists who have had pressure exerted on them by the PRC, including (but not limited to) public denouncement, revocation of journalist ID, denial of visa.

                    No

                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                    More

                    Skipped

                    1 countries chose this answer

                    0/ No

                    57 countries chose this answer

                    4/ Yes

                    24 countries chose this answer

                    81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                    Hide
                    10.
                    Effect

                    In my country, there are incidents of media outlets censoring views critical of the PRC government.

                    No

                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                    More

                    Skipped

                    4 countries chose this answer

                    0/ No

                    51 countries chose this answer

                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                    11 countries chose this answer

                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                    3 countries chose this answer

                    3/ Few, but significant

                    9 countries chose this answer

                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                    4 countries chose this answer

                    78 countries answered this indicator; 4 countries skipped this indicator

                    Supporting Evidence

                    No se han reportado, incluso se puede observar el caso del periodista y hoy asambleísta Fernando Villavicencio, que no ha sufrido presiones, ni censuras de media outlets pese a fuertes denuncias realizadas.

                    1. https://bit.ly/3zb6XGC

                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                      Hide
                      11.
                      Effect

                      In my country, there are media personalities (including reporters, journalists or commentators) or celebrities who deny the existence of human rights abuses in the PRC (e.g. a media personality that doubts there are re-education camps for Uyghurs in Xinjiang).

                      No

                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                      More

                      Skipped

                      2 countries chose this answer

                      0/ No

                      44 countries chose this answer

                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                      18 countries chose this answer

                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                      4 countries chose this answer

                      3/ Few, but significant

                      9 countries chose this answer

                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                      5 countries chose this answer

                      80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                      Supporting Evidence

                      No existe discusión pública sobre el tema concreto de abuso derechos humanos en China (por ejemplo, ver falta de debate sobre el tema ejemplos link 1y 2; Lo que existe en medios liberales y conservadores es sobre la temática de derechos humanos en el caso Ecuador lo cual lo hacen sin censura (Ver ejemplo link 3).

                      1. https://bit.ly/3Mb0X3N
                      2. https://binged.it/3zdJwg6
                      3. https://bit.ly/3m2B5fM

                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                        Hide

                        Academia

                        The Academia Domain measures how the PRC state attempts to restrict academic freedom by influencing or interfering with the Index country’s academic and educational activities.

                        1.
                        Exposure

                        In my country, universities have established research partnerships with PRC-connected entities. (e.g. Huawei, Tencent or Alibaba)

                        Yes

                        Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                        More

                        0/ No

                        9 countries chose this answer

                        1/ Few, but insignificant

                        11 countries chose this answer

                        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                        6 countries chose this answer

                        3/ Few, but significant

                        31 countries chose this answer

                        4/ More than a few, and significant

                        25 countries chose this answer

                        82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                        Supporting Evidence

                        Not Found

                        1. https://www.epn.edu.ec/dos-estudiantes-politecnicos-viajaran-a-la-sede-de-huawei-en-china/

                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                          Hide
                          2.
                          Exposure

                          In my country, there are Confucius Institutes/Classrooms.

                          Yes

                          Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                          More

                          0/ No

                          5 countries chose this answer

                          1/ Few, but insignificant

                          14 countries chose this answer

                          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                          5 countries chose this answer

                          3/ Few, but significant

                          31 countries chose this answer

                          4/ More than a few, and significant

                          27 countries chose this answer

                          82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                          Supporting Evidence

                          Not Found

                          1. https://www.usfq.edu.ec/es/instituto-confucio
                          2. https://bit.ly/3LeLD5H

                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                            Hide
                            3.
                            Exposure

                            My country plans to include, or does include, Chinese as a foreign language in K12 or primary education, and receives free or subsidized (e.g. offered below market price) educational books and teachers from PRC.

                            No

                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                            More

                            Skipped

                            1 countries chose this answer

                            0/ No

                            46 countries chose this answer

                            4/ Yes

                            35 countries chose this answer

                            81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                            Supporting Evidence

                            Existe enseñanza idioma chino en colegios privados, pero no como política pública, no se reporta subvención de la RPC.

                            1. https://revistamundodiners.com/interes-por-chino-crece-ninios-jovenes/

                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                              Hide
                              4.
                              Exposure

                              In my country, one or more think tanks and academic research centers belong to PRC-affiliated networks/associations (such as: the Silk Road Think Tank Association, Silk Road Think Tank Network [SiLKS], Belt and Road Studies Network, University Alliance of the Silk Road, University Consortium of the 21st Century Maritime Silk Road).

                              No

                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                              More

                              Skipped

                              2 countries chose this answer

                              0/ No

                              40 countries chose this answer

                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                              17 countries chose this answer

                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                              7 countries chose this answer

                              3/ Few, but significant

                              14 countries chose this answer

                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                              2 countries chose this answer

                              80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                              Supporting Evidence

                              En la página web sugerida no se reporta nada para el caso Ecuador, en los otros enlaces señalados para esta pregunta, tampoco existen reportes sobre alguna universidad o instituto de Ecuador.

                              1. http://www.ucmsr.com/route

                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                Hide
                                5.
                                Exposure

                                In my country, think tanks and academic research centers have received financial support from PRC-connected individuals or entities.

                                No

                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                More

                                Skipped

                                10 countries chose this answer

                                0/ No

                                21 countries chose this answer

                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                11 countries chose this answer

                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                11 countries chose this answer

                                3/ Few, but significant

                                19 countries chose this answer

                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                10 countries chose this answer

                                72 countries answered this indicator; 10 countries skipped this indicator

                                Supporting Evidence

                                Not Found

                                1. https://www.degruyter.com/document/doi/10.1515/sai-2022-0006/pdf

                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                  Hide
                                  6.
                                  Exposure

                                  In my country, experts participate in PRC talent recruitment programs such as the Thousand Talents Program or Changjiang Scholars program.

                                  No

                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                  More

                                  Skipped

                                  3 countries chose this answer

                                  0/ No

                                  47 countries chose this answer

                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                  11 countries chose this answer

                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                  6 countries chose this answer

                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                  10 countries chose this answer

                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                  5 countries chose this answer

                                  79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                                  Supporting Evidence

                                  No se encuentra reportes sobre estos temas.

                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                      Hide
                                      7.
                                      Exposure

                                      In my country, scholars have taken trips to the PRC paid for by PRC-connected individuals or entities.

                                      Yes

                                      Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                      More

                                      Skipped

                                      13 countries chose this answer

                                      0/ No

                                      17 countries chose this answer

                                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                                      15 countries chose this answer

                                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                      11 countries chose this answer

                                      3/ Few, but significant

                                      12 countries chose this answer

                                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                                      14 countries chose this answer

                                      69 countries answered this indicator; 13 countries skipped this indicator

                                      Supporting Evidence

                                      Not Found

                                      1. https://www.cancilleria.gob.ec/china/2021/06/22/convenio-de-becas-entre-ecuador-y-china/

                                      Supplementary Notes

                                      Existen becas de la RPC, pero estas son procesadas por el órgano oficial del estado ecuatoriano Secretaría Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología de Ecuador (Senescyt), Cabe destacar que, desde que inicio la pandemia, las becas del Estado chino dirigidas a nacionales ecuatorianos son de carácter virtual. No obstante, en el convenio bilateral sobre este tema, se deja en evidencia que los gastos de los cursos corren por cuenta por el gobierno del país asiático.

                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                        Hide
                                        8.
                                        Pressure

                                        In my country, organized PRC-connected student groups, such as Chinese Students and Scholars Associations (CSSAs), are involved in attempts to censor staff or students (e.g. by harassing students protesting human rights abuses in the PRC, or formally complaining about the identification of Taiwan as a country in lecture slides).

                                        No

                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                        More

                                        Skipped

                                        1 countries chose this answer

                                        0/ No

                                        64 countries chose this answer

                                        1/ Few, but insignificant

                                        6 countries chose this answer

                                        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                        3 countries chose this answer

                                        3/ Few, but significant

                                        5 countries chose this answer

                                        4/ More than a few, and significant

                                        3 countries chose this answer

                                        81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                        Supporting Evidence

                                        Not Found

                                          Supplementary Notes

                                          No existe ningún reporte de censura de ninguna opinión o actividad pública o privada en el Ecuador por parte de ninguna instancia pública o privada de RPC. Tampoco se ha registrado ninguna organización o actividad de asociaciones de estudiantes chinos en Ecuador

                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                            Hide
                                            9.
                                            Pressure

                                            In my country, scholars or academics have been denied visas to travel to the PRC after expressing opinions or producing scholarship that is critical of the PRC.

                                            No

                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                            More

                                            Skipped

                                            7 countries chose this answer

                                            0/ No

                                            64 countries chose this answer

                                            1/ Few, but insignificant

                                            1 countries chose this answer

                                            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                            0 countries chose this answer

                                            3/ Few, but significant

                                            6 countries chose this answer

                                            4/ More than a few, and significant

                                            4 countries chose this answer

                                            75 countries answered this indicator; 7 countries skipped this indicator

                                            Supporting Evidence

                                            Not Found

                                            1. https://bit.ly/3wwTCpf

                                            Supplementary Notes

                                            no existen reportes de ningún nacional ecuatoriano, académico o periodista que haya sido impedido de viajar a China por críticas políticas o de otro tipo. No existen tampoco visitas turismo o estadía corta desde la pandemia. Cabe recordar que para visitas de turismo existe también un acuerdo entre dos países sin necesidad de visas formales (ver enlace “1”).

                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                              Hide
                                              10.
                                              Effect

                                              In my country, PRC-connected entities have been involved in school or university curriculum design, such as courses about East Asian history, modern politics, etc.

                                              No

                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                              More

                                              Skipped

                                              2 countries chose this answer

                                              0/ No

                                              64 countries chose this answer

                                              4/ Yes

                                              16 countries chose this answer

                                              80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                              Supporting Evidence

                                              Not Found

                                              1. https://ecuadorec.com/oferta-academica-senescyt-instituciones-educacion-superior/

                                              Supplementary Notes

                                              No existen programas académicos orientados a la educación de pregrado o posgrado. Lo que existe es mayormente investigación e idiomas como ya se ha visto en otros enlaces. Como ejemplo se puede ver el enlace 1, donde se registra los programas académicos aprobados, donde no se reporta programas acerca de los cursos objeto de esta pregunta.

                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                Hide
                                                11.
                                                Effect

                                                In my country, there are confirmed reports of teachers or professors avoiding the discussion of sensitive political issues (e.g. Uyghur re-education camps, Taiwan independence, Tiananmen Square Massacre).

                                                No

                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                More

                                                Skipped

                                                5 countries chose this answer

                                                0/ No

                                                65 countries chose this answer

                                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                1 countries chose this answer

                                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                1 countries chose this answer

                                                3/ Few, but significant

                                                6 countries chose this answer

                                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                4 countries chose this answer

                                                77 countries answered this indicator; 5 countries skipped this indicator

                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                Not Found

                                                  Supplementary Notes

                                                  No existe evidencia que justifique esta posibilidad en Ecuador.

                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                    Hide

                                                    Economy

                                                    The Economy Domain measures the PRC’s economic leverage in the Index country, and how this is used to influence economic policy or corporate behavior in ways that favor the PRC.

                                                    1.
                                                    Exposure

                                                    The PRC is my country's number one trading partner (for trade in goods only).

                                                    No

                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                    More

                                                    0/ No

                                                    51 countries chose this answer

                                                    4/ Yes

                                                    31 countries chose this answer

                                                    82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                    El principal socio comercial de Ecuador es Estados Unidos de América.

                                                    1. https://ec.usembassy.gov/es/business-es/
                                                    2. https://bit.ly/38yN5Cn

                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                      Hide
                                                      2.
                                                      Exposure

                                                      PRC-connected entities own more than 50% of my country’s sovereign debt.

                                                      No

                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                      More

                                                      Skipped

                                                      1 countries chose this answer

                                                      0/ No

                                                      77 countries chose this answer

                                                      4/ Yes

                                                      4 countries chose this answer

                                                      81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                      Not Found

                                                      1. https://bit.ly/3lf8MdF

                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                        Hide
                                                        3.
                                                        Exposure

                                                        The PRC is the top customer for my country’s extractive industries.

                                                        No

                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                        More

                                                        0/ No

                                                        62 countries chose this answer

                                                        4/ Yes

                                                        20 countries chose this answer

                                                        82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                        Not Found

                                                        1. https://bit.ly/3GRprhs
                                                        2. https://bit.ly/3zh01rQ

                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                          Hide
                                                          4.
                                                          Exposure

                                                          In my country, PRC-related entities own, operate or substantially control critical infrastructure (e.g. ports, power plants, digital data centers, etc) or sensitive sectors (biotech, raw materials, etc.)

                                                          No

                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                          More

                                                          0/ No

                                                          36 countries chose this answer

                                                          4/ Yes

                                                          46 countries chose this answer

                                                          82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                          Not Found

                                                          1. https://www.aiddata.org/publications/banking-on-the-belt-and-road
                                                          2. https://thepeoplesmap.net/

                                                          Supplementary Notes

                                                          A pesar de créditos y construcción del servicio integrado de seguridad Ecu911, el manejo del centro y de la información es del Estado ecuatoriano (ver link 1). En el caso de la planta eléctrica Coca Codo (y otras de menor envergadura), también es vía crédito, pero el control y operación la tiene el estado ecuatoriano.

                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                            Hide
                                                            5.
                                                            Exposure

                                                            My country joined (or applied to join) the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB).

                                                            Yes

                                                            Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                            More

                                                            0/ No

                                                            27 countries chose this answer

                                                            4/ Yes

                                                            55 countries chose this answer

                                                            82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                            Hide
                                                            6.
                                                            Exposure

                                                            In my country, major businesses are members of the Silk Road Chamber of International Commerce, or of the Belt and Road Industrial and Commercial Alliance, or of the Belt and Road General Chamber of Commerce.

                                                            No

                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                            More

                                                            0/ No

                                                            41 countries chose this answer

                                                            4/ Yes

                                                            41 countries chose this answer

                                                            82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                            Not Found

                                                            1. https://camarachina.ec/
                                                            2. https://srcic.org/silk-road-members/?page=3

                                                            Supplementary Notes

                                                            No existen reportes sobre el tema ni en la página de la Cámara de Comercio China-Ecuador, ni en la página de la “Silk Road Chamber of International Commerce”.

                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                              Hide
                                                              7.
                                                              Pressure

                                                              My country has been the target of PRC economic coercion (e.g. trade or investment sanctions) that was specifically tailored at products or services that are highly dependent on the PRC market.

                                                              Yes

                                                              Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                              More

                                                              0/ No

                                                              64 countries chose this answer

                                                              4/ Yes

                                                              18 countries chose this answer

                                                              82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                              Not Found

                                                              1. https://www.seafoodsource.com/news/supply-trade/china-frees-up-imports-of-one-ecuadorian-shrimp-producer-two-more-expected-to-follow

                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                Hide
                                                                8.
                                                                Pressure

                                                                In my country, local businesses have been harassed, threatened, or boycotted, due to their activities or statements in support of causes deemed unacceptable by the PRC government (e.g. Taiwanese independence, Hong Kong democracy, Tibet or Xinjiang issues, etc).

                                                                No

                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                More

                                                                Skipped

                                                                2 countries chose this answer

                                                                0/ No

                                                                65 countries chose this answer

                                                                4/ Yes

                                                                15 countries chose this answer

                                                                80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                Not Found

                                                                  Supplementary Notes

                                                                  No existen reportes sobre el tema, especialmente porque no existe en la sociedad civil ni entre empresarios el (re)conocimiento sobre estas temáticas.

                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                    Hide
                                                                    9.
                                                                    Effect

                                                                    My country has free-trade agreement(s) with the PRC (either bilateral or as part of regional agreement(s)) that primarily deals with trade in goods or services, including digital goods or services.

                                                                    No

                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                    More

                                                                    0/ No

                                                                    51 countries chose this answer

                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                    31 countries chose this answer

                                                                    82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                    Hide
                                                                    10.
                                                                    Effect

                                                                    In my country, central or local governments have relaxed or removed regulatory restrictions, or have established special economic zones (or free trade zones, industrial parks, etc.) to attract investments or economic participation from the PRC.

                                                                    No

                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                    More

                                                                    0/ No

                                                                    47 countries chose this answer

                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                    35 countries chose this answer

                                                                    82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                    Not Found

                                                                    1. https://bit.ly/3aiqVVD
                                                                    2. https://bit.ly/3NRDjub

                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                      Hide
                                                                      11.
                                                                      Effect

                                                                      In my country, PRC-connected entities requisitioned infrastructure or land for failure to repay debts in a timely manner.

                                                                      Yes

                                                                      Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                      More

                                                                      Skipped

                                                                      2 countries chose this answer

                                                                      0/ No

                                                                      76 countries chose this answer

                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                      4 countries chose this answer

                                                                      80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                      Not Found

                                                                      1. https://www.primicias.ec/noticias/economia/contratos-petroleros-china-confidenciales-ecuador/
                                                                      2. https://www.primicias.ec/noticias/economia/china-pone-dificiles-condiciones-para-creditos-ecuador/

                                                                      Supplementary Notes

                                                                      Aun cuando los préstamos chinos no han establecido pagos colaterales con espacios de tierras u obras de infraestructura, reportes señalan que existen dos mecanismos de préstamos relacionados a petróleo, unos los denominados Loans for oil (presente también con otros estados), y otros donde se reporta que se han establecido garantías de pago de créditos con petróleo. Esta modalidad es aplicada por la RPC, su Banco de Desarrollo y algunas de sus empresas petroleras.

                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                        Hide

                                                                        Society

                                                                        The Society Domain measures the extent and effectiveness of the PRC’s efforts to advance its soft power in the Index country, including its influence over the actions and views of local organizations and citizens.

                                                                        1.
                                                                        Exposure

                                                                        In my country, there are local groups or organizations with words like “Promotion of Peaceful Reunification” in their name, and they regularly publicize their views on Taiwan, Hong Kong, Tibet and Xinjiang issues.

                                                                        Yes

                                                                        Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                                                                        More

                                                                        Skipped

                                                                        1 countries chose this answer

                                                                        0/ No

                                                                        49 countries chose this answer

                                                                        1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                        12 countries chose this answer

                                                                        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                        7 countries chose this answer

                                                                        3/ Few, but significant

                                                                        9 countries chose this answer

                                                                        4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                        4 countries chose this answer

                                                                        81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                        Not Found

                                                                        1. https://bit.ly/3GW9Pcy
                                                                        2. https://bit.ly/3xlksSV

                                                                        Supplementary Notes

                                                                        En 2010 se reporta ya la Asociación de Promoción de la Reunificación Pacífica de Ecuador y China en el directorio de Asociaciones de Promoción de la Reunificación Pacífica Nacionales y Extranjeras (ver link 1), en 2013, se llevó a cabo un encuentro en la ciudad de Guayaquil (ver link 2).

                                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                          Hide
                                                                          2.
                                                                          Exposure

                                                                          In my country, there are members and member organizations of United World Chinese Association (世界华人协会).

                                                                          No

                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                          More

                                                                          Skipped

                                                                          1 countries chose this answer

                                                                          0/ No

                                                                          62 countries chose this answer

                                                                          4/ Yes

                                                                          19 countries chose this answer

                                                                          81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                          Not Found

                                                                          1. http://www.uwca.net/member.html
                                                                          2. https://bit.ly/3miFhrH

                                                                          Supplementary Notes

                                                                          No se encuentran reportes en el link 1, ni tampoco incluso vinculando el nombre del País y esa asociación en lenguaje chino (link 2).

                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                            Hide
                                                                            3.
                                                                            Exposure

                                                                            In my country, labor unions cooperate on exchanges or official visits to the All-China Federation of Trade Unions (ACFTU) in the PRC.

                                                                            No

                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                            More

                                                                            Skipped

                                                                            1 countries chose this answer

                                                                            0/ No

                                                                            68 countries chose this answer

                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                            13 countries chose this answer

                                                                            81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                            Not Found

                                                                              Supplementary Notes

                                                                              No existen reportes sobre el tema en los últimos años; varias de las centrales de trabajadores como frente unitario de trabajadores por influencia marxista e incluso maoísta, plantean que la RPC reproduce un tipo de imperialismo de corte capitalista. Nuevas fracciones sindicales, fundadas en el gobierno de expresidente Correa, pudieron haber estado alineados a las relaciones bilaterales amigables propuestas por ese gobierno, pero no se reportan visitas de este tipo, más aún después de 2020.

                                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                Hide
                                                                                4.
                                                                                Exposure

                                                                                In my country, there are local reports of personnel linked to the UFWD who make appearances at Chinese diaspora community events and activities (e.g. Lunar New Year events, Dragon Boat festival tournaments, etc).

                                                                                No

                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                More

                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                50 countries chose this answer

                                                                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                Not Found

                                                                                  Supplementary Notes

                                                                                  No existen reportes, y la comunidad diáspora, según informante calificado chino -ecuatoriano de 3era o cuarta generación, han comentado que las fiestas tienen un carácter cerrado frente a personas que no sean parte reconocidas de las asociaciones o comunidades.

                                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                    5.
                                                                                    Exposure

                                                                                    In my country, there are PRC-connected professional associations that are closely engaged with their counterparts locally, such as All-China Journalists Association (中华全国新闻工作者协会), China Artists Association (中国艺术家协会), China Writers Association (中国作家协会) or All-China Women Federation (全国妇联).

                                                                                    Yes

                                                                                    Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                                                                                    More

                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                    2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                    33 countries chose this answer

                                                                                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                    25 countries chose this answer

                                                                                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                    8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                    3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                    8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                    6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                    80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                    Existe evidencia sobre actividades realizadas por la Corporación de Mujeres Ecuatorianas Amigas de la República Popular China en el año 2020. Dichas actividades fueron principalmente culturales y fueron reseñadas en un suplemento publicado por la Embajada de la RPC en Quito (link 2). También fue posible ubicar evidencia que nos permite afirmar que dicha organización realiza actividades desde el 2014 (link 1). Sin embargo, ésta coporación no es influyente en el país.

                                                                                    1. http://women.fjsen.com/2014-09/25/content_14942782.htm
                                                                                    2. https://issuu.com/suplementosgec/docs/embajada_de_china_2019web

                                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                      6.
                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                      In my country, PRC-connected individuals or entities donate money or provide other types of support to religious communities and charities.

                                                                                      No

                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                      More

                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                      1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                      46 countries chose this answer

                                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                                      35 countries chose this answer

                                                                                      81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                      Not Found

                                                                                        Supplementary Notes

                                                                                        No se encuentra ningún tipo de reporte de esta actividad en Ecuador

                                                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                          7.
                                                                                          Exposure

                                                                                          In my country, the PRC government or PRC-connected entities distribute entertainment products (including: drama and TV shows) or related hardwares (e.g. OTT streaming players hosting PRC media channels) freely or at a cheap price.

                                                                                          No

                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                          More

                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                          2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                          38 countries chose this answer

                                                                                          1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                          21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                          4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                          3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                          11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                          4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                          6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                          80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                          Not Found

                                                                                            Supplementary Notes

                                                                                            No existen reportes desde 2017 sobre este tema, cuando Ecuador TV paso a administración de otro gobierno y no se continuó una relación estrecha, tal como se había realizado antes de 2017 y señalado en una pregunta anterior.

                                                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                              8.
                                                                                              Effect

                                                                                              Cultural products (such as films and TV shows) produced by my country’s production studios typically portray the PRC in a positive light.

                                                                                              No

                                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                              More

                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                              7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                              60 countries chose this answer

                                                                                              4/ Yes

                                                                                              15 countries chose this answer

                                                                                              75 countries answered this indicator; 7 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                              Not Found

                                                                                                Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                No existen productos culturales en este nivel que se orienten a presentar una determinada imagen sobre la RPC, dado el poco conocimiento sobre la realidad de oriente en general y de China en particular, sólo algunas revistas de tv ocasionalmente antes de pandemia presentaron alguna imagen de la modernización y cultura tradicional de China.

                                                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                  9.
                                                                                                  Effect

                                                                                                  In my country, celebrities regularly publish or share propaganda narratives from the PRC.

                                                                                                  No

                                                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                  67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                  10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                  0 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                  3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                  2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                  82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                  Not Found

                                                                                                    Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                    No existen registros de alguna celebridad ecuatoriana que publique o comparta la narrativa oficial de PCR, e incluso no existe celebridades que presenten o tengan intención manifiesta de hablar sobre China.

                                                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                      10.
                                                                                                      Effect

                                                                                                      In my country, the national or local governments regularly publish or share propaganda narratives from the PRC (e.g. statements from the PRC government or embassies).

                                                                                                      Yes

                                                                                                      Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                      2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                      54 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                      12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                      2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                      3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                      7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                      5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                      80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                      Not Found

                                                                                                      1. https://www.cancilleria.gob.ec/china/2022/02/18/presidente-lasso-informo-sobre-los-importantes-resultados-de-las-reuniones-mantenidas-en-china/
                                                                                                      2. https://www.cancilleria.gob.ec/china/2022/02/18/medios-chinos-recogen-las-noticias-mas-importantes-de-la-visita-del-presidente-guillermo-lasso-a-china/

                                                                                                      Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                      Apenas las relacionadas a intereses comunes como el TLC propuesto por el gobierno de Guillermo Lasso, o sobre la Franja y Ruta.

                                                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                        11.
                                                                                                        Effect

                                                                                                        In my country, a majority of citizens have positive views of the PRC government.

                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                        7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                        50 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                                                        25 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                        75 countries answered this indicator; 7 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                        Not Found

                                                                                                        1. https://bit.ly/397wfuM
                                                                                                        2. https://bit.ly/3tgIJao

                                                                                                        Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                        No existen reportes sobre medición de percepciones positivas o negativas de los ciudadanos ecuatorianos sobre el gobierno de la RPC; sin embargo, existe una fuerte presencia de críticas a la relación con China, especialmente en prensa y varios sectores políticos referentes a: a) la devastación por pesca en las islas Galápagos; b) la percepción sobre preventa petrolera que ha significado perjuicio y endeudamiento extremo al ecuador, c) una supuesta hipoteca del país por créditos chinos, d) una acción voraz en el mundo d ellos negocios especialmente mineros, etc. Últimamente ha existido posiciones más amigables por el tema de la cooperación en vacunas covid-19 y otras medias para la pandemia. (Ejemplos de reportes negativos en estudios y reportajes nacionales e internacionales en link 1 y 2).

                                                                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                          Hide

                                                                                                          Military

                                                                                                          The Military Domain gauges the bilateral military relationship between the PRC and the Index country, including PRC efforts to influence local military personnel.

                                                                                                          1.
                                                                                                          Exposure

                                                                                                          My country currently imports (or receives in-kind donation of) military or law-enforcement equipment or components of equipment from the PRC.

                                                                                                          No

                                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                          36 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                          4/ Yes

                                                                                                          46 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                          82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                          Not Found

                                                                                                          1. https://bit.ly/3th5nzv

                                                                                                          Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                          Desde 2020, no se reporta este tipo de actividad, lo último fueron donaciones en 2016 de 100.000 fusiles tipo AK-47, que incluso estuvieron a punto de ser chatarrizados en 2021, y luego se planteó utilizar material para entrenamiento (ver link 1).

                                                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                            2.
                                                                                                            Exposure

                                                                                                            My country currently exports military or law-enforcement equipment or components of equipment to the PRC.

                                                                                                            No

                                                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                            1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                            74 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                                                            7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                            81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                            Not Found

                                                                                                              Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                              Ecuador no tiene la capacidad de exportación de armas y menos para un ejército más sofisticado, como el chino.

                                                                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                3.
                                                                                                                Exposure

                                                                                                                My country co-develops or co-produces military or law-enforcement equipment with the PRC.

                                                                                                                No

                                                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                66 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                4/ Yes

                                                                                                                15 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                Not Found

                                                                                                                1. https://www.eluniverso.com/noticias/politica/ecuador-no-hara-chatarra-los-fusiles-donados-por-china-confirmo-el-ministro-de-defensa-nota/

                                                                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                  4.
                                                                                                                  Exposure

                                                                                                                  In my country, there are reports that the PRC has expressed intentions or has taken actions to establish basing.

                                                                                                                  No

                                                                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                  2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                  67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                  4/ Yes

                                                                                                                  13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                  80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                  Not Found

                                                                                                                  1. https://www.acnur.org/fileadmin/Documentos/BDL/2008/6716.pdf

                                                                                                                  Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                  No ha existido declaración sobre ningún establecimiento de bases, ni siquiera durante el éxtasis de la relación bilateral entre 2007-2017. La constitución ecuatoriana (2008) además prohíbe la presencia de bases extranjeras en territorio ecuatoriano.

                                                                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                    5.
                                                                                                                    Exposure

                                                                                                                    In my country, the People’s Liberation Army (PLA) has participated in a humanitarian relief/disaster assistance (HADR) effort.

                                                                                                                    Yes

                                                                                                                    Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                    2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                    61 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                                                                    19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                    80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                    Not Found

                                                                                                                    1. http://en.brnn.com/n3/2020/0703/c416050-9706871.html

                                                                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                      6.
                                                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                                                      In my country, People’s Liberation Army (PLA) military personnel are permanently or rotationally deployed (excluding defense attaches and peacekeepers).

                                                                                                                      No

                                                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                      77 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                                                                      5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                      82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                      Not Found

                                                                                                                      1. https://www.acnur.org/fileadmin/Documentos/BDL/2008/6716.pdf

                                                                                                                      Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                      No existe reportes, y la constitución no permite este tipo de presencia, ni de bases extranjeras (enlace 1, constitución Art. 5, p. 17: “El Ecuador es un territorio de paz. No se permitirá el establecimiento de bases militares extranjeras ni de instalaciones extranjeras con propósitos militares. Se prohíbe ceder bases militares nacionales a fuerzas armadas o de seguridad extranjeras”. También en: Título VIII Relaciones Internacionales Capítulo primero Principios de las relaciones internacionales Art. 416, numeral 4, p. 183.

                                                                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                        7.
                                                                                                                        Exposure

                                                                                                                        In my country, members of the military have received professional military education from the PRC.

                                                                                                                        Yes

                                                                                                                        Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                        48 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                                                                        34 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                        82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                        Not Found

                                                                                                                        1. https://lanacion.com.ec/cooperacion-militar-entre-ecuador-y-china/

                                                                                                                        Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                        Sí, pero no en la actualidad, ya que los reportes pueden ir hasta 2016; en el enlace 1 se habla del caso de 2014, donde la visita de ex ministro de defensa del Ecuador se orientó a convenios de “formación del personal militar ecuatoriano en China, además de en Ecuador por parte de, por ejemplo, instructores de artes marciales o de profesores de chino para enseñar este idioma en la universidad de las Fuerzas Armadas”.

                                                                                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                          8.
                                                                                                                          Exposure

                                                                                                                          In my country, members of the military have received peacekeeping training from the PRC.

                                                                                                                          No

                                                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                                          2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                          67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                          4/ Yes

                                                                                                                          13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                          80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                          Not Found

                                                                                                                          1. https://confirmado.net/2021/07/29/en-ecuador-se-celebro-el-94-aniversario-de-fundacion-del-ejercito-popular-de-liberacion-de-china-discurso-central-de-tu-fachao/

                                                                                                                          Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                          No reportes sobre entrenamiento, pero si sobre seminarios en contexto de oferta de seminario virtual, como plantea en el link 1, en julio de 2021: “China presidió el Seminario Virtual de China-América Latina sobre las Operaciones de Mantenimiento de Paz de las Naciones Unidad con los 10 países de América Latina, donde participan las FF.AA. del Ecuador…”

                                                                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                            9.
                                                                                                                            Exposure

                                                                                                                            In my country, high-ranking retired or current military and/or intelligence officers have received direct or deferred benefits from PRC-connected individuals or entities openly or covertly (e.g. have been appointed to lucrative positions as board members or consultants with PRC-invested firms, casinos, energy companies, etc.) during or in retirement from public service.

                                                                                                                            No

                                                                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                            4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                            67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                                                                            11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                            78 countries answered this indicator; 4 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                            Not Found

                                                                                                                              Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                              Existen rumores sobre adquisición de taladros de Petróleo a favor de empresas de servicios petroleras relacionadas al expresidente Lucio Gutiérrez y su hermano entonces congresista (ambos militares retirados), pero no se ha podido acceder a fuentes oficiales.

                                                                                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                10.
                                                                                                                                Effect

                                                                                                                                In my country, high-ranking retired or current military and/or intelligence officials advocate for more coordination with the People’s Liberation Army (PLA).

                                                                                                                                No

                                                                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                68 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                Not Found

                                                                                                                                  Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                  No existen reportes de ningún tipo sobre este tema; existe una tradición hacia la cooperación hemisférica, con Europa e incluso Israel, que se ha retomado plenamente especialmente en los últimos años, y en el 2022 por amenazas trasnacionales del crimen organizado.

                                                                                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                    11.
                                                                                                                                    Effect

                                                                                                                                    My country cooperates with the People’s Liberation Army (PLA) on military exchange exercises, including drills and war games.

                                                                                                                                    No

                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                    51 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                    31 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                    82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                    No existen este tipo de ejercicios en Ecuador, ni en países vecinos, hasta 2017, y mucho menos después, donde le Ecuador inicia un proceso de realineamiento a la perspectiva de seguridad hemisférica.

                                                                                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                        Hide

                                                                                                                                        Law Enforcement

                                                                                                                                        The Law Enforcement Domain measures law enforcement cooperation between the PRC and the Index country, as well as the nature and extent of PRC-related criminal activity in the Index country.

                                                                                                                                        1.
                                                                                                                                        Exposure

                                                                                                                                        My country currently maintains an extradition treaty, legal mutual assistance or other similar arrangements with the PRC.

                                                                                                                                        Yes

                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                        32 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                        50 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                        82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                        Not Found

                                                                                                                                        1. https://bit.ly/3awxwMp
                                                                                                                                        2. https://bit.ly/3Qfcp1B

                                                                                                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                                          2.
                                                                                                                                          Exposure

                                                                                                                                          In my country, law enforcement authorities have signed cooperation agreements with the PRC on combatting terrorism.

                                                                                                                                          No

                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                                                          1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                          55 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                          4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                          26 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                          81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                          Not Found

                                                                                                                                          1. https://bit.ly/38RLNCT

                                                                                                                                          Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                          No existen acuerdos firmados entre ambos países en materia de lucha contra el terrorismo; la única mención establecida es posible encontrarla en el punto 2.3 de la “DECLARACIÓN CONJUNTA ENTRE LA REPÚBLICA POPULAR CHINA Y LA REPÚBLICA DEL ECUADOR SOBRE EL ESTABLECIMIENTO DE LA ASOCIACIÓN ESTRATÉGICA”, la cual data del año 2015 (enlace 1).

                                                                                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                            3.
                                                                                                                                            Exposure

                                                                                                                                            In my country, PRC-connected gangs (such as Triad, 三合会) are known to be operating in my country.

                                                                                                                                            Yes

                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                                            1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                            52 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                            29 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                            81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                            Not Found

                                                                                                                                            1. https://bit.ly/3NmRhod
                                                                                                                                            2. https://bit.ly/38QFwHo

                                                                                                                                            Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                            Se reporta hasta 2009 en link 1. Y en 2014 en link 2. A partir de ahí, y en 2020-2021, no se encuentran reportes sobre la temática.

                                                                                                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                                              4.
                                                                                                                                              Pressure

                                                                                                                                              In my country, there are reports of economic espionage targeting the private sector that were suspected to benefit PRC-connected entities.

                                                                                                                                              No

                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                                              2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                              49 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                              7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                              3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                              3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                              12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                              9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                              80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                              Not Found

                                                                                                                                                Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                No existen reportes sobre el tema, adicionalmente se debe mencionar que la actividad privada del Ecuador en términos industriales y tecnológicos es dependiente de países del Norte y de países como China, Japón, etc.

                                                                                                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                                  5.
                                                                                                                                                  Pressure

                                                                                                                                                  In my country, there are reports of cyber attacks targeting government, critical infrastructure, or enterprises that were suspected to be initiated from the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                  Yes

                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                                                  3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                                  37 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                  9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                  4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                  14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                  15 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                  79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                  Not Found

                                                                                                                                                  1. https://tcrn.ch/3GTKf83

                                                                                                                                                  Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                  Aunque no existen reportes directos en el país, pero si la sospecha en medios especializados de acciones sobre varios países incluidos el Ecuador (ver enlace 1).

                                                                                                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                    6.
                                                                                                                                                    Pressure

                                                                                                                                                    In my country, triads are known to have threatened or used violence to coerce, intimidate or punish Chinese dissidents.

                                                                                                                                                    No

                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                                    2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                    67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                    5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                    3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                    3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                    3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                    2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                    80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                    Not Found

                                                                                                                                                      Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                      No existen reportes sobre amenazas o uso de fuerza sobre disidentes chinos.

                                                                                                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                                                        7.
                                                                                                                                                        Effect

                                                                                                                                                        My country has deployed video or internet surveillance systems from the PRC for law enforcement.

                                                                                                                                                        Yes

                                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                                                        1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                                        30 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                        51 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                        81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                        Not Found

                                                                                                                                                        1. https://nyti.ms/3tgu3bo

                                                                                                                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                                                          8.
                                                                                                                                                          Effect

                                                                                                                                                          In my country, representatives of the PRC police force have had joint patrols with local law enforcement.

                                                                                                                                                          No

                                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                                          71 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                          4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                          11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                          82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                          Not Found

                                                                                                                                                            Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                            No existen reportes ni ningún tipo de convenio en el nivel policial de este tipo.

                                                                                                                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                                                              9.
                                                                                                                                                              Effect

                                                                                                                                                              My government has detained people at the request of the PRC for committing a crime involving engagements with social movements or resistance activities in Hong Kong, Xinjiang or for other human rights or civic rights issues.

                                                                                                                                                              No

                                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                                                              1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                                              68 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                              4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                              13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                              81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                              Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                No existen reportes ni en el periodo 2007-2017, ni en años posteriores.

                                                                                                                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                                                  10.
                                                                                                                                                                  Effect

                                                                                                                                                                  My country has deported Taiwan citizens to the PRC to face prosecution.

                                                                                                                                                                  No

                                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                  2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                  71 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                  4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                  9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                  80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                  Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                    Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                    No se ha reportado deportaciones a ciudadanos Taiwaneses a China, ni en medios locales ni internacionales.

                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                                                      11.
                                                                                                                                                                      Effect

                                                                                                                                                                      My country has extradited or has deported individuals to the PRC, although such decisions had attracted criticisms from politicians, government employees or from local or foreign NGOs.

                                                                                                                                                                      No

                                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                      61 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                      21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                      82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                      Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                      1. https://bit.ly/3mjkepa

                                                                                                                                                                      Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                      No existen reportes sobre deportaciones desde este tipo; al contrario, existen reportes recientes (2021) de que Ecuador garantiza refugio a ciudadanos chinos (ver enlace 1).

                                                                                                                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                        Hide

                                                                                                                                                                        Technology

                                                                                                                                                                        The Technology Domain gauges the PRC’s influence over the technology sector in the Index country, including the activity and financial leverage of PRC companies, use of PRC hardware, and bilateral research partnerships.

                                                                                                                                                                        1.
                                                                                                                                                                        Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                        In my country, PRC-connected entities (such as China Mobile, China Unicom or China Telecom) or their subsidiaries provide telecom services.

                                                                                                                                                                        Yes

                                                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                        52 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                        30 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                        82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                        Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                        1. https://www.airuniversity.af.edu/Portals/10/ASPJ_Spanish/Journals/Volume-30_Issue-4/2018_4_05_ellis_s_eng.pdf

                                                                                                                                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                                                                          2.
                                                                                                                                                                          Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                          In my country, telecoms have signed agreements to adopt hardwares or technical specifications of 4G or 5G cellular networks that are produced or developed by Huawei, ZTE or other PRC enterprises.

                                                                                                                                                                          Yes

                                                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                          16 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                          1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                          5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                          4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                          3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                          27 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                          4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                          30 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                          82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                          Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                          1. https://bit.ly/3mfmpde
                                                                                                                                                                          2. https://www.expreso.ec/actualidad/economia/nokia-desplaza-huawei-desplegar-red-5g-ecuador-100008.html

                                                                                                                                                                          Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                          Ha habido intenciones pero que no se llegaron a concretar, o desarrollar, en el caso del proyecto Yachay sobre 4g con China se hicieron acercamientos desde 2015 (ver enlace 1) pero NO se materializó. En 2021, hubo la intención de desarrollar el 5g con una firma China, pero finalmente ésta también fue cambiada por la intención de buscar otro socio (ver enlace 2).

                                                                                                                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                                                            3.
                                                                                                                                                                            Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                            In my country, telecoms have adopted hardware or technical specifications by PRC-connected entities in internet/wifi/telecommunication service infrastructure projects, in addition to 4G/5G cellular network.

                                                                                                                                                                            No

                                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                            8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                            14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                            1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                            10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                            3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                            3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                            24 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                            4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                            23 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                            74 countries answered this indicator; 8 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                            Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                            1. https://bit.ly/3NPOun2

                                                                                                                                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                                                                              4.
                                                                                                                                                                              Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                              In my country, PRC-connected entities are authorized vendors to supply tech-related equipment or services to our government, military or security services.

                                                                                                                                                                              Yes

                                                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                              1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                              28 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                              4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                              53 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                              81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                              Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                              1. https://chinatechmap.aspi.org.au/#/data/
                                                                                                                                                                              2. https://bit.ly/3zfKacL

                                                                                                                                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                5.
                                                                                                                                                                                Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                In my country, central or local governments have collaboration (such as data collection or exchange agreement, or adoption of related hardwares) with the PRC government or PRC-connected entities on facial, voice recognition or other applications involving biometrics achieved by AI.

                                                                                                                                                                                Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                42 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                1. https://chinatechmap.aspi.org.au/#/map/marker-749
                                                                                                                                                                                2. https://www.airuniversity.af.edu/Portals/10/JIPA/journals/Volume-01_Issue-1/07-F-Ellis.pdf

                                                                                                                                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                  6.
                                                                                                                                                                                  Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                  In my country, one or more cities have procured, or have signed contracts with PRC-connected entities to establish “smart city” systems.

                                                                                                                                                                                  Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                  1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                  35 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                  13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                  4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                  25 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                  4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                  81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                  Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                  1. https://chinatechmap.aspi.org.au/#/map/marker-749

                                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                    7.
                                                                                                                                                                                    Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                    In my country, financial institutions use the China Cross-Border Interbank Payment System (CIPS) clearing and settlement services system.

                                                                                                                                                                                    No

                                                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                    1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                    63 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                    18 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                    81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                    Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                    1. https://www.cips.com.cn/
                                                                                                                                                                                    2. https://bit.ly/3zjCZ3A

                                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                      8.
                                                                                                                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                      In my country, PRC-connected venture capital invests in technology start-ups.

                                                                                                                                                                                      Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                      1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                      32 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                      18 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                      8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                      3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                      12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                      11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                      81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                      Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                      1. https://bit.ly/3NlmtnR

                                                                                                                                                                                      Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                      Didi es la empresa emergente estrella reportada, no se ha registrado otro operando en Ecuador.

                                                                                                                                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                        9.
                                                                                                                                                                                        Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                        In my country, companies have publicly announced that they had signed MOUs to collaborate on technological development (such as collaborations in A.I., Blockchain, Cloud Computing, Big Data) with PRC-connected entities.

                                                                                                                                                                                        Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                        3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                        31 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                        1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                        19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                        8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                        3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                        12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                        4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                        9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                        79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                        Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                        1. https://bit.ly/3xbFB0u
                                                                                                                                                                                        2. https://bit.ly/3xt4FR1

                                                                                                                                                                                        Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                        No se reportan anuncios públicos de desarrollo tecnológico concreto en el campo, existen dos casos que pueden ser mencionados como relacionados indirectamente 1) El memorando de entendimiento de 2018 donde se plantea “el interés de la Contraloría de Ecuador - organismo de control- para apoyar el desarrollo de la agenda de la comisión de Big data de la Intosai presidida por China” ( ver link 1), y esfuerzos de intercambio de ciencia y tecnología incluido TICS, firmado en 2014, y operando hasta cambio de gobierno de 2017, con enfasis en appyar especialmente a universidad Yachay de Ecuador , que no prosperaron (ver link 2).

                                                                                                                                                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                          10.
                                                                                                                                                                                          Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                          In my country, PRC-connected entities are shareholders or developers of the top five popular social media/messaging apps, based on usage.

                                                                                                                                                                                          Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                          2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                          44 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                          4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                          36 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                          80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                          Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                          1. https://bit.ly/3ziWkBD

                                                                                                                                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                            11.
                                                                                                                                                                                            Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                            In my country, the central or local government(s) has collaborated with the PRC on endorsing the use of BeiDou satellite navigation system.

                                                                                                                                                                                            No

                                                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                            1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                            64 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                            17 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                            81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                            Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                            1. http://www.beidou.gov.cn/zt/gjhz/index.html

                                                                                                                                                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                              Hide

                                                                                                                                                                                              Domestic Politics

                                                                                                                                                                                              The Domestic Politics Domain evaluates PRC efforts to influence the political landscape in the Index country, and the footprint of PRC security companies.

                                                                                                                                                                                              1.
                                                                                                                                                                                              Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                              In my country, politicians or government employees at the sub-national level are signing agreements with the PRC government or state-owned enterprises.

                                                                                                                                                                                              Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                              1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                              20 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                              5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                              12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                              3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                              23 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                              21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                              81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                              Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                              1. https://www.primicias.ec/noticias/sociedad/solucion-vial-guayasamin-quito-crbc-municipio/

                                                                                                                                                                                              Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                              Desde el 2020 (e incluso desde 2017), se firmaron muy pocos acuerdos en los niveles subnacionales del Ecuador, por ejemplo (enlace 1), incluso en el caso del municipio de Quito, tras la salida del alcalde, no ha quedado claro si continuarán esta y otras negociaciones.

                                                                                                                                                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                2.
                                                                                                                                                                                                Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                In my country, local municipalities have sister-city ties (友好城市) with municipalities in the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                                                Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                23 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                3.
                                                                                                                                                                                                Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                In my country, politicians or government employees have taken trips to the PRC paid for by PRC-connected individuals or entities.

                                                                                                                                                                                                Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                22 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                16 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                16 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                73 countries answered this indicator; 9 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                1. https://www.eluniverso.com/noticias/politica/presidente-guillermo-lasso-viajara-a-china-con-una-comitiva-de-diez-personas-nota/
                                                                                                                                                                                                2. http://www.ecuadorchequea.com/china-costeara-la-estadia-de-la-comitiva-ecuatoriana-en-visita-oficial/

                                                                                                                                                                                                Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                En 2020, 2021, no se reportan viajes que pudieran ser cercanos a este indicador (por ejemplo, viajes por capacitación, encuentro académicos o de visita para conocer el sistema económico político), debido a la pandemia. Los viajes oficiales han sido costeados por parte del gobierno del Ecuador (ver enlace 1, y enlace 2); aunque se reporta en el enlace 2, una información contradictoria, donde el último viaje de presidente ecuatoriano tendría también algún tipo de cobertura del gobierno anfitrión (enlace 2).

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                  4.
                                                                                                                                                                                                  Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                  In my country, politicians or government employees visit the PRC and have meetings with PRC officials and think tanks.

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                  1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                  1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                  9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                  14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                  25 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                  32 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                  81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. https://www.eluniverso.com/noticias/politica/presidente-guillermo-lasso-viajara-a-china-con-una-comitiva-de-diez-personas-nota/
                                                                                                                                                                                                  2. https://www.elcomercio.com/actualidad/viaje-lasso-china-ecuador-deuda-jueos-olimpicos.html

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                  La visita oficial realizado por el presidente Lasso y su comitiva se reporta haber la principal en 2021-2022 (enlace 1). No se reportan más visitas significativas, pero esta es de alto nivel e incluso orientada a TLC y renegociación plazo de deuda. (enlace 2).

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                    5.
                                                                                                                                                                                                    Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                    In my country, law enforcement and judicial related training offered the PRC-connected individuals or entities has been accepted by national or subnational governments.

                                                                                                                                                                                                    No

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                    1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                    46 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                    6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                    7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                    3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                    16 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                    6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                    81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. https://bit.ly/39vGUiR

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                    No existen reportes. Desde hace décadas, y más aún en los últimos 4 años, por ejemplo, se ha promovido la cooperación interhemisférica (ver enlace “1”.

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                      6.
                                                                                                                                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                      In my country, there are reports of politicians or political parties receiving campaign donations that originate in the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                                                      No

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                      4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                      60 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                      4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                      0 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                      3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                      10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                      4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                      78 countries answered this indicator; 4 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                        No existe ningún reporte de financiamiento a ninguna campaña, ni para políticos, ni partidos políticos originado en la PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                          7.
                                                                                                                                                                                                          Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                                          In my country, groups with reported links to the United Front Work Department (UFWD) have hosted fundraisings or have provided other forms of support for government employees, politicians or parties.

                                                                                                                                                                                                          No

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                          64 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                          1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                          6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                          1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                          3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                          10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                          4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                          1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                          82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                            No se han identificado grupos reportados con conexiones al UFWD que realicen estas actividades concretas, incluso organizaciones que podrían estar relacionadas (ejemplo Cámaras de Comercio, Instituto Confucio, etc.) no han realizado esta actividad.

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                              8.
                                                                                                                                                                                                              Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                                              In my country, groups with reported links to the United Front Work Department (UFWD) have made public statements opposing the candidacy of a local political candidate or party, claiming them being “anti-China”.

                                                                                                                                                                                                              No

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                              1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                              78 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                              2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                              0 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                              3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                              1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                              0 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                              81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                No existe ningún tipo de reporte sobre este tema, ni del organismo concreto ni ningún organismo formal e informal de la RPC.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  9.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  In my country, politicians or government employees have publicly expressed positive views of the PRC government.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  37 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. https://bit.ly/38r0eO8

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  La postura del presidente Lasso se basa en el interés por establecer un Tratado de Libre Comercio entre China y Ecuador.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    10.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    In my country, politicians or government employees have received direct or deferred benefits from PRC-connected individuals or entities openly or covertly (e.g. have been appointed to lucrative positions as board members or consultants with PRC-invested firms, casinos, energy companies, etc.) during or in retirement from public office.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    40 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    0 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    18 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    73 countries answered this indicator; 9 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      No existen reportes en este ámbito, tan solo un caso relacionado a una posición académica pero no altamente lucrativa.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        11.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        In my country, security services (安保/保安) offered by private PRC companies are contracted by national or subnational governments.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. https://bit.ly/3whgtGv

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Hide

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Foreign Policy

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          The Foreign Policy Domain gauges PRC efforts to achieve diplomatic objectives by influencing key actors in the Index country.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          My country’s legislature has a joint parliamentary friendship group, committee or other forms of sub-organizations with PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          25 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          57 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. https://wilma.ec/grupo-de-interparlamentario-de-amistad-entre-china-y-ecuador/
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2. https://twitter.com/panchojimenezs/status/1438556001750462477

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Representatives of a political party in my country’s national legislature have met officially with representatives of the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            20 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            40 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Sólo se reportan dichas visitas, en el enlace 1 se evidencia que esta fue por temas de cooperación no de diálogo político.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. https://confirmado.net/2021/12/09/embajada-de-china-intensifica-su-labor-social-en-ecuador/
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2. https://twitter.com/panchojimenezs/status/1438556001750462477

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              3.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              The PRC provides training to diplomats or civil servants on governance from my country (such as at 国家行政学院 or 中央党校).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              39 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              No existen reportes sobre el tema en los años 2020, 2021, 2022, el último y único sobre administración pública y gobernanza fue en 2018.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. https://www.educacionsuperior.gob.ec/china-capacita-a-funcionarios-publicos-en-politica-publica-y-gobernanza/

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                4.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                In my country, politicians or government employees have been pressured by PRC diplomats to change their political or diplomatic stances.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                41 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                No se encontraron reportes o datos al respecto. En medios sociales relacionados al perfil aquí analizado.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    5.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Citizens of my country have been detained in PRC or denied exit visas, and believed to be suffering from unfair legal treatments for political reasons, a.k.a. “hostage diplomacy”.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    61 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    No hay reportes algunos en años anteriores, ni en los años del presente cuestionario.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        6.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        The head of state, head of government or foreign minister of my country has denied Taiwan’s right to participate as a member, observer or guest in WHO.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        65 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        No existe registro sobre este tema en las minutas(ver link 1) habiendo revisados los docs: EB149/2021/REC/1 / EB148/2021/REC/1 / EB147/2020/REC/1* / EBSS5/2020/REC/1 / EB146/2020/REC/1 / WHASS2/2021/REC/1 / WHA74/2021/REC/1 / WHA73/2020/REC/1

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. https://apps.who.int/gb/or/

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          7.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          My country publicly supported the appointment of a PRC official to be the head of a United Nations agency (such as the FAO or ICAO) or other intergovernmental organizations (such as INTERPOL).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          62 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          73 countries answered this indicator; 9 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          no existen reportes, aún en estudios generales sobre relaciones bilaterales de carácter crítico (ver enlace 1).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. https://thepeoplesmap.net/country/ecuador/

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            8.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            My government has shown support of PRC's territorial claims (such as on the South China Sea arbitration ruling issued by the UNCLOS Arbitral Tribunal in July 2016; except claims over Taiwan, which are indirectly covered in indicator 6.)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Silence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            0/ My country has rejected PRC’s claim

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            24 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2/ My country has remained silent

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            36 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            4/ My country has adhered to PRC’s claim

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            El gobierno no se pronuncia sobre el tema (ver ejemplo link 1 y 2). No hay reporte de ningún tipo de pronunciamiento, Solamente existe muy pocos análisis académicos de la estrategia china en esa región marítima, pero nada oficial (ver enlace 3).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. https://www.cancilleria.gob.ec/?s=China
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2. https://www.cancilleria.gob.ec/china/relacion-bilateral/
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            3. https://revistas.flacsoandes.edu.ec/urvio/article/view/4381

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              9.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              My country has shown one of the following stances on PRC’s treatment of its Uyghur population.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Silence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              0/ My country has denounced PRC

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              31 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2/ My country has remained silent

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              32 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              4/ My country has voiced support to PRC’s stance

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              17 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              No existe reportes sobre el tema (ejemplo ver link 1). También la población en general y los funcionarios públicos tienen muy poco conocimiento sobre la problemática.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. https://www.cancilleria.gob.ec/?s=China

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                10.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                My country has shown one of the following stances on PRC’s treatment of its Tibet population.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Silence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                0/ My country has denounced PRC

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2/ My country has remained silent

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                46 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                4/ My country has voiced support to PRC’s stance

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                No se reporta ningún dato relacionado al tema, lo cual ratifica el silencio del gobierno, pero también de otros actores políticos y mediáticos.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. https://www.cancilleria.gob.ec/?s=China

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  11.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  My government has not publicly criticized the PRC’s imposition of the National Security Law on Hong Kong.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Silence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  0/ My country has denounced PRC

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  24 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2/ My country has remained silent

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  36 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  4/ My country has voiced support to PRC’s stance

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  No existe reportes sobre el tema (ejemplo ver link 1). No se reporta pronunciamiento de gobierno ecuatoriano ni a favor ni en contra.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. https://www.cancilleria.gob.ec/?s=China

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Media
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Academia
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Economy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Society
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Military
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Law Enforcement
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Technology
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Domestic Politics
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Foreign Policy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Open
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Cards
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Cards