Costa Rica

$12,508.6
5.13M
Ranking
39/ 82
Original Score

* As some Indicators can be skipped where data is unavailable, the maximum overall and Domain scores are not identical for each country. Country rankings are generated from ratios of the maximum scores and the achieved scores.

124/ 380
Executive partner
Fundación Andrés Bello - Centro de Investigación Chino Latinoamericano
Index Year
2022
Layer Scores

The Indicators have been classified by the stage of the influence process at which they occur. Some Indicators correspond to exposure to PRC influence, e.g. the presence of Confucius Institutes. Others test for pressure – such as visa denials to academics or journalists. Finally, some Indicators capture the effect of PRC influence, such as national policy changes in favor of PRC interests.
The individual Layer scores for each country are tallied and displayed via rankings.

Exposure

41%

Exposure assesses the conditions that make the target country vulnerable to PRC's influence, e.g. in terms of economic dependence, or the receiving of some form of benefit.

Pressure

4%

Pressure measures the actions that the PRC directly or indirectly exerts over the target country in order to change the behavior of people in the target country, e.g. in terms of threatening economic punishment to provoke/prevent a political decision.

Effect

29%

Effect evaluates the degree of accommodations the target country makes to the PRC, and the actual effects and impacts on the target country.

In 2021, Costa Rica had a GDP per capita of US$12,509 and a total population of 5.13 million people. There is no information available on the Chinese population in the country.

Costa Rica established diplomatic relations with the People's Republic of China in 2007. Costa Rica was ranked 8th in Reporters Without Borders' 2022 World Press Freedom Index, and Free in Freedom House's 2022 Global Freedom Status, with a score of 91/100.

Domain Scores
Country Percentage
Index Average

Percentage scores do not suggest some degree out of a “completely influenced” level of 100%. The percentages express the country’s score out of the total achievable amount based on the Indicators for each Domain.

  • Media
    25.0% / 30.1%
  • Academia
    54.5% / 34%
  • Economy
    18.2% / 33.6%
  • Society
    35.0% / 23.6%
  • Military
    10.0% / 23.4%
  • Law Enforcement
    15.0% / 30.2%
  • Technology
    50.0% / 40.8%
  • Domestic Politics
    43.2% / 37.2%
  • Foreign Policy
    40.9% / 41%

Media

The Media Domain evaluates how PRC entities influence public debate and media coverage about the PRC in the Index country.

1.
Exposure

In my country, there are media organizations that belong to the World Chinese Media (世界华文媒体) network.

No

Answer ( 0 / 4 )

More

Skipped

2 countries chose this answer

0/ No

42 countries chose this answer

1/ Few, but insignificant

19 countries chose this answer

2/ More than a few, but insignificant

4 countries chose this answer

3/ Few, but significant

13 countries chose this answer

4/ More than a few, and significant

2 countries chose this answer

80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

Supporting Evidence

Not Found

    Supplementary Notes

    No existe registro de medios costarricenses que pertenezcan a dicha organización.

      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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      2.
      Exposure

      In my country, there are journalists or media organizations which are members of the Belt and Road Media Cooperation Alliance/Union, the Belt and Road News Alliance, or other Belt and Road media networks that connected to PRC (e.g. Belt and Road Media Community, Belt and Road Journalists Network, Belt and Road News Network, or B&R TV Networks).

      Yes

      Answer ( 3 / 4 )

      More

      Skipped

      1 countries chose this answer

      0/ No

      39 countries chose this answer

      1/ Few, but insignificant

      23 countries chose this answer

      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

      4 countries chose this answer

      3/ Few, but significant

      14 countries chose this answer

      4/ More than a few, and significant

      1 countries chose this answer

      81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

      Supporting Evidence

      Not Found

      1. https://www.puntoyaparte-ca.com/staff/javier-cordoba/
      2. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QQfCL42LacE
      3. http://spanish.xinhuanet.com/2019-11/30/c_138596137.htm

      Supplementary Notes

      La agencia de noticias Xinhua mantiene un periodista en el país, que se dedica a cubrir noticias nacionales, o informaciones bilaterales Costa Rica-China, o noticias de la región centroamericana. Ahora, este periodista trabaja tambien para la cadena CGTN.

        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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        3.
        Exposure

        In my country, there are journalists, media organizations or online influencers who have attended all-expenses paid media tours in PRC.

        Yes

        Answer ( 3 / 4 )

        More

        Skipped

        11 countries chose this answer

        0/ No

        15 countries chose this answer

        1/ Few, but insignificant

        15 countries chose this answer

        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

        5 countries chose this answer

        3/ Few, but significant

        23 countries chose this answer

        4/ More than a few, and significant

        13 countries chose this answer

        71 countries answered this indicator; 11 countries skipped this indicator

        Supporting Evidence

        Not Found

        1. https://bit.ly/3wycNjO
        2. https://bit.ly/3sQ6sxS

        Supplementary Notes

        En este caso, debo recurrir al perfil de Facebook del periodista Manuel Estrada, de Diario Extra, que estuvo entre abril y agosto del 2019 en diversos lugares de China, en una gira pagada por el PRC. Estrada todavía labora en Diario Extra, como lo muestra el segundo enlace. Actualmente es el subdirector.

          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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          4.
          Exposure

          In my country, there are journalists, media organizations or online influencers who have received trainings from PRC state-owned media or PRC-connected entities.

          Yes

          Answer ( 1 / 4 )

          More

          Skipped

          3 countries chose this answer

          0/ No

          37 countries chose this answer

          1/ Few, but insignificant

          16 countries chose this answer

          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

          2 countries chose this answer

          3/ Few, but significant

          14 countries chose this answer

          4/ More than a few, and significant

          10 countries chose this answer

          79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

          Supporting Evidence

          Not Found

          1. https://bit.ly/3wEIDKp

          Supplementary Notes

          Las últimas evidencias son de antes de la pandemia.

            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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            5.
            Exposure

            In my country, PRC state-media (including print, radio, and video) is broadcasted or distributed in a local language.

            Yes

            Answer ( 3 / 4 )

            More

            Skipped

            1 countries chose this answer

            0/ No

            24 countries chose this answer

            1/ Few, but insignificant

            22 countries chose this answer

            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

            7 countries chose this answer

            3/ Few, but significant

            18 countries chose this answer

            4/ More than a few, and significant

            10 countries chose this answer

            81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

            Supporting Evidence

            Not Found

            1. https://www.gatotv.com/canal/cgtn_espanol
            2. https://www.cabletica.com/television/canales

            Supplementary Notes

            En el caso de las noticias de la agencia Xinhua, no se trata de una difusión masiva, mientras que todas las cableras tienen el Canal CCTV, que transmite tanto programas en inglés como en chino, y transmite otro canal que se llama CGTN. No hay medios impresos.

              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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              6.
              Exposure

              In my country, there are local media outlets wholly or partly owned by PRC citizens or corporations.

              No

              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

              More

              Skipped

              2 countries chose this answer

              0/ No

              44 countries chose this answer

              1/ Few, but insignificant

              19 countries chose this answer

              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

              3 countries chose this answer

              3/ Few, but significant

              14 countries chose this answer

              4/ More than a few, and significant

              0 countries chose this answer

              80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

              Supporting Evidence

              Not Found

                Supplementary Notes

                No existe evidencia de medios que sean propiedad, en todo o parte, de ciudadanos de la RPC o sus empresas.

                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                  7.
                  Exposure

                  In my country, there are media outlets that have delivered cheap or free contents provided by PRC state-fund media.

                  Yes

                  Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                  More

                  Skipped

                  3 countries chose this answer

                  0/ No

                  22 countries chose this answer

                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                  21 countries chose this answer

                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                  6 countries chose this answer

                  3/ Few, but significant

                  23 countries chose this answer

                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                  7 countries chose this answer

                  79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                  Hide
                  8.
                  Exposure

                  In my country, there are regular PRC state-media or government advertisements inserted within local newspapers, online news websites or social media.

                  No

                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                  More

                  Skipped

                  1 countries chose this answer

                  0/ No

                  38 countries chose this answer

                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                  13 countries chose this answer

                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                  7 countries chose this answer

                  3/ Few, but significant

                  15 countries chose this answer

                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                  8 countries chose this answer

                  81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                  Supporting Evidence

                  Not Found

                    Supplementary Notes

                    Como periodista, soy un constante usuario de los medios sociales y tengo responsabilidad en monitoreo de noticias, pero nunca he visto ni tenido evidencia de publicidad de este tipo.

                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                      9.
                      Pressure

                      In my country, there are journalists who have had pressure exerted on them by the PRC, including (but not limited to) public denouncement, revocation of journalist ID, denial of visa.

                      No

                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                      More

                      Skipped

                      1 countries chose this answer

                      0/ No

                      57 countries chose this answer

                      4/ Yes

                      24 countries chose this answer

                      81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                      Supporting Evidence

                      Not Found

                        Supplementary Notes

                        No hay evidencia sobre este tipo de incidentes en Costa Rica.

                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                          10.
                          Effect

                          In my country, there are incidents of media outlets censoring views critical of the PRC government.

                          No

                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                          More

                          Skipped

                          4 countries chose this answer

                          0/ No

                          51 countries chose this answer

                          1/ Few, but insignificant

                          11 countries chose this answer

                          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                          3 countries chose this answer

                          3/ Few, but significant

                          9 countries chose this answer

                          4/ More than a few, and significant

                          4 countries chose this answer

                          78 countries answered this indicator; 4 countries skipped this indicator

                          Supporting Evidence

                          Not Found

                            Supplementary Notes

                            No hay evidencia sobre este tipo de incidentes en Costa Rica.

                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                              11.
                              Effect

                              In my country, there are media personalities (including reporters, journalists or commentators) or celebrities who deny the existence of human rights abuses in the PRC (e.g. a media personality that doubts there are re-education camps for Uyghurs in Xinjiang).

                              No

                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                              More

                              Skipped

                              2 countries chose this answer

                              0/ No

                              44 countries chose this answer

                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                              18 countries chose this answer

                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                              4 countries chose this answer

                              3/ Few, but significant

                              9 countries chose this answer

                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                              5 countries chose this answer

                              80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                              Supporting Evidence

                              Not Found

                                Supplementary Notes

                                Se ha hecho una revisión recurrente de redes y medios para verificar este indicador, sin que se haya obtenido alguna evidencia de que haya habido personalidades o celebridades de Costa Rica que se refieran a alguno de estos asuntos.

                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                  Academia

                                  The Academia Domain measures how the PRC state attempts to restrict academic freedom by influencing or interfering with the Index country’s academic and educational activities.

                                  1.
                                  Exposure

                                  In my country, universities have established research partnerships with PRC-connected entities. (e.g. Huawei, Tencent or Alibaba)

                                  Yes

                                  Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                  More

                                  0/ No

                                  9 countries chose this answer

                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                  11 countries chose this answer

                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                  6 countries chose this answer

                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                  31 countries chose this answer

                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                  25 countries chose this answer

                                  82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                  Hide
                                  2.
                                  Exposure

                                  In my country, there are Confucius Institutes/Classrooms.

                                  Yes

                                  Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                  More

                                  0/ No

                                  5 countries chose this answer

                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                  14 countries chose this answer

                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                  5 countries chose this answer

                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                  31 countries chose this answer

                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                  27 countries chose this answer

                                  82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                  Supporting Evidence

                                  Existen dos institutos Confucio, uno "independiente" que aparece en el primer enlace, que funciona sin ligamen a ninguna institución educativa, y el segundo que aparece ligado a la universidad estatal más grande y prestigiosa del país, la Universidad de Costa Rica, tanto así que su sitio web está ligado dentro del sitio web institucional.

                                  1. https://bit.ly/3NtAShj
                                  2. https://bit.ly/3MEBBfE

                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                    3.
                                    Exposure

                                    My country plans to include, or does include, Chinese as a foreign language in K12 or primary education, and receives free or subsidized (e.g. offered below market price) educational books and teachers from PRC.

                                    Yes

                                    Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                    More

                                    Skipped

                                    1 countries chose this answer

                                    0/ No

                                    46 countries chose this answer

                                    4/ Yes

                                    35 countries chose this answer

                                    81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                    Supporting Evidence

                                    Ver los puntos del 3 al 8 del Artículo VIII. Área Educativa del Marco de Acción Conjunta para la Cooperación entre el Gobierno de Costa Rica y el Gobierno de la República Popular China 2016-2020.

                                    1. https://bit.ly/3Nr5yzI
                                    2. https://bit.ly/3PARF3N

                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                      4.
                                      Exposure

                                      In my country, one or more think tanks and academic research centers belong to PRC-affiliated networks/associations (such as: the Silk Road Think Tank Association, Silk Road Think Tank Network [SiLKS], Belt and Road Studies Network, University Alliance of the Silk Road, University Consortium of the 21st Century Maritime Silk Road).

                                      No

                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                      More

                                      Skipped

                                      2 countries chose this answer

                                      0/ No

                                      40 countries chose this answer

                                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                                      17 countries chose this answer

                                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                      7 countries chose this answer

                                      3/ Few, but significant

                                      14 countries chose this answer

                                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                                      2 countries chose this answer

                                      80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                      Supporting Evidence

                                      No hay evidencia de que haya centros de investigación académica o think tanks de este tipo en Costa Rica.

                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                          Hide
                                          5.
                                          Exposure

                                          In my country, think tanks and academic research centers have received financial support from PRC-connected individuals or entities.

                                          Yes

                                          Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                          More

                                          Skipped

                                          10 countries chose this answer

                                          0/ No

                                          21 countries chose this answer

                                          1/ Few, but insignificant

                                          11 countries chose this answer

                                          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                          11 countries chose this answer

                                          3/ Few, but significant

                                          19 countries chose this answer

                                          4/ More than a few, and significant

                                          10 countries chose this answer

                                          72 countries answered this indicator; 10 countries skipped this indicator

                                          Supporting Evidence

                                          La Universidad de Costa Rica, la más importante del país, tiene seis convenios con universidades estatales o entidades, no solo para becas, sino también para movilidad de docentes e investigadores entre ambos países. En el caso de las becas, son para estudios doctorales.

                                          1. https://oaice.ucr.ac.cr/es/cooperaci%C3%B3n-internacional-msuperior/convenios/convenios-vigentes.html

                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                            6.
                                            Exposure

                                            In my country, experts participate in PRC talent recruitment programs such as the Thousand Talents Program or Changjiang Scholars program.

                                            Yes

                                            Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                            More

                                            Skipped

                                            3 countries chose this answer

                                            0/ No

                                            47 countries chose this answer

                                            1/ Few, but insignificant

                                            11 countries chose this answer

                                            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                            6 countries chose this answer

                                            3/ Few, but significant

                                            10 countries chose this answer

                                            4/ More than a few, and significant

                                            5 countries chose this answer

                                            79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                                            Supporting Evidence

                                            De lo que hay más evidencia es de múltiples convocatorias a programas de becas del gobierno de la RPC, y en esta página de la embajada en Costa Rica, también se evidencia que ha habido programas de reclutamiento a programas de entrenamiento, en particular del Ministerio de Ciencia y Tecnología de la RPC.

                                            1. https://bit.ly/3th6DSU
                                            2. https://bit.ly/3zhYdib

                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                              7.
                                              Exposure

                                              In my country, scholars have taken trips to the PRC paid for by PRC-connected individuals or entities.

                                              Yes

                                              Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                              More

                                              Skipped

                                              13 countries chose this answer

                                              0/ No

                                              17 countries chose this answer

                                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                                              15 countries chose this answer

                                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                              11 countries chose this answer

                                              3/ Few, but significant

                                              12 countries chose this answer

                                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                                              14 countries chose this answer

                                              69 countries answered this indicator; 13 countries skipped this indicator

                                              Supporting Evidence

                                              En los dos enlaces adjuntados, se puede observar parte de las condiciones establecidas por la RPC para el pago de estancias académicas, Maestrías o Doctorados en su territorio.

                                              1. https://bit.ly/3GmOxod
                                              2. https://bit.ly/38aBLwg

                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                                8.
                                                Pressure

                                                In my country, organized PRC-connected student groups, such as Chinese Students and Scholars Associations (CSSAs), are involved in attempts to censor staff or students (e.g. by harassing students protesting human rights abuses in the PRC, or formally complaining about the identification of Taiwan as a country in lecture slides).

                                                No

                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                More

                                                Skipped

                                                1 countries chose this answer

                                                0/ No

                                                64 countries chose this answer

                                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                6 countries chose this answer

                                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                3 countries chose this answer

                                                3/ Few, but significant

                                                5 countries chose this answer

                                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                3 countries chose this answer

                                                81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                No hay evidencia de incidentes o acciones de este tipo.

                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                    Hide
                                                    9.
                                                    Pressure

                                                    In my country, scholars or academics have been denied visas to travel to the PRC after expressing opinions or producing scholarship that is critical of the PRC.

                                                    No

                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                    More

                                                    Skipped

                                                    7 countries chose this answer

                                                    0/ No

                                                    64 countries chose this answer

                                                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                    1 countries chose this answer

                                                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                    0 countries chose this answer

                                                    3/ Few, but significant

                                                    6 countries chose this answer

                                                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                    4 countries chose this answer

                                                    75 countries answered this indicator; 7 countries skipped this indicator

                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                    No hay evidencia de este tipo de incidentes.

                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                        Hide
                                                        10.
                                                        Effect

                                                        In my country, PRC-connected entities have been involved in school or university curriculum design, such as courses about East Asian history, modern politics, etc.

                                                        Yes

                                                        Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                        More

                                                        Skipped

                                                        2 countries chose this answer

                                                        0/ No

                                                        64 countries chose this answer

                                                        4/ Yes

                                                        16 countries chose this answer

                                                        80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                        Específicamente, la Embajada de la RPC estuvo involucrada en el diseño de un Bachillerato en mandarín, junto con la Universidad Nacional (UNA), centro de educación superior público que se ubica en Heredia, Costa Rica.

                                                        1. https://bit.ly/3xcGm9K

                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                          Hide
                                                          11.
                                                          Effect

                                                          In my country, there are confirmed reports of teachers or professors avoiding the discussion of sensitive political issues (e.g. Uyghur re-education camps, Taiwan independence, Tiananmen Square Massacre).

                                                          No

                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                          More

                                                          Skipped

                                                          5 countries chose this answer

                                                          0/ No

                                                          65 countries chose this answer

                                                          1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                          1 countries chose this answer

                                                          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                          1 countries chose this answer

                                                          3/ Few, but significant

                                                          6 countries chose this answer

                                                          4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                          4 countries chose this answer

                                                          77 countries answered this indicator; 5 countries skipped this indicator

                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                          No hay evidencia en torno a profesores o maestros que hayan tenido problemas por estas discusiones, o que hayan sufrido presión desde otros sectores o colegas por ello.

                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                                              Economy

                                                              The Economy Domain measures the PRC’s economic leverage in the Index country, and how this is used to influence economic policy or corporate behavior in ways that favor the PRC.

                                                              1.
                                                              Exposure

                                                              The PRC is my country's number one trading partner (for trade in goods only).

                                                              No

                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                              More

                                                              0/ No

                                                              51 countries chose this answer

                                                              4/ Yes

                                                              31 countries chose this answer

                                                              82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                              El principal socio de importaciones para Costa Rica sigue siendo Estados Unidos y China se ubica en el segundo lugar, muy por debajo del socio norteamericano.

                                                              1. https://bit.ly/3thuS3s
                                                              2. https://bit.ly/3NVOhz0

                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                                                2.
                                                                Exposure

                                                                PRC-connected entities own more than 50% of my country’s sovereign debt.

                                                                No

                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                More

                                                                Skipped

                                                                1 countries chose this answer

                                                                0/ No

                                                                77 countries chose this answer

                                                                4/ Yes

                                                                4 countries chose this answer

                                                                81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                El enlace contiene declaraciones del exministro de Hacienda, Elian Villegas (2020-2022), en las que afirma que la RPC ni sus entidades financieras son acreedores de más de la mitad de la deuda soberana de Costa Rica.

                                                                1. https://bit.ly/3mlZRHS

                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                                                  3.
                                                                  Exposure

                                                                  The PRC is the top customer for my country’s extractive industries.

                                                                  No

                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                  More

                                                                  0/ No

                                                                  62 countries chose this answer

                                                                  4/ Yes

                                                                  20 countries chose this answer

                                                                  82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                  Costa Rica no tiene industrias extractivas de petróleo ni metales. Del total de las exportaciones del país, la RPC solamente significa un 2%.

                                                                  1. https://bit.ly/38V5oC1
                                                                  2. https://bit.ly/3xnp7nr

                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                                                    4.
                                                                    Exposure

                                                                    In my country, PRC-related entities own, operate or substantially control critical infrastructure (e.g. ports, power plants, digital data centers, etc) or sensitive sectors (biotech, raw materials, etc.)

                                                                    No

                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                    More

                                                                    0/ No

                                                                    36 countries chose this answer

                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                    46 countries chose this answer

                                                                    82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                    Actualmente, la única relación entre el país y una empresa de la RPC es la ampliación de la ruta 32 hacia la provincia caribeña de Limón, que está a cargo de la empresa China Harbour Engineering Company (CHEC), que ha tenido importantes atrasos y polémicas. Esa ampliación está financiada por el Eximbank, de la RPC.

                                                                    1. https://bit.ly/3Q6jPDU

                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                                                      5.
                                                                      Exposure

                                                                      My country joined (or applied to join) the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB).

                                                                      No

                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                      More

                                                                      0/ No

                                                                      27 countries chose this answer

                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                      55 countries chose this answer

                                                                      82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                      Not Found

                                                                      1. https://www.aiib.org/en/about-aiib/governance/members-of-bank/index.html

                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                        Hide
                                                                        6.
                                                                        Exposure

                                                                        In my country, major businesses are members of the Silk Road Chamber of International Commerce, or of the Belt and Road Industrial and Commercial Alliance, or of the Belt and Road General Chamber of Commerce.

                                                                        No

                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                        More

                                                                        0/ No

                                                                        41 countries chose this answer

                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                        41 countries chose this answer

                                                                        82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                        Not Found

                                                                        1. https://srcic.org/silk-road-members/

                                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                          Hide
                                                                          7.
                                                                          Pressure

                                                                          My country has been the target of PRC economic coercion (e.g. trade or investment sanctions) that was specifically tailored at products or services that are highly dependent on the PRC market.

                                                                          No

                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                          More

                                                                          0/ No

                                                                          64 countries chose this answer

                                                                          4/ Yes

                                                                          18 countries chose this answer

                                                                          82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                          La relación comercial entre Costa Rica y China no ha implicado, hasta el momento, ningún tipo de sanciones; más bien, se firmó en el 2010 un tratado de libre comercio entre ambos Estados.

                                                                          1. http://fta.mofcom.gov.cn/english/index.shtml

                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                            Hide
                                                                            8.
                                                                            Pressure

                                                                            In my country, local businesses have been harassed, threatened, or boycotted, due to their activities or statements in support of causes deemed unacceptable by the PRC government (e.g. Taiwanese independence, Hong Kong democracy, Tibet or Xinjiang issues, etc).

                                                                            No

                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                            More

                                                                            Skipped

                                                                            2 countries chose this answer

                                                                            0/ No

                                                                            65 countries chose this answer

                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                            15 countries chose this answer

                                                                            80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                            No hay evidencia de algún tipo de problemas ocasionados a comercios ni comerciantes locales relacionados con este tipo de causas o asuntos.

                                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                Hide
                                                                                9.
                                                                                Effect

                                                                                My country has free-trade agreement(s) with the PRC (either bilateral or as part of regional agreement(s)) that primarily deals with trade in goods or services, including digital goods or services.

                                                                                Yes

                                                                                Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                More

                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                51 countries chose this answer

                                                                                4/ Yes

                                                                                31 countries chose this answer

                                                                                82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                Not Found

                                                                                1. https://www.comex.go.cr/tratados/china/
                                                                                2. https://www.comex.go.cr/media/2676/doc_explicativo_china.pdf

                                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                  10.
                                                                                  Effect

                                                                                  In my country, central or local governments have relaxed or removed regulatory restrictions, or have established special economic zones (or free trade zones, industrial parks, etc.) to attract investments or economic participation from the PRC.

                                                                                  Yes

                                                                                  Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                  More

                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                  47 countries chose this answer

                                                                                  4/ Yes

                                                                                  35 countries chose this answer

                                                                                  82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                  Se aprobó un acuerdo entre CR y la RPC para promover y proteger las inversiones entre ambos países, lo que implica efectivamente una relajación de la normativa para atraer inversión extranjera directa en CR. Adicionalmente, se planteó el establecimiento de una Zona Económica Especial en el pacífico costarricense.

                                                                                  1. https://www.comex.go.cr/media/5156/china-ley-7994.pdf
                                                                                  2. https://bit.ly/3Q3DWD2

                                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                    11.
                                                                                    Effect

                                                                                    In my country, PRC-connected entities requisitioned infrastructure or land for failure to repay debts in a timely manner.

                                                                                    No

                                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                    More

                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                    2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                    76 countries chose this answer

                                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                                    4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                    80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                    Hasta el momento no hay evidencia de este tipo de situaciones en CR.

                                                                                    1. https://bit.ly/3Mpy7fO

                                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                                                                      Society

                                                                                      The Society Domain measures the extent and effectiveness of the PRC’s efforts to advance its soft power in the Index country, including its influence over the actions and views of local organizations and citizens.

                                                                                      1.
                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                      In my country, there are local groups or organizations with words like “Promotion of Peaceful Reunification” in their name, and they regularly publicize their views on Taiwan, Hong Kong, Tibet and Xinjiang issues.

                                                                                      Yes

                                                                                      Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                                      More

                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                      1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                      49 countries chose this answer

                                                                                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                      12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                      7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                      3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                      9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                      4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                      81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                      Por lo observado en las páginas de referencia, el grupo denominado Asociación para la Promoción de la Reunificación Pacífica China en Costa Rica mantiene actividades desde hace por lo menos siete años en el país, aunque no haya evidencia de sitios web o en redes sociales de ese grupo.

                                                                                      1. https://bit.ly/3xoNq4l
                                                                                      2. https://bit.ly/3GZEaqr

                                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                        2.
                                                                                        Exposure

                                                                                        In my country, there are members and member organizations of United World Chinese Association (世界华人协会).

                                                                                        No

                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                        More

                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                        1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                        62 countries chose this answer

                                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                                        19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                        81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                        En el enlace proporcionado como observación adicional se menciona al Sr. Zhou Qiang como jefe para Centroamérica; sin embargo, no se encontró mención de esa persona en páginas costarricenses.

                                                                                        1. http://www.uwca.net/member.html
                                                                                        2. http://spanish.xinhuanet.com/2020-07/13/c_139209077.htm

                                                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                          3.
                                                                                          Exposure

                                                                                          In my country, labor unions cooperate on exchanges or official visits to the All-China Federation of Trade Unions (ACFTU) in the PRC.

                                                                                          No

                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                          More

                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                          1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                          68 countries chose this answer

                                                                                          4/ Yes

                                                                                          13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                          81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                          No se encontraron registros de intercambios de este tipo ni visitas oficiales.

                                                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                              4.
                                                                                              Exposure

                                                                                              In my country, there are local reports of personnel linked to the UFWD who make appearances at Chinese diaspora community events and activities (e.g. Lunar New Year events, Dragon Boat festival tournaments, etc).

                                                                                              Skip

                                                                                              More

                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                              2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                              50 countries chose this answer

                                                                                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                              9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                              5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                              3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                              9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                              7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                              80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                              Not Found

                                                                                                Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                No existió forma de comprobar a personas vinculadas con el UFWD en Costa Rica, razón por la cual no se logró obtener evidencia suficiente para responder esta pregunta.

                                                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                  5.
                                                                                                  Exposure

                                                                                                  In my country, there are PRC-connected professional associations that are closely engaged with their counterparts locally, such as All-China Journalists Association (中华全国新闻工作者协会), China Artists Association (中国艺术家协会), China Writers Association (中国作家协会) or All-China Women Federation (全国妇联).

                                                                                                  No

                                                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                  2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                  33 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                  25 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                  8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                  8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                  6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                  80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                  Por el momento no se encuentra colaboración cercana ni de otro tipo entre contrapartes de este tipo de asociaciones. El Colegio de Periodistas de Costa Rica (Colper) ha firmado convenios con la embajada de la RPC en CR, y ha existido participación de artistas costarricentes en la Octava Bienal de Arte de Beijing, en el 2019, tal como lo evidencia el enlace, pero no se registra colaboración entre contrapartes. De igual forma, ha habido presentaciones de artistas de la RPC en territorio costarricense en el marco de celebraciones como el Año Nuevo Lunar, pero no con registro de colaboración entre contrapartes.

                                                                                                  1. https://bit.ly/3MtAjmG

                                                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                    6.
                                                                                                    Exposure

                                                                                                    In my country, PRC-connected individuals or entities donate money or provide other types of support to religious communities and charities.

                                                                                                    Yes

                                                                                                    Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                    1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                    46 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                                                    35 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                    81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                    Valga enfatizar que ha habido múltiples donaciones en 15 años, incluyendo las que se tramitan a través del gobierno, para diversas instituciones.

                                                                                                    1. https://www.facebook.com/watch/?v=350181119490334
                                                                                                    2. https://bit.ly/3zhA7Uz

                                                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                      7.
                                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                                      In my country, the PRC government or PRC-connected entities distribute entertainment products (including: drama and TV shows) or related hardwares (e.g. OTT streaming players hosting PRC media channels) freely or at a cheap price.

                                                                                                      Yes

                                                                                                      Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                      2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                      38 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                      21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                      4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                      3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                      11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                      6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                      80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                      En este enlace se proporcionan declaraciones del expresidente ejecutivo del Sistema Nacional de Radio y Televisión (Sinart) de CR, Boris Ramírez (2021-2022), sobre los convenios y contenidos televisivos que se trasmitieron a través del canal oficial, de forma gratuita.

                                                                                                      1. https://bit.ly/3xmIflh

                                                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                        8.
                                                                                                        Effect

                                                                                                        Cultural products (such as films and TV shows) produced by my country’s production studios typically portray the PRC in a positive light.

                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                        7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                        60 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                                                        15 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                        75 countries answered this indicator; 7 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                        En este caso, lo que se podría decir es que la Embajada de la RPC en Costa Rica promueve concursos de Vlog, que es una publicación de un video en redes sociales, en este caso para hablar sobre China desde la mirada costarricense.

                                                                                                        1. https://bit.ly/3aKTqLV

                                                                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                          9.
                                                                                                          Effect

                                                                                                          In my country, celebrities regularly publish or share propaganda narratives from the PRC.

                                                                                                          No

                                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                          67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                          1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                          10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                          0 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                          3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                          3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                          4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                          2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                          82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                          Este no es un tema de interés para las celebridades costarricenses.

                                                                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                              10.
                                                                                                              Effect

                                                                                                              In my country, the national or local governments regularly publish or share propaganda narratives from the PRC (e.g. statements from the PRC government or embassies).

                                                                                                              No

                                                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                              2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                              54 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                              12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                              2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                              3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                              7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                              5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                              80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                              En este caso, lo que se anuncia con regularidad, según vaya sucediendo, son las donaciones de parte de la RPC o convenios de cooperación que se firman entre ambas naciones. Muy esporádicamente ha habido manifestaciones positivas sobre estas relaciones, pero como parte del ejercicio diplomático. La última vez que se dieron este tipo de afirmaciones sobre una narrativa afín a la RPC fue en junio del 2020, cuando se difundió una conversación entre el entonces presidente de Costa Rica, Carlos Alvarado (2018-2022) y el mandatario de la RPC, Xi Jinping.

                                                                                                              1. https://www.mfa.gov.cn/ce/cecr//esp/zgyw/t1786592.htm
                                                                                                              2. https://bit.ly/3zqyVyx

                                                                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                11.
                                                                                                                Effect

                                                                                                                In my country, a majority of citizens have positive views of the PRC government.

                                                                                                                Yes

                                                                                                                Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                50 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                4/ Yes

                                                                                                                25 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                75 countries answered this indicator; 7 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                Not Found

                                                                                                                1. https://bit.ly/3Q6SmSQ

                                                                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                  Hide

                                                                                                                  Military

                                                                                                                  The Military Domain gauges the bilateral military relationship between the PRC and the Index country, including PRC efforts to influence local military personnel.

                                                                                                                  1.
                                                                                                                  Exposure

                                                                                                                  My country currently imports (or receives in-kind donation of) military or law-enforcement equipment or components of equipment from the PRC.

                                                                                                                  Yes

                                                                                                                  Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                  36 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                  4/ Yes

                                                                                                                  46 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                  82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                  Not Found

                                                                                                                  1. https://bit.ly/3xq4Nl6
                                                                                                                  2. https://bit.ly/3mnnkIO
                                                                                                                  3. https://bit.ly/3NCZIvq

                                                                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                    2.
                                                                                                                    Exposure

                                                                                                                    My country currently exports military or law-enforcement equipment or components of equipment to the PRC.

                                                                                                                    No

                                                                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                    1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                    74 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                                                                    7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                    81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                    Costa Rica no es un país productor de armas, como tal, y más bien ha liderado tratados para regular el comercio de armas convencionales. Al contrario, con frecuencia recibe donaciones de equipo para sus fuerzas de seguridad civiles, de parte de gobiernos extranjeros, incluyendo la RPC. Adicionalmente, es necesario enfatizar que Costa Rica, como Estado, eliminó el ejército como institución permanente desde 1949, entonces lo que tiene son policías civiles, tanto a nivel gubernamental como municipal.

                                                                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                        3.
                                                                                                                        Exposure

                                                                                                                        My country co-develops or co-produces military or law-enforcement equipment with the PRC.

                                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                        1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                        66 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                                                                        15 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                        81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                        Como se ha indicado, Costa Rica no es un país productor ni desarrollador de equipo militar o de seguridad, por lo que, más bien, suele recibir donaciones de parte de sus socios extranjeros, entre ellos China.

                                                                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                            4.
                                                                                                                            Exposure

                                                                                                                            In my country, there are reports that the PRC has expressed intentions or has taken actions to establish basing.

                                                                                                                            Skip

                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                            2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                            67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                                                                            13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                            80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                            Not Found

                                                                                                                              Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                              No existe evidencia que permita afirmar o negar esta pregunta.

                                                                                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                5.
                                                                                                                                Exposure

                                                                                                                                In my country, the People’s Liberation Army (PLA) has participated in a humanitarian relief/disaster assistance (HADR) effort.

                                                                                                                                No

                                                                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                61 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                Aunque ha existido ayuda humanitaria proveniente de la RPC, no ha tenido participación del EPL (PLA, por su sigla en inglés), sino de parte del Gobierno y fundaciones privadas, a través de la embajada de la RPC.

                                                                                                                                1. https://bit.ly/3Nskaiz
                                                                                                                                2. https://bit.ly/3aJta4B

                                                                                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                  6.
                                                                                                                                  Exposure

                                                                                                                                  In my country, People’s Liberation Army (PLA) military personnel are permanently or rotationally deployed (excluding defense attaches and peacekeepers).

                                                                                                                                  No

                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                  77 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                  4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                  5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                  82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                  Para el ingreso de personal militar extranjero o su permanencia en el país, así como de naves militares, se requiere la aprobación de la Asamblea Legislativa. No hay evidencia de este ingreso o permanencia de personal militar chino en Costa Rica.

                                                                                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                      7.
                                                                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                                                                      In my country, members of the military have received professional military education from the PRC.

                                                                                                                                      No

                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                      48 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                      34 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                      82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                      Valga reiterar que Costa Rica no posee ejército y que, en su lugar, podría decirse que ha habido cursos, becas de capacitación y formación para el personal policial costarricense de parte de la RPC, pero sin que se pueda decir que esa formación o capacitación provenga del EPL (PLA). Las relaciones han sido, principalmente, con la contraparte del Ministerio de Seguridad Pública de Costa Rica, es decir, el Ministerio de Defensa de la RPC.

                                                                                                                                      1. https://www.rree.go.cr/?sec=servicios&cat=prensa&cont=593&id=3269

                                                                                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                                        8.
                                                                                                                                        Exposure

                                                                                                                                        In my country, members of the military have received peacekeeping training from the PRC.

                                                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                                        2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                        67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                        13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                        80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                        No hay evidencia de este tipo de situaciones, pensando principalmente en miembros de las autoridades de la Fuerza Pública, que son civiles, porque en Costa Rica no hay autoridades ni cuerpos militares.

                                                                                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                            9.
                                                                                                                                            Exposure

                                                                                                                                            In my country, high-ranking retired or current military and/or intelligence officers have received direct or deferred benefits from PRC-connected individuals or entities openly or covertly (e.g. have been appointed to lucrative positions as board members or consultants with PRC-invested firms, casinos, energy companies, etc.) during or in retirement from public service.

                                                                                                                                            No

                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                                            4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                            67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                            11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                            78 countries answered this indicator; 4 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                            No se ha encontrado evidencia de este tipo de actividades de parte de oficiales de inteligencia actuales o retirados.

                                                                                                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                10.
                                                                                                                                                Effect

                                                                                                                                                In my country, high-ranking retired or current military and/or intelligence officials advocate for more coordination with the People’s Liberation Army (PLA).

                                                                                                                                                No

                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                                1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                68 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                Tampoco hay evidencia de este tipo de actividades, nuevamente por la tradición de Costa Rica sin ejército. Las conversaciones se han dado entre autoridades policiales civiles y sus contrapartes de la RPC, en cuanto a colaboración sobre equipo policial y vigilancia.

                                                                                                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                    11.
                                                                                                                                                    Effect

                                                                                                                                                    My country cooperates with the People’s Liberation Army (PLA) on military exchange exercises, including drills and war games.

                                                                                                                                                    No

                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                    51 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                    31 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                    82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                    No existen evidencias de este tipo de colaboraciones con el ELP (PLA), pues la cooperación se da principalmente con autoridades estadounidenses en relación con el combate al narcotráfico, y no ejercicios militares, por el hecho de que CR no tiene ejército ni actividades ni presupuesto militar.

                                                                                                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                        Hide

                                                                                                                                                        Law Enforcement

                                                                                                                                                        The Law Enforcement Domain measures law enforcement cooperation between the PRC and the Index country, as well as the nature and extent of PRC-related criminal activity in the Index country.

                                                                                                                                                        1.
                                                                                                                                                        Exposure

                                                                                                                                                        My country currently maintains an extradition treaty, legal mutual assistance or other similar arrangements with the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                                        32 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                        50 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                        82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                        El único tratado de extradición que había era con la República de China Taipei, firmado en 1984, y que queda sin efecto una vez se rompen las relaciones bilaterales en el 2007. En el caso del Tratado de Asistencia Legal Mutua en Asuntos Criminales entre la RPC y CR se empezó a tramitar en el 2008, pero no se presentó al Congreso y, por consiguiente, no se ha aprobado.

                                                                                                                                                        1. https://bit.ly/3mmD2nu
                                                                                                                                                        2. https://bit.ly/3GZHiCH

                                                                                                                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                                                          2.
                                                                                                                                                          Exposure

                                                                                                                                                          In my country, law enforcement authorities have signed cooperation agreements with the PRC on combatting terrorism.

                                                                                                                                                          No

                                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                                                                          1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                                          55 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                          4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                          26 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                          81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                          No se han firmado a la fecha este tipo de acuerdos de cooperación específicamente sobre terrorismo, pero sí ha existido la intención de firmar proyectos de cooperación, al menos en materia de combate al crimen organizado y el tráfico internacional de drogas.

                                                                                                                                                          1. https://bit.ly/3NCZIvq

                                                                                                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                                            3.
                                                                                                                                                            Exposure

                                                                                                                                                            In my country, PRC-connected gangs (such as Triad, 三合会) are known to be operating in my country.

                                                                                                                                                            Yes

                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                                                            1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                            52 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                            29 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                            81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                            Hay evidencia de actos delictivos relacionados con mafias chinas; no obstante, no se ha relacionado específicamente con la Triada, sino más bien con mafias locales que, eventualmente, podrían tener vínculos con organizaciones más grandes. Uno de esos grupos es denominado Dragón Rojo.

                                                                                                                                                            1. https://www.bbc.com/mundo/noticias-america-latina-43646440
                                                                                                                                                            2. https://observador.cr/exministro-denuncia-que-caso-de-mafia-china-en-el-que-colaboro-con-el-oij-prescribio-y-fiscalia-nunca-acuso/
                                                                                                                                                            3. https://www.crhoy.com/nacionales/mafia-china-estaria-detras-de-venta-de-loteria-ilegal-y-piden-la-cabeza-de-greivin-moya/

                                                                                                                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                                                              4.
                                                                                                                                                              Pressure

                                                                                                                                                              In my country, there are reports of economic espionage targeting the private sector that were suspected to benefit PRC-connected entities.

                                                                                                                                                              Skip

                                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                                                              2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                                              49 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                              7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                              3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                              3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                              12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                              9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                              80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                              Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                No fue posible encontrar información que permitiese afirmar o negar esta pregunta.

                                                                                                                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                                                  5.
                                                                                                                                                                  Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                  In my country, there are reports of cyber attacks targeting government, critical infrastructure, or enterprises that were suspected to be initiated from the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                  Yes

                                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                  3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                  37 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                  9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                  4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                  14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                  15 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                  79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                  Este informe revelado en abril del 2022 establece que solamente un 7% de los ciberataques que sufre el Gobierno de Costa Rica y sus instituciones provienen de China. Actualmente, el Gobierno sufre desde mayo una gran oleada de ciberataques que tienen en jaque grandes instituciones, como Hacienda y la Caja Costarricense de Seguro Social (CCSS), a través del malware Conti, con cabeza en Rusia pero que pueden venir desde una gran cantidad de localizaciones en el mundo.

                                                                                                                                                                  1. https://delfino.cr/2022/04/informe-internacional-senala-que-gobierno-recibe-cerca-de-1580-ciberataques-semanales
                                                                                                                                                                  2. https://bit.ly/3GTIkjE

                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                                    6.
                                                                                                                                                                    Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                    In my country, triads are known to have threatened or used violence to coerce, intimidate or punish Chinese dissidents.

                                                                                                                                                                    Yes

                                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                    2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                    67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                    5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                    3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                    3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                    3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                    2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                    80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                    La presencia de mafia china tiene relación sobre todo con extorsión a comercios de ciudadanos chinos en el país, pero sobre todo por razones económicas. No se tiene evidencia de que haya presiones o coerción relacionada con asuntos políticos o posturas que disientan de los intereses de la RPC.

                                                                                                                                                                    1. https://bit.ly/3GVtdWO
                                                                                                                                                                    2. https://bit.ly/3xqkUPC

                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                                                      7.
                                                                                                                                                                      Effect

                                                                                                                                                                      My country has deployed video or internet surveillance systems from the PRC for law enforcement.

                                                                                                                                                                      No

                                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                      1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                      30 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                      51 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                      81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                      El gobierno presentó un portafolio de proyectos a autoridades del gobierno chino, con propuestas de interés para el Ministerio de Seguridad de CR, principalmente enfocados en tecnología y monitoreo. Hasta la fecha, solo se reportó haber recibido donaciones y cooperación en cuanto a equipo policial y no directamente en este tipo de tecnología.

                                                                                                                                                                      1. https://bit.ly/3GZjkaY
                                                                                                                                                                      2. https://bit.ly/3wGuNHA

                                                                                                                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                                                                        8.
                                                                                                                                                                        Effect

                                                                                                                                                                        In my country, representatives of the PRC police force have had joint patrols with local law enforcement.

                                                                                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                        71 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                        11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                        82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                        Se han recibido visitas de funcionarios de alto nivel de la RPC, pero no se realizan patrullajes conjuntos con ellos. Hasta la fecha, solamente hay convenios de patrullaje conjunto con EE.UU. para el combate al narcotráfico, y con fuerzas policiales de la región, pero no de la RPC.

                                                                                                                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                                                            9.
                                                                                                                                                                            Effect

                                                                                                                                                                            My government has detained people at the request of the PRC for committing a crime involving engagements with social movements or resistance activities in Hong Kong, Xinjiang or for other human rights or civic rights issues.

                                                                                                                                                                            No

                                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                            1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                            68 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                            13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                            81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                            No se encuentra evidencia de situaciones de este tipo en Costa Rica. Generalmente, las detenciones de extranjeros se reportan por las autoridades, a requerimiento de la Interpol, por conductas delictivas.

                                                                                                                                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                10.
                                                                                                                                                                                Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                My country has deported Taiwan citizens to the PRC to face prosecution.

                                                                                                                                                                                No

                                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                71 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                No se encontró evidencia de deportaciones de este tipo.

                                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                    11.
                                                                                                                                                                                    Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                    My country has extradited or has deported individuals to the PRC, although such decisions had attracted criticisms from politicians, government employees or from local or foreign NGOs.

                                                                                                                                                                                    No

                                                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                    61 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                    21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                    82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                    se encontró evidencia de decisiones de este tipo.

                                                                                                                                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                        Hide

                                                                                                                                                                                        Technology

                                                                                                                                                                                        The Technology Domain gauges the PRC’s influence over the technology sector in the Index country, including the activity and financial leverage of PRC companies, use of PRC hardware, and bilateral research partnerships.

                                                                                                                                                                                        1.
                                                                                                                                                                                        Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                        In my country, PRC-connected entities (such as China Mobile, China Unicom or China Telecom) or their subsidiaries provide telecom services.

                                                                                                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                        52 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                        30 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                        82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                        Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                        1. https://www.telesemana.com/panorama-de-mercado/costa-rica/

                                                                                                                                                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                          2.
                                                                                                                                                                                          Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                          In my country, telecoms have signed agreements to adopt hardwares or technical specifications of 4G or 5G cellular networks that are produced or developed by Huawei, ZTE or other PRC enterprises.

                                                                                                                                                                                          Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                          16 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                          1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                          5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                          4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                          3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                          27 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                          4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                          30 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                          82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                          Actualmente, hay una amplia discusión en torno a la 5G en Costa Rica, que no se ha resuelto, en que el Gobierno está intentando recuperar las frecuencias 5G de manos de la empresa estatal ICE, lo que ha implicado que todavía no se haya dado ningún contrato, pero que en un futuro muy cercano se podría dar, con Huawei como uno de los principales interesados.

                                                                                                                                                                                          1. https://bit.ly/38XBi0S
                                                                                                                                                                                          2. https://bit.ly/3miC0J9
                                                                                                                                                                                          3. https://bit.ly/3titfm4

                                                                                                                                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                            3.
                                                                                                                                                                                            Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                            In my country, telecoms have adopted hardware or technical specifications by PRC-connected entities in internet/wifi/telecommunication service infrastructure projects, in addition to 4G/5G cellular network.

                                                                                                                                                                                            Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                            8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                            14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                            1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                            10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                            3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                            3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                            24 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                            4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                            23 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                            74 countries answered this indicator; 8 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                            La respuesta es 3, porque la empresa estatal ICE es la principal proveedora de servicios de telecomunicaciones en el país, con una importante participación en el mercado.

                                                                                                                                                                                            1. https://bit.ly/3titfm4

                                                                                                                                                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                              4.
                                                                                                                                                                                              Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                              In my country, PRC-connected entities are authorized vendors to supply tech-related equipment or services to our government, military or security services.

                                                                                                                                                                                              Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                              1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                              28 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                              4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                              53 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                              81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                              Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                              1. https://bit.ly/39bYKaH
                                                                                                                                                                                              2. https://chinatechmap.aspi.org.au/#/map/marker-1792

                                                                                                                                                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                5.
                                                                                                                                                                                                Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                In my country, central or local governments have collaboration (such as data collection or exchange agreement, or adoption of related hardwares) with the PRC government or PRC-connected entities on facial, voice recognition or other applications involving biometrics achieved by AI.

                                                                                                                                                                                                Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                42 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                1. https://bit.ly/3thsb1K

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                  6.
                                                                                                                                                                                                  Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                  In my country, one or more cities have procured, or have signed contracts with PRC-connected entities to establish “smart city” systems.

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                  1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                  35 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                  13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                  4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                  25 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                  4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                  81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. https://bit.ly/3O1wKW9
                                                                                                                                                                                                  2. https://bit.ly/3thsb1K

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                    7.
                                                                                                                                                                                                    Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                    In my country, financial institutions use the China Cross-Border Interbank Payment System (CIPS) clearing and settlement services system.

                                                                                                                                                                                                    No

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                    1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                    63 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                    18 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                    81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. https://www.cips.com.cn/

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                      8.
                                                                                                                                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                      In my country, PRC-connected venture capital invests in technology start-ups.

                                                                                                                                                                                                      No

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                      1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                      32 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                      18 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                      8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                      3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                      12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                      11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                      81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Según datos del Ministerio de Comercio Exterior (Comex) de Costa Rica, la inversión extranjera directa (IED) en el país, proveniente de la RPC fue de un 0,1% para el periodo 2012-2021, y en este último año se registró una inversión de US$1 millón, principalmente orientada en los sectores financiero (62,6%) e inmobiliario (37,4%).

                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. https://bit.ly/3NsgmOj

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                        9.
                                                                                                                                                                                                        Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                        In my country, companies have publicly announced that they had signed MOUs to collaborate on technological development (such as collaborations in A.I., Blockchain, Cloud Computing, Big Data) with PRC-connected entities.

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Skip

                                                                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                        3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                        31 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                        1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                        19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                        8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                        3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                        12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                        4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                        9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                        79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                          No se encontró ninguna evidencia o prueba que permitiese afirmar o negar esta pregunta.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                            10.
                                                                                                                                                                                                            Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                            In my country, PRC-connected entities are shareholders or developers of the top five popular social media/messaging apps, based on usage.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                            2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                            44 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                            36 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                            80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. https://bit.ly/3aCuyWt

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                              11.
                                                                                                                                                                                                              Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                              In my country, the central or local government(s) has collaborated with the PRC on endorsing the use of BeiDou satellite navigation system.

                                                                                                                                                                                                              No

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                              1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                              64 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                              4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                              17 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                              81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                              No hay ni contratos ni discusiones al respecto reportadas en Costa Rica respecto a BeiDou.

                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. https://bit.ly/3xnyyD8

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                Domestic Politics

                                                                                                                                                                                                                The Domestic Politics Domain evaluates PRC efforts to influence the political landscape in the Index country, and the footprint of PRC security companies.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                1.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                In my country, politicians or government employees at the sub-national level are signing agreements with the PRC government or state-owned enterprises.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                20 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                23 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                2.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                In my country, local municipalities have sister-city ties (友好城市) with municipalities in the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                23 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. https://www.larepublica.net/noticia/ciudades-chinas-y-ticas-fortalecen-sus-lazos-de-hermandad

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  3.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  In my country, politicians or government employees have taken trips to the PRC paid for by PRC-connected individuals or entities.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  22 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  16 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  16 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  73 countries answered this indicator; 9 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  En el primer enlace, se deja constancia de los viajes más recientes de diputados costarricenses a la RPC, pero eso sucedió durante los últimos cuatro periodos legislativos, después del establecimiento de relaciones diplomáticas (2007). También viajaron en numerosas ocasiones representantes del partido más grande y tradicional de Costa Rica, el Partido Liberación Nacional (PLN). En el segundo enlace, se hace referencia al viaje de empleados de la gran empresa estatal de energía y telecomunicaciones de Costa Rica, que tiene el monopolio de la producción y comercialización de electricidad, el Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (ICE).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. https://bit.ly/3MECuVw
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=k3OtMjrvHHg

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    4.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    In my country, politicians or government employees visit the PRC and have meetings with PRC officials and think tanks.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    25 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    32 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    El primer enlace corresponde al viaje de siete diputados del periodo legislativo recién concluido, invitados por la Asamblea Popular Nacional de la RPC, donde sostuvieron reuniones de alto nivel con representantes del gobierno chino y de la Asamblea Nacional del Pueblo. En julio del 2013, viajó el entonces presidente de la Asamblea Legislativa Costarricense, y antes del viaje del entonces presidente del Congreso, también habían ido otros diputados y representantes del Partido Liberación Nacional, a la RPC.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. https://bit.ly/3wEFElj
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2. https://bit.ly/38Bsxti

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      5.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      In my country, law enforcement and judicial related training offered the PRC-connected individuals or entities has been accepted by national or subnational governments.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      46 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      16 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      El ministro de Seguridad Pública del gobierno recién terminado (2018-2022), Michael Soto, viajó a la RPC, donde concretó no solo donaciones económicas importantes, sino también la visita a Costa Rica de equipos técnicos de la RPC. También lo había hecho, antes que él, el ministro de Seguridad del gobierno anterior (2014-2018), Gustavo Mata, que había recibido también financiamiento de parte de la RPC.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. https://bit.ly/3aza8xP

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        6.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        In my country, there are reports of politicians or political parties receiving campaign donations that originate in the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        60 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        0 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        78 countries answered this indicator; 4 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        No hay evidencia de este tipo de financiamiento o donaciones. En Costa Rica, este tipo de donaciones o financiamiento extranjero a campañas electorales está fuera de la ley, es ilegal. Aunque ha habido financiamiento ilegal en algunas campañas, no hay evidencia de que se haya dado, en algún momento, desde la RPC.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            7.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            In my country, groups with reported links to the United Front Work Department (UFWD) have hosted fundraisings or have provided other forms of support for government employees, politicians or parties.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            64 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            No se cuenta con evidencia en torno al apoyo de parte de, por ejemplo, el Instituto Confucio hacia algún empleado de gobierno, político y agrupación política. Por lo pronto, el Instituto ha sido amplificador de las donaciones canalizadas hacia CR de parte de la RPC a través de su embajada. Existe también una Cámara de Industria y Comercio China-Costa Rica. Recomiendo el enlace de YouTube del canal CGTN donde se da cuenta del muy reciente acto en que se celebró el 15 aniversario del establecimiento de relaciones internacionales entre China y Costa Rica.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. https://bit.ly/3MGImxq
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2. https://bit.ly/3Npt7JL
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            3. http://cicccr.com/
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            4. https://www.facebook.com/CamaraChinaCR/
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            5. https://www.facebook.com/ColoniaChinaCR/
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            6. https://bit.ly/3zmGExy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            7. http://acdacc.org/esp.html
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            8. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bkGE1elTVGw

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              8.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              In my country, groups with reported links to the United Front Work Department (UFWD) have made public statements opposing the candidacy of a local political candidate or party, claiming them being “anti-China”.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              78 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              0 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              0 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              En las campañas políticas, las relaciones diplomáticas de Costa Rica con la RPC no han sido objeto de debate, ni se ha promovido ningún tipo de modificación en dichas relaciones.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  9.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  In my country, politicians or government employees have publicly expressed positive views of the PRC government.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  37 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Todos los presidentes de Costa Rica, desde el 2007, han hablado positivamente del gobierno de la RPC y de las posibilidades de nuestro país como socio estratégico.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. https://bit.ly/3zoPkTV
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2. https://bit.ly/3MmAWOT
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  3. https://bit.ly/3tdNlxZ

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    10.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    In my country, politicians or government employees have received direct or deferred benefits from PRC-connected individuals or entities openly or covertly (e.g. have been appointed to lucrative positions as board members or consultants with PRC-invested firms, casinos, energy companies, etc.) during or in retirement from public office.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    40 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    0 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    18 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    73 countries answered this indicator; 9 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    No hay evidencia de hechos de este tipo, pese a la revisión hecha.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        11.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        In my country, security services (安保/保安) offered by private PRC companies are contracted by national or subnational governments.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        No hay evidencia de este tipo de contrataciones de empresas de servicios de seguridad privados.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Foreign Policy

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            The Foreign Policy Domain gauges PRC efforts to achieve diplomatic objectives by influencing key actors in the Index country.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            My country’s legislature has a joint parliamentary friendship group, committee or other forms of sub-organizations with PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            25 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            57 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Este grupo parlamentario de amistad estaba integrado por congresistas que acaban de terminar funciones este 30 de abril. Adjunto documento de Google con la lista oficial que envió la funcionaria Florencine Fernández Flores, de la Unidad de Cooperación Internacional de la Comisión de Relaciones Internacionales y Comercio Exterior de la Asamblea Legislativa. (enlace 1)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. https://drive.google.com/file/d/1Xryn6IE4WxE17vn3ye3vQ20dT1qtad01/view

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Representatives of a political party in my country’s national legislature have met officially with representatives of the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              20 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              40 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gc5NO7JuE6M
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WNo8RcQZwTA&t=72s

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              La reunión más reciente se realizó de forma virtual, el 19 de octubre del 2021.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                3.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                The PRC provides training to diplomats or civil servants on governance from my country (such as at 国家行政学院 or 中央党校).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                39 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                En los 15 años de relaciones diplomáticas de Costa Rica con la RPC, ha habido numerosas visitas de funcionarios costarricenses a la RPC, pero no hay constancia de pasantías o cursos para diplomáticos o servidores públicos.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    4.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    In my country, politicians or government employees have been pressured by PRC diplomats to change their political or diplomatic stances.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    41 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    No hay evidencia de que la RPC haya presionado a diplomáticos para cambiar posiciones políticas o diplomáticas. Vale apuntar que desde el establecimiento de relaciones diplomáticas, en el 2007, Costa Rica ha mantenido posiciones neutrales en numerosas discusiones en torno a asuntos relacionados con intereses de la RPC.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        5.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Citizens of my country have been detained in PRC or denied exit visas, and believed to be suffering from unfair legal treatments for political reasons, a.k.a. “hostage diplomacy”.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        61 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        No hay evidencia de que ciudadanos de Costa Rica hayan sido detenidos o que se les haya negado la visa de salida de la RPC.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            6.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            The head of state, head of government or foreign minister of my country has denied Taiwan’s right to participate as a member, observer or guest in WHO.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            65 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            En las actas de la Asamblea General de la OMS hay evidencia de que se habló a favor de que Taiwán participara, en el 2005, como observador. Para esa época, CR aún sostenía relaciones diplomáticas con la República de China en Taiwán. Después de ese año, la delegación costarricense no habló, ni a favor ni en contra. Las relaciones diplomáticas entre CR y la RPC se establecieron en el 2007. Se adjunta copia del Marco de Acción Conjunta para la Cooperación entre CR y la RPC 2016-2020, donde Costa Rica se compromete a apoyar los intereses núcleo y grandes preocupaciones de soberanía nacional e integridad territorial de China.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. http://www.mag.go.cr/asuntos-internacionles/Plan-Accion-Conjunta-para-Cooperacion-2016-2020.pdf
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2. https://apps.who.int/gb/ebwha/pdf_files/WHA58-REC3/A58_REC3-en.pdf#page=1

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              7.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              My country publicly supported the appointment of a PRC official to be the head of a United Nations agency (such as the FAO or ICAO) or other intergovernmental organizations (such as INTERPOL).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              62 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              73 countries answered this indicator; 9 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Aunque Costa Rica no anunció su apoyo público a Qu Dongyu, director general de la FAO, un funcionario de la Cancillería, que fuera representante de Costa Rica ante la FAO, el FIDA y el PMA, Pablo Innecken, confirma que Costa Rica, en bloque con los demás países de América Latina, estuvo entre los 107 países que lo apoyaron. En cuanto a ICAO e Interpol, no se obtiene evidencia. En el caso de la ICAO (OACI, por sus siglas en español), valga mencionar que Costa Rica entra a ser parte de su consejo a partir del 2019, un año después de la reelección de Fang Liu como secretaria general.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. https://www.facebook.com/777319662401534/posts/1736727786460712/
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2. https://www.rree.go.cr/?sec=servicios&cat=prensa&cont=593&id=5352

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                8.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                My government has shown support of PRC's territorial claims (such as on the South China Sea arbitration ruling issued by the UNCLOS Arbitral Tribunal in July 2016; except claims over Taiwan, which are indirectly covered in indicator 6.)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Silence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                0/ My country has rejected PRC’s claim

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                24 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2/ My country has remained silent

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                36 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                4/ My country has adhered to PRC’s claim

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                El gobierno de Costa Rica no se ha pronunciado, como Estado, sobre las reclamaciones de la RPC sobre el mar meridional de China, excepto una agrupación política que, para el 2016, era la tercera en tamaño en el Congreso costarricense, pero cuya posición no es significativa ni determinante en la política exterior costarricense. No obstante, hago énfasis en lo ya indicado sobre el Marco de Acción Conjunta para la Cooperación entre CR y la RPC, 2016-2020.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. https://bit.ly/3MEeNfM
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2. http://spanish.xinhuanet.com/2016-07/07/c_135495337.htm
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                3. https://bit.ly/3LGs0Dv

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  9.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  My country has shown one of the following stances on PRC’s treatment of its Uyghur population.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Silence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  0/ My country has denounced PRC

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  31 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2/ My country has remained silent

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  32 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  4/ My country has voiced support to PRC’s stance

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  17 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  En el enlace de soporte se puede observar que Costa Rica no estuvo a favor de un pronunciamiento contra la política de Derechos Humanos de la RPC en el territorio de Xinjiang. Tal y como puede observarse, la nación centroamericana no aparece entre las 43 patrocinantes de dicha declaración.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. https://onu.delegfrance.org/we-call-on-china-to-allow-immediate-meaningful-and-unfettered-access-to

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    10.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    My country has shown one of the following stances on PRC’s treatment of its Tibet population.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Silence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    0/ My country has denounced PRC

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2/ My country has remained silent

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    46 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    4/ My country has voiced support to PRC’s stance

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Como enlace adjunto a esta respuesta, se muestran las declaraciones del exembajador de Costa Rica en la RPC, Marco Vinicio Ruiz, en las que explica la estrategia de este país de no expresar una posición pública sobre el asunto del Tíbet y otros asuntos relacionados con intereses de la RPC, tales como la situación de los uigures en Xinjiang, o las reclamaciones en el Mar de China Meridional. Adicionalmente, vale recordar el documento firmado entre ambas naciones sobre apoyo a los intereses soberanos de ambos países.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. https://bit.ly/38IQDlN

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      11.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      My government has not publicly criticized the PRC’s imposition of the National Security Law on Hong Kong.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Silence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      0/ My country has denounced PRC

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      24 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2/ My country has remained silent

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      36 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      4/ My country has voiced support to PRC’s stance

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Declaraciones del exembajador de Costa Rica en la RPC, Marco Vinicio Ruiz, explica la estrategia de nuestro país de no expresar una posición pública sobre el asunto del Tíbet y otros asuntos relacionados con intereses de la RPC, tales como la situación de los uigures en Xinjiang, o las reclamaciones en el Mar de China Meridional (enlace 1). Adicionalmente, vale recordar el documento firmado entre ambas naciones sobre apoyo a los intereses soberanos de ambos países.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. https://bit.ly/38IQDlN
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2. https://bit.ly/39L0p6Q

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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