Colombia

$6,131.23
52.18M
Ranking
78/ 82
Original Score

* As some Indicators can be skipped where data is unavailable, the maximum overall and Domain scores are not identical for each country. Country rankings are generated from ratios of the maximum scores and the achieved scores.

49/ 392
Executive partner
Fundación Andrés Bello - Centro de Investigación Chino Latinoamericano
Index Year
2021
Layer Scores

The Indicators have been classified by the stage of the influence process at which they occur. Some Indicators correspond to exposure to PRC influence, e.g. the presence of Confucius Institutes. Others test for pressure – such as visa denials to academics or journalists. Finally, some Indicators capture the effect of PRC influence, such as national policy changes in favor of PRC interests.
The individual Layer scores for each country are tallied and displayed via rankings.

Exposure

12%

Exposure assesses the conditions that make the target country vulnerable to PRC's influence, e.g. in terms of economic dependence, or the receiving of some form of benefit.

Pressure

0%

Pressure measures the actions that the PRC directly or indirectly exerts over the target country in order to change the behavior of people in the target country, e.g. in terms of threatening economic punishment to provoke/prevent a political decision.

Effect

19%

Effect evaluates the degree of accommodations the target country makes to the PRC, and the actual effects and impacts on the target country.

In 2021, Colombia had a GDP per capita of US$6,131 and a total population of 52,184,695 people.

Colombia established diplomatic relations with the People's Republic of China in 1980. Colombia was ranked 145th in Reporters Without Borders' 2022 World Press Freedom Index, and Partly Free in Freedom House's 2022 Global Freedom Status, with a score of 64/100.

Domain Scores
Country Percentage
Index Average

Percentage scores do not suggest some degree out of a “completely influenced” level of 100%. The percentages express the country’s score out of the total achievable amount based on the Indicators for each Domain.

  • Media
    9.1% / 30.1%
  • Academia
    9.1% / 34%
  • Economy
    0.0% / 33.6%
  • Society
    12.5% / 23.6%
  • Military
    9.1% / 23.4%
  • Law Enforcement
    9.1% / 30.2%
  • Technology
    9.1% / 40.8%
  • Domestic Politics
    25.0% / 37.2%
  • Foreign Policy
    29.5% / 41%

Media

The Media Domain evaluates how PRC entities influence public debate and media coverage about the PRC in the Index country.

1.
Exposure

In my country, there are media organizations that belong to the World Chinese Media (世界华文媒体) network.

Yes

Answer ( 1 / 4 )

More

Skipped

2 countries chose this answer

0/ No

42 countries chose this answer

1/ Few, but insignificant

19 countries chose this answer

2/ More than a few, but insignificant

4 countries chose this answer

3/ Few, but significant

13 countries chose this answer

4/ More than a few, and significant

2 countries chose this answer

80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

Supporting Evidence

There is the presence in Colombia of a Chinese reporter for CGTN, and there are local reporters who support in developing stories for Xinhua and China Daily, but their influence is low and their presence is not felt strongly. There is normally a Chinese reporter for Xinhua, but that slot has not been filled lately.

  1. http://spanish.xinhuanet.com/2021-05/01/c_139919034.htm
  2. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4fuEL9Lr5rw&ab_channel=CGTNenEspa%C3%B1ol

    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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    2.
    Exposure

    In my country, there are journalists or media organizations which are members of the Belt and Road Media Cooperation Alliance/Union, the Belt and Road News Alliance, or other Belt and Road media networks that connected to PRC (e.g. Belt and Road Media Community, Belt and Road Journalists Network, Belt and Road News Network, or B&R TV Networks).

    No

    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

    More

    Skipped

    1 countries chose this answer

    0/ No

    39 countries chose this answer

    1/ Few, but insignificant

    23 countries chose this answer

    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

    4 countries chose this answer

    3/ Few, but significant

    14 countries chose this answer

    4/ More than a few, and significant

    1 countries chose this answer

    81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

    Supporting Evidence

    Colombia is not a BRI member, nor is there a presence from members of the above media alliances in the country.

    1. http://www.srcic.com/silk-road-members/

      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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      3.
      Exposure

      In my country, there are journalists, media organizations or online influencers who have attended all-expenses paid media tours in PRC.

      Yes

      Answer ( 1 / 4 )

      More

      Skipped

      11 countries chose this answer

      0/ No

      15 countries chose this answer

      1/ Few, but insignificant

      15 countries chose this answer

      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

      5 countries chose this answer

      3/ Few, but significant

      23 countries chose this answer

      4/ More than a few, and significant

      13 countries chose this answer

      71 countries answered this indicator; 11 countries skipped this indicator

      Supporting Evidence

      I know personally of at least one instance in 2019 in which expenses were paid for one Colombian journalist to travel to San Jose (Costa Rica) to attend a meeting of the China-CELAC Forum on financial cooperation. There is no other public information on this subject.

          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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          4.
          Exposure

          In my country, there are journalists, media organizations or online influencers who have received trainings from PRC state-owned media or PRC-connected entities.

          No

          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

          More

          Skipped

          3 countries chose this answer

          0/ No

          37 countries chose this answer

          1/ Few, but insignificant

          16 countries chose this answer

          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

          2 countries chose this answer

          3/ Few, but significant

          14 countries chose this answer

          4/ More than a few, and significant

          10 countries chose this answer

          79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

          Supporting Evidence

          There is little evidence of persistent and successful attempts by China to train Colombian journalists, media organizations, or influencers. What little evidence there is is scarce and from a few years past. It’s likely that people didn’t even apply to the programs, given little interest in the country from the journalistic field.

              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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              5.
              Exposure

              In my country, PRC state-media (including print, radio, and video) is broadcasted or distributed in a local language.

              Yes

              Answer ( 1 / 4 )

              More

              Skipped

              1 countries chose this answer

              0/ No

              24 countries chose this answer

              1/ Few, but insignificant

              22 countries chose this answer

              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

              7 countries chose this answer

              3/ Few, but significant

              18 countries chose this answer

              4/ More than a few, and significant

              10 countries chose this answer

              81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

              Supporting Evidence

              Chinese media outlets do publish content in Spanish, including content on events in the country, but their number is limited, mostly focusing on events that occurred (number of COVID-19 cases), and they are not at all consulted widely in the country.

              1. http://search.news.cn/?lang=es#search/0/colombia/1/
              2. http://search.people.com.cn/language/spanish/getResult.jsp

                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                6.
                Exposure

                In my country, there are local media outlets wholly or partly owned by PRC citizens or corporations.

                No

                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                More

                Skipped

                2 countries chose this answer

                0/ No

                44 countries chose this answer

                1/ Few, but insignificant

                19 countries chose this answer

                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                3 countries chose this answer

                3/ Few, but significant

                14 countries chose this answer

                4/ More than a few, and significant

                0 countries chose this answer

                80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                Supporting Evidence

                No Colombian media outlet is wholly or partly-owned by PRC citizens or companies. Colombian media outlets (at the national and local level) are well-established institutions, with ties to politically powerful families, with little need to receive funds from outside sources.

                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                    7.
                    Exposure

                    In my country, there are media outlets that have delivered cheap or free contents provided by PRC state-fund media.

                    Yes

                    Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                    More

                    Skipped

                    3 countries chose this answer

                    0/ No

                    22 countries chose this answer

                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                    21 countries chose this answer

                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                    6 countries chose this answer

                    3/ Few, but significant

                    23 countries chose this answer

                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                    7 countries chose this answer

                    79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                    Supporting Evidence

                    Thanks to a recent agreement between a Chinese media content producer and the Colombian national TV broadcaster (RTVC), a limited number of Chinese movies and documentaries have been aired in public Colombian TV (Señal Colombia), though viewership of said channel is not even in the top 20, so its impact is exceedingly low. There are no other known deals.

                    1. https://www.rtvc.gov.co/noticia/rtvc-alianza-productora-mundial-bruce-lee
                    2. https://www.senalcolombia.tv/cultura/gala-ano-nuevo-chino

                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                      8.
                      Exposure

                      In my country, there are regular PRC state-media or government advertisements inserted within local newspapers, online news websites or social media.

                      No

                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                      More

                      Skipped

                      1 countries chose this answer

                      0/ No

                      38 countries chose this answer

                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                      13 countries chose this answer

                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                      7 countries chose this answer

                      3/ Few, but significant

                      15 countries chose this answer

                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                      8 countries chose this answer

                      81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                      Supporting Evidence

                      There are no regular attempts by Chinese state-media or the Chinese government to insert advertisement in Colombian newspapers, news websites, or social media. In some instances, Chinese state-owned companies have coordinated with local city governments to promote new joint projects in local media (like the awarding to a Chinese company of the contract to build the Bogota metro), though there’s no record of that advertisement anymore.

                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                          9.
                          Pressure

                          In my country, there are journalists who have had pressure exerted on them by the PRC, including (but not limited to) public denouncement, revocation of journalist ID, denial of visa.

                          No

                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                          More

                          Skipped

                          1 countries chose this answer

                          0/ No

                          57 countries chose this answer

                          4/ Yes

                          24 countries chose this answer

                          81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                          Supporting Evidence

                          There is no record of journalists in Colombia being pressured, publicly denounced, denied visas, or having their ID’s revoked. Instead, there are many articles, columns, and other reports that openly criticize China, including some written by Taiwan authorities.

                          1. https://www.asuntoslegales.com.co/analisis/gabriel-ibarra-pardo-558821/la-entrega-de-colombia-a-la-republica-popular-china-3082937
                          2. https://www.semana.com/economia/opinion/articulo/le-conviene-a-colombia-el-ascenso-de-china/202156/
                          3. https://www.larepublica.co/globoeconomia/es-importante-que-colombia-reabra-la-oficina-de-procolombia-que-habia-en-taipei-2960885

                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                            10.
                            Effect

                            In my country, there are incidents of media outlets censoring views critical of the PRC government.

                            No

                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                            More

                            Skipped

                            4 countries chose this answer

                            0/ No

                            51 countries chose this answer

                            1/ Few, but insignificant

                            11 countries chose this answer

                            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                            3 countries chose this answer

                            3/ Few, but significant

                            9 countries chose this answer

                            4/ More than a few, and significant

                            4 countries chose this answer

                            78 countries answered this indicator; 4 countries skipped this indicator

                            Supporting Evidence

                            There are no known cases of this occurring. Had there been, and given the state of media competition in Colombia, the affected journalist would have likely revealed the pressure in a rival media outlet. Instead, and as mentioned before, Colombian media openly report negative news, opinions, and editorials on China. The referenced academic article above explores how Colombian media has studied China in both a positive and negative light.

                            1. https://heinonline.org/HOL/LandingPage?handle=hein.journals/chnaquar2012&div=12&id=&page=
                            2. https://www.asuntoslegales.com.co/analisis/gabriel-ibarra-pardo-558821/la-entrega-de-colombia-a-la-republica-popular-china-3082937

                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                              11.
                              Effect

                              In my country, there are media personalities (including reporters, journalists or commentators) or celebrities who deny the existence of human rights abuses in the PRC (e.g. a media personality that doubts there are re-education camps for Uyghurs in Xinjiang).

                              No

                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                              More

                              Skipped

                              2 countries chose this answer

                              0/ No

                              44 countries chose this answer

                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                              18 countries chose this answer

                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                              4 countries chose this answer

                              3/ Few, but significant

                              9 countries chose this answer

                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                              5 countries chose this answer

                              80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                              Supporting Evidence

                              There are no Colombian media personalities per se who cast doubts about the human rights situation in China. Instead, there are some low-profile individuals who occasionally publish or comment on these issues, but (1) they are not media personalities or celebrities and (2) their impact is extremely limited.

                              1. http://spanish.chinatoday.com.cn/2018/zt/2020lh/202005/t20200526_800207340.html
                              2. https://www.elespectador.com/opinion/columnistas/columnista-invitado-ee/china-futuro-educativo-de-colombia-column/

                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                Academia

                                The Academia Domain measures how the PRC state attempts to restrict academic freedom by influencing or interfering with the Index country’s academic and educational activities.

                                1.
                                Exposure

                                In my country, universities have established research partnerships with PRC-connected entities. (e.g. Huawei, Tencent or Alibaba)

                                Yes

                                Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                                More

                                0/ No

                                9 countries chose this answer

                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                11 countries chose this answer

                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                6 countries chose this answer

                                3/ Few, but significant

                                31 countries chose this answer

                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                25 countries chose this answer

                                82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                Supporting Evidence

                                There have been cooperation agreements signed between Colombian research institutes/universities and Chinese entities, including state research centers, universities, and companies. However, the number of agreements is low, and their impact has been very limited. In most instances, Colombian entities sign these agreements but do not act on them, partly because of low interest from the Colombian side.

                                1. https://www.portafolio.co/tendencias/universidad-distrital-apuesta-por-la-investigacion-533713
                                2. https://minciencias.gov.co/sala_de_prensa/galerias/firma-del-memorando-entendimiento-entre-colciencias-y-la-academia-ciencias

                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                  2.
                                  Exposure

                                  In my country, there are Confucius Institutes/Classrooms.

                                  Yes

                                  Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                                  More

                                  0/ No

                                  5 countries chose this answer

                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                  14 countries chose this answer

                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                  5 countries chose this answer

                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                  31 countries chose this answer

                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                  27 countries chose this answer

                                  82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                  Supporting Evidence

                                  There are three Confucius Institutes in Colombia, two in the capital Bogota and one in Medellin. There are also five Confucius Classrooms in the country. The Institutes and Classrooms have entered into agreements with other academic and state entities to teach Chinese language and culture to non-traditional students. It’s been known that the Institutes are especially attractive for students at the initial levels of Chinese learning, but that few continue on beyond the second level, pointing to limited influence. In some universities, like Universidad de los Andes, the Japanese Center does not only attract more attention but even has a bigger building across from the Confucius Institute; this particular Institute has not had a Chinese director for years.

                                  1. https://www.utadeo.edu.co/es/micrositio/instituto-confucio
                                  2. https://www.sena.edu.co/es-co/Noticias/Paginas/noticia.aspx?IdNoticia=4411

                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                    3.
                                    Exposure

                                    My country plans to include, or does include, Chinese as a foreign language in K12 or primary education, and receives free or subsidized (e.g. offered below market price) educational books and teachers from PRC.

                                    No

                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                    More

                                    Skipped

                                    1 countries chose this answer

                                    0/ No

                                    46 countries chose this answer

                                    4/ Yes

                                    35 countries chose this answer

                                    81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                    Supporting Evidence

                                    The Chinese language is not taught, nor are there plans to teach it, in the Colombian public educational system. Chinese is offered through Confucius Classrooms, but only in select private institutions.

                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                        4.
                                        Exposure

                                        In my country, one or more think tanks and academic research centers belong to PRC-affiliated networks/associations (such as: the Silk Road Think Tank Association, Silk Road Think Tank Network [SiLKS], Belt and Road Studies Network, University Alliance of the Silk Road, University Consortium of the 21st Century Maritime Silk Road).

                                        No

                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                        More

                                        Skipped

                                        2 countries chose this answer

                                        0/ No

                                        40 countries chose this answer

                                        1/ Few, but insignificant

                                        17 countries chose this answer

                                        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                        7 countries chose this answer

                                        3/ Few, but significant

                                        14 countries chose this answer

                                        4/ More than a few, and significant

                                        2 countries chose this answer

                                        80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                        Supporting Evidence

                                        No Colombian research center belongs to any of the above networks. There may be at least three reasons for this. One, Colombia does not belong to the BRI. Two, there are no research centers specialized in studying China. Three, there are few experts in Colombia dedicated to studying China.

                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                            5.
                                            Exposure

                                            In my country, think tanks and academic research centers have received financial support from PRC-connected individuals or entities.

                                            Yes

                                            Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                                            More

                                            Skipped

                                            10 countries chose this answer

                                            0/ No

                                            21 countries chose this answer

                                            1/ Few, but insignificant

                                            11 countries chose this answer

                                            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                            11 countries chose this answer

                                            3/ Few, but significant

                                            19 countries chose this answer

                                            4/ More than a few, and significant

                                            10 countries chose this answer

                                            72 countries answered this indicator; 10 countries skipped this indicator

                                            Supporting Evidence

                                            One can find only a few instances in which research centers have been created directly through cooperation agreements with Chinese entities, mainly, the two linked above. In all cases, financial support is never mentioned directly. These centers have had little mediatic or practical impact in Colombian society, implying very low influence.

                                            1. https://www.revistasmartphone.com/mundo-smartphone/zte-y-la-universidad-javeriana-establecen-un-centro-de-investigacion-de-innovacion-5g-en-colombia-y-anuncian-su-asociacion-en-la-investigacion-de-tecnologia-5g/
                                            2. https://www.portafolio.co/tendencias/universidad-distrital-apuesta-por-la-investigacion-533713

                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                              6.
                                              Exposure

                                              In my country, experts participate in PRC talent recruitment programs such as the Thousand Talents Program or Changjiang Scholars program.

                                              No

                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                              More

                                              Skipped

                                              3 countries chose this answer

                                              0/ No

                                              47 countries chose this answer

                                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                                              11 countries chose this answer

                                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                              6 countries chose this answer

                                              3/ Few, but significant

                                              10 countries chose this answer

                                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                                              5 countries chose this answer

                                              79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                                              Supporting Evidence

                                              No Colombian has ever participated in any Chinese talent-recruitment programs. This likely happens given that Colombian researchers and scholars do not delve into areas of interest to the Chinese government.

                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                                  7.
                                                  Exposure

                                                  In my country, scholars have taken trips to the PRC paid for by PRC-connected individuals or entities.

                                                  Yes

                                                  Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                                                  More

                                                  Skipped

                                                  13 countries chose this answer

                                                  0/ No

                                                  17 countries chose this answer

                                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                  15 countries chose this answer

                                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                  11 countries chose this answer

                                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                                  12 countries chose this answer

                                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                  14 countries chose this answer

                                                  69 countries answered this indicator; 13 countries skipped this indicator

                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                  Some China researchers have been known to participate in academic programs that pay their expenses to the country. These programs, however, are not well publicized or have a big impact in the country.

                                                  1. http://iepri.unal.edu.co/2/biografia/diana-andrea-gomez-diaz/
                                                  2. http://english.eastday.com/Shanghai/u1ai8636122.html

                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                                    8.
                                                    Pressure

                                                    In my country, organized PRC-connected student groups, such as Chinese Students and Scholars Associations (CSSAs), are involved in attempts to censor staff or students (e.g. by harassing students protesting human rights abuses in the PRC, or formally complaining about the identification of Taiwan as a country in lecture slides).

                                                    No

                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                    More

                                                    Skipped

                                                    1 countries chose this answer

                                                    0/ No

                                                    64 countries chose this answer

                                                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                    6 countries chose this answer

                                                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                    3 countries chose this answer

                                                    3/ Few, but significant

                                                    5 countries chose this answer

                                                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                    3 countries chose this answer

                                                    81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                    No evidence found.

                                                      Supplementary Notes

                                                      There are no CSSA’s or CSSA-like entities in Colombian universities or in Colombian society, most likely given extremely low numbers of Chinese students and scholars in Colombia.

                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                                        9.
                                                        Pressure

                                                        In my country, scholars or academics have been denied visas to travel to the PRC after expressing opinions or producing scholarship that is critical of the PRC.

                                                        No

                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                        More

                                                        Skipped

                                                        7 countries chose this answer

                                                        0/ No

                                                        64 countries chose this answer

                                                        1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                        1 countries chose this answer

                                                        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                        0 countries chose this answer

                                                        3/ Few, but significant

                                                        6 countries chose this answer

                                                        4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                        4 countries chose this answer

                                                        75 countries answered this indicator; 7 countries skipped this indicator

                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                        There is no record of this happening. An affected scholar or academic would be expected to denounce this publicly, and that has not been found either.

                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                                            10.
                                                            Effect

                                                            In my country, PRC-connected entities have been involved in school or university curriculum design, such as courses about East Asian history, modern politics, etc.

                                                            No

                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                            More

                                                            Skipped

                                                            2 countries chose this answer

                                                            0/ No

                                                            64 countries chose this answer

                                                            4/ Yes

                                                            16 countries chose this answer

                                                            80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                            This has not occurred in Colombia, partly given very little interest in Colombian academic institutions on East Asian history, issues of concern to China, etc. Even universities that have Confucius Institutes in them have not been known to change their curriculum. A likely reason is that Colombian academic institutions have a strong, long-lasting, and legally-protected principle of upholding the freedom of professors/teachers to choose the content of their classes. Not even higher-level university officials can interfere in these individual choices.

                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                                                11.
                                                                Effect

                                                                In my country, there are confirmed reports of teachers or professors avoiding the discussion of sensitive political issues (e.g. Uyghur re-education camps, Taiwan independence, Tiananmen Square Massacre).

                                                                No

                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                More

                                                                Skipped

                                                                5 countries chose this answer

                                                                0/ No

                                                                65 countries chose this answer

                                                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                1 countries chose this answer

                                                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                1 countries chose this answer

                                                                3/ Few, but significant

                                                                6 countries chose this answer

                                                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                4 countries chose this answer

                                                                77 countries answered this indicator; 5 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                There are no confirmed reports of this, again, likely in part to very little interest on these subjects in Colombian academic institutions. On a more personal note, and as a research-professor that deals with these issues, I have never been pressured on the content of my classes.

                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                                                    Economy

                                                                    The Economy Domain measures the PRC’s economic leverage in the Index country, and how this is used to influence economic policy or corporate behavior in ways that favor the PRC.

                                                                    1.
                                                                    Exposure

                                                                    The PRC is my country's number one trading partner (for trade in goods only).

                                                                    No

                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                    More

                                                                    0/ No

                                                                    51 countries chose this answer

                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                    31 countries chose this answer

                                                                    82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                    China is Colombia’s number two import market and number two export market.

                                                                    1. https://www.dane.gov.co/index.php/estadisticas-por-tema/comercio-internacional

                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                      Hide
                                                                      2.
                                                                      Exposure

                                                                      PRC-connected entities own more than 50% of my country’s sovereign debt.

                                                                      No

                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                      More

                                                                      Skipped

                                                                      1 countries chose this answer

                                                                      0/ No

                                                                      77 countries chose this answer

                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                      4 countries chose this answer

                                                                      81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                      China is not even in the top 5 foreign holders of Colombian debt.

                                                                      1. https://www.elespectador.com/economia/en-manos-de-quienes-esta-la-deuda-de-colombia-article/

                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                        Hide
                                                                        3.
                                                                        Exposure

                                                                        The PRC is the top customer for my country’s extractive industries.

                                                                        No

                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                        More

                                                                        0/ No

                                                                        62 countries chose this answer

                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                        20 countries chose this answer

                                                                        82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                        China is not the principal export market of any of Colombia’s extractive industry products. In crude petroleum, it is second to the United States.

                                                                        1. https://oec.world/en/visualize/tree_map/hs92/export/col/all/show/2019/

                                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                          Hide
                                                                          4.
                                                                          Exposure

                                                                          In my country, PRC-related entities own, operate or substantially control critical infrastructure (e.g. ports, power plants, digital data centers, etc) or sensitive sectors (biotech, raw materials, etc.)

                                                                          No

                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                          More

                                                                          0/ No

                                                                          36 countries chose this answer

                                                                          4/ Yes

                                                                          46 countries chose this answer

                                                                          82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                          There has been Chinese financing for an important electricity generation project, though it has been very limited, with not even mildly significant control. In the past, major Chinese SOE’s have expressed interest in participating in more strategic projects, like the dredging of the Magdalena River, though these expressions of interest have not translated into actual projects.

                                                                          1. https://www.larepublica.co/economia/powerchina-demuestra-su-interes-en-dragado-a-cormagdalena-2475141
                                                                          2. https://lacuartavia.com/china-detras-de-hidroituango-es-posible-que-lleguen-a-salvar-el-proyecto-imposible/

                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                            Hide
                                                                            5.
                                                                            Exposure

                                                                            My country joined (or applied to join) the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB).

                                                                            No

                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                            More

                                                                            0/ No

                                                                            27 countries chose this answer

                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                            55 countries chose this answer

                                                                            82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                            Colombia has not joined nor has it expressed any interest in joining the AIIB.

                                                                            1. https://www.aiib.org/en/about-aiib/governance/members-of-bank/index.html

                                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                              Hide
                                                                              6.
                                                                              Exposure

                                                                              In my country, major businesses are members of the Silk Road Chamber of International Commerce, or of the Belt and Road Industrial and Commercial Alliance, or of the Belt and Road General Chamber of Commerce.

                                                                              No

                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                              More

                                                                              0/ No

                                                                              41 countries chose this answer

                                                                              4/ Yes

                                                                              41 countries chose this answer

                                                                              82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                              No Colombian entity has joined nor expressed interest in joining any of the above organizations, likely in part because Colombia does not adhere to the BRI.

                                                                              1. http://www.srcic.com/silk-road-members/

                                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                Hide
                                                                                7.
                                                                                Pressure

                                                                                My country has been the target of PRC economic coercion (e.g. trade or investment sanctions) that was specifically tailored at products or services that are highly dependent on the PRC market.

                                                                                No

                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                More

                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                64 countries chose this answer

                                                                                4/ Yes

                                                                                18 countries chose this answer

                                                                                82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                There has been no instance of economic coercion by China in the form of trade or investment sanctions targeted at Colombia, Colombian entities, or Colombian products.

                                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                    8.
                                                                                    Pressure

                                                                                    In my country, local businesses have been harassed, threatened, or boycotted, due to their activities or statements in support of causes deemed unacceptable by the PRC government (e.g. Taiwanese independence, Hong Kong democracy, Tibet or Xinjiang issues, etc).

                                                                                    No

                                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                    More

                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                    2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                    65 countries chose this answer

                                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                                    15 countries chose this answer

                                                                                    80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                    There is no instance of this happening, most likely given that Colombian businesses do not express any opinions on these matters.

                                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                        9.
                                                                                        Effect

                                                                                        My country has free-trade agreement(s) with the PRC (either bilateral or as part of regional agreement(s)) that primarily deals with trade in goods or services, including digital goods or services.

                                                                                        No

                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                        More

                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                        51 countries chose this answer

                                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                                        31 countries chose this answer

                                                                                        82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                        Colombia has not entered into an FTA with China, although, nearly a decade ago, the previous Colombian administration began negotiations to consider one. More recently, there has been no discussion of an FTA, not even during current President Ivan Duque’s 2019 state visit to China.

                                                                                        1. https://www.americaeconomia.com/economia-mercados/comercio/juan-manuel-santos-no-descarta-tlc-con-china

                                                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                          10.
                                                                                          Effect

                                                                                          In my country, central or local governments have relaxed or removed regulatory restrictions, or have established special economic zones (or free trade zones, industrial parks, etc.) to attract investments or economic participation from the PRC.

                                                                                          No

                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                          More

                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                          47 countries chose this answer

                                                                                          4/ Yes

                                                                                          35 countries chose this answer

                                                                                          82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                          This has not occurred. There is no economic decentralization that would allow local governments to make such moves, nor have there been any zones created by the national Colombian government for these purposes.

                                                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                              11.
                                                                                              Effect

                                                                                              In my country, PRC-connected entities requisitioned infrastructure or land for failure to repay debts in a timely manner.

                                                                                              No

                                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                              More

                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                              2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                              76 countries chose this answer

                                                                                              4/ Yes

                                                                                              4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                              80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                              This has not occurred, in part because Colombia has acquired few loans from China.

                                                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                  Hide

                                                                                                  Society

                                                                                                  The Society Domain measures the extent and effectiveness of the PRC’s efforts to advance its soft power in the Index country, including its influence over the actions and views of local organizations and citizens.

                                                                                                  1.
                                                                                                  Exposure

                                                                                                  In my country, there are local groups or organizations with words like “Promotion of Peaceful Reunification” in their name, and they regularly publicize their views on Taiwan, Hong Kong, Tibet and Xinjiang issues.

                                                                                                  No

                                                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                  1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                  49 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                  12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                  7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                  9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                  4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                  81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                  There are no such organizations related to or that provide statements on Taiwan, Hong Kong, or Xinjiang. There is a China-Colombia Friendship Association, but it deals mostly with cultural issues that do not touch with these topics.

                                                                                                  1. https://colombochina.org.co/

                                                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                    2.
                                                                                                    Exposure

                                                                                                    In my country, there are members and member organizations of United World Chinese Association (世界华人协会).

                                                                                                    No

                                                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                    1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                    62 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                                                    19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                    81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                    There are no such organizations or people who belong to the UWCA.

                                                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                        3.
                                                                                                        Exposure

                                                                                                        In my country, labor unions cooperate on exchanges or official visits to the All-China Federation of Trade Unions (ACFTU) in the PRC.

                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                        1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                        68 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                                                        13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                        81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                        Colombian unions have no formal or informal links with the ACFTU, likely because of their close links to the Catholic Church.

                                                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                            4.
                                                                                                            Exposure

                                                                                                            In my country, there are local reports of personnel linked to the UFWD who make appearances at Chinese diaspora community events and activities (e.g. Lunar New Year events, Dragon Boat festival tournaments, etc).

                                                                                                            No

                                                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                            2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                            50 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                            1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                            9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                            5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                            3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                            9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                            4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                            7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                            80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                            There are no local reports on such visits, likely in part because the Chinese diaspora is not well-developed in Colombia. When there have been events to commemorate special anniversaries and holidays, no UFWD leader is said to have participated.

                                                                                                            1. http://co.china-embassy.org/esp/sghd/t1736610.htm

                                                                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                              5.
                                                                                                              Exposure

                                                                                                              In my country, there are PRC-connected professional associations that are closely engaged with their counterparts locally, such as All-China Journalists Association (中华全国新闻工作者协会), China Artists Association (中国艺术家协会), China Writers Association (中国作家协会) or All-China Women Federation (全国妇联).

                                                                                                              No

                                                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                              2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                              33 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                              25 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                              8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                              3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                              8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                              6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                              80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                              There is no known established presence in Colombia of any of the above organizations.

                                                                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                  6.
                                                                                                                  Exposure

                                                                                                                  In my country, PRC-connected individuals or entities donate money or provide other types of support to religious communities and charities.

                                                                                                                  No

                                                                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                  1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                  46 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                  4/ Yes

                                                                                                                  35 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                  81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                  There is no known report or knowledge of any PR-connected individuals or entities giving support of any type to religious organizations, likely because this is mostly a Catholic country.

                                                                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                      7.
                                                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                                                      In my country, the PRC government or PRC-connected entities distribute entertainment products (including: drama and TV shows) or related hardwares (e.g. OTT streaming players hosting PRC media channels) freely or at a cheap price.

                                                                                                                      Yes

                                                                                                                      Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                      2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                      38 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                      21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                      4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                      3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                      11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                      6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                      80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                      Thanks to a recent agreement between a Chinese media content producer and the Colombian national TV broadcaster (RTVC), a limited number of Chinese movies and documentaries have been aired in public Colombian TV (Señal Colombia), though viewership of said channel is not even in the top 20, so its impact is exceedingly low. There are no other known deals, including related to hardware.

                                                                                                                      1. https://www.rtvc.gov.co/noticia/rtvc-alianza-productora-mundial-bruce-lee
                                                                                                                      2. https://www.senalcolombia.tv/cultura/gala-ano-nuevo-chino

                                                                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                        8.
                                                                                                                        Effect

                                                                                                                        Cultural products (such as films and TV shows) produced by my country’s production studios typically portray the PRC in a positive light.

                                                                                                                        Skip

                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                        7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                        60 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                                                                        15 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                        75 countries answered this indicator; 7 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                        Not Found

                                                                                                                          Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                          Colombian cultural products simply do not portray Asian characters or landscapes in their content, even less Chinese ones. There are no known cases of outcry over potential portrayals that could be considered racist or denigrating.

                                                                                                                            Answered by , and has been reviewed by

                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                            9.
                                                                                                                            Effect

                                                                                                                            In my country, celebrities regularly publish or share propaganda narratives from the PRC.

                                                                                                                            No

                                                                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                            67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                            1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                            10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                            0 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                            3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                            3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                            4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                            2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                            82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                            Colombian celebrities do not concern themselves with issues outside of the Western world.

                                                                                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                10.
                                                                                                                                Effect

                                                                                                                                In my country, the national or local governments regularly publish or share propaganda narratives from the PRC (e.g. statements from the PRC government or embassies).

                                                                                                                                No

                                                                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                54 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                As with celebrities, local governments do not concern themselves with foreign affairs, especially those that fall outside of the Western world. Politicians at that level do not talk about China either negatively or positively.

                                                                                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                    11.
                                                                                                                                    Effect

                                                                                                                                    In my country, a majority of citizens have positive views of the PRC government.

                                                                                                                                    Yes

                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                    7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                    50 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                    25 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                    75 countries answered this indicator; 7 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                    The most recent scientific (2017) and non-scientific (2019) surveys point to relatively high favorability toward China among the Colombian public.

                                                                                                                                    1. https://www.slideshare.net/PewResearchCenter/global-attitudes-toward-china-and-the-us
                                                                                                                                    2. http://www.scielo.org.pe/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1684-09332019000200006&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es

                                                                                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                      Hide

                                                                                                                                      Military

                                                                                                                                      The Military Domain gauges the bilateral military relationship between the PRC and the Index country, including PRC efforts to influence local military personnel.

                                                                                                                                      1.
                                                                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                                                                      My country currently imports (or receives in-kind donation of) military or law-enforcement equipment or components of equipment from the PRC.

                                                                                                                                      No

                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                      36 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                      46 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                      82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                      China does not currently export weapons or law-enforcement equipment to Colombia. The last time this is reported to have happened was in 2005, in a different security scenario for Colombia.

                                                                                                                                      1. https://hoy.com.do/colombia-compra-armas-a-chinos/
                                                                                                                                      2. https://chinapower.csis.org/china-global-arms-trade/

                                                                                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                                        2.
                                                                                                                                        Exposure

                                                                                                                                        My country currently exports military or law-enforcement equipment or components of equipment to the PRC.

                                                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                                        1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                        74 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                        7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                        81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                        What little arms Colombia exports are known to go to the Latin America region exclusively.

                                                                                                                                        1. https://www.semana.com/nacion/articulo/colombia-exporta-armas-como-bombas-y-fusiles-a-guatemala-y-emiratos-arabes/632812/

                                                                                                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                                          3.
                                                                                                                                          Exposure

                                                                                                                                          My country co-develops or co-produces military or law-enforcement equipment with the PRC.

                                                                                                                                          No

                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                                                          1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                          66 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                          4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                          15 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                          81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                          This has not occurred.

                                                                                                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                                              4.
                                                                                                                                              Exposure

                                                                                                                                              In my country, there are reports that the PRC has expressed intentions or has taken actions to establish basing.

                                                                                                                                              No

                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                                              2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                              67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                              4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                              13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                              80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                              There are no known reports of this having been discussed, partly because of long-lasting and strong ties (including military ones) with the US.

                                                                                                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                                  5.
                                                                                                                                                  Exposure

                                                                                                                                                  In my country, the People’s Liberation Army (PLA) has participated in a humanitarian relief/disaster assistance (HADR) effort.

                                                                                                                                                  No

                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                                                  2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                                  61 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                  4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                  19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                  80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                  The PLA has not participated in such assistance.

                                                                                                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                                      6.
                                                                                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                                                                                      In my country, People’s Liberation Army (PLA) military personnel are permanently or rotationally deployed (excluding defense attaches and peacekeepers).

                                                                                                                                                      No

                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                      77 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                      5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                      82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                      There are no known reports of this having happened.

                                                                                                                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                                                          7.
                                                                                                                                                          Exposure

                                                                                                                                                          In my country, members of the military have received professional military education from the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                          No

                                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                                          48 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                          4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                          34 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                          82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                          While there are no reports of Colombian military personnel receiving military education in China, there are several that point to Chinese military officials and personnel coming to Colombia to exchange information on doctrine and to train jointly.

                                                                                                                                                          1. https://www.infodefensa.com/latam/2018/01/12/noticia-colombianota5es-ejercito-china-visita-centro-entrenamiento-ejercito-colombiano.html
                                                                                                                                                          2. https://www.webinfomil.com/2017/12/generales-del-ejercito-de-china.html

                                                                                                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                                            8.
                                                                                                                                                            Exposure

                                                                                                                                                            In my country, members of the military have received peacekeeping training from the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                            No

                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                                                            2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                            67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                            13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                            80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                            There are no reports of this.

                                                                                                                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                                9.
                                                                                                                                                                Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                In my country, high-ranking retired or current military and/or intelligence officers have received direct or deferred benefits from PRC-connected individuals or entities openly or covertly (e.g. have been appointed to lucrative positions as board members or consultants with PRC-invested firms, casinos, energy companies, etc.) during or in retirement from public service.

                                                                                                                                                                No

                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                78 countries answered this indicator; 4 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                There are no reports of this.

                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                                    10.
                                                                                                                                                                    Effect

                                                                                                                                                                    In my country, high-ranking retired or current military and/or intelligence officials advocate for more coordination with the People’s Liberation Army (PLA).

                                                                                                                                                                    No

                                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                    1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                    68 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                    13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                    81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                    Instead of advocating for closer coordination with the PLA, high-ranking retired or current military and/or intelligence officials have expressed fears of China and its influence in the country.

                                                                                                                                                                    1. https://www.eltiempo.com/politica/proceso-de-paz/nos-preocupa-que-los-intereses-de-china-y-rusia-desestabilicen-a-colombia-593256

                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                                                      11.
                                                                                                                                                                      Effect

                                                                                                                                                                      My country cooperates with the People’s Liberation Army (PLA) on military exchange exercises, including drills and war games.

                                                                                                                                                                      Yes

                                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                      51 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                      31 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                      82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                      There are reports of joint participation in drills, but Chinese participants have only numbered a few dozen.

                                                                                                                                                                      1. http://www.fuerzasmilitares.org/notas/colombia/ejercito-nacional/7145-tap-50.html

                                                                                                                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                        Hide

                                                                                                                                                                        Law Enforcement

                                                                                                                                                                        The Law Enforcement Domain measures law enforcement cooperation between the PRC and the Index country, as well as the nature and extent of PRC-related criminal activity in the Index country.

                                                                                                                                                                        1.
                                                                                                                                                                        Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                        My country currently maintains an extradition treaty, legal mutual assistance or other similar arrangements with the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                        Yes

                                                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                        32 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                        50 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                        82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                        The two countries have two relevant treaties: one on judicial assistance on criminal issues and another on the repatriation of certain Colombian prisoners in China.

                                                                                                                                                                        1. http://apw.cancilleria.gov.co/tratados/SitePages/BuscadorTratados.aspx?Estado=232&Tipo=B

                                                                                                                                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                                                                          2.
                                                                                                                                                                          Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                          In my country, law enforcement authorities have signed cooperation agreements with the PRC on combatting terrorism.

                                                                                                                                                                          No

                                                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                          1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                          55 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                          4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                          26 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                          81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                          Such cooperation agreements on terrorism do not exist.

                                                                                                                                                                          1. http://apw.cancilleria.gov.co/tratados/SitePages/BuscadorTratados.aspx?Estado=232&Tipo=B

                                                                                                                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                                                            3.
                                                                                                                                                                            Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                            In my country, PRC-connected gangs (such as Triad, 三合会) are known to be operating in my country.

                                                                                                                                                                            No

                                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                            1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                            52 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                            29 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                            81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                            There are no reports of this happening.

                                                                                                                                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                4.
                                                                                                                                                                                Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                In my country, there are reports of economic espionage targeting the private sector that were suspected to benefit PRC-connected entities.

                                                                                                                                                                                No

                                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                49 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                There are no reports of this happening.

                                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                    5.
                                                                                                                                                                                    Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                    In my country, there are reports of cyber attacks targeting government, critical infrastructure, or enterprises that were suspected to be initiated from the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                                    No

                                                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                    3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                    37 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                    9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                    4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                    3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                    14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                    15 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                    79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                    There are no reports of this happening.

                                                                                                                                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                        6.
                                                                                                                                                                                        Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                        In my country, triads are known to have threatened or used violence to coerce, intimidate or punish Chinese dissidents.

                                                                                                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                        2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                        67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                        1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                        5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                        3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                        3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                        3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                        4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                        2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                        80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                        There are no reports of this happening.

                                                                                                                                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                            7.
                                                                                                                                                                                            Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                            My country has deployed video or internet surveillance systems from the PRC for law enforcement.

                                                                                                                                                                                            No

                                                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                            1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                            30 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                            51 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                            81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                            There are no reports of this having happened. It should be noted, however, that Chinese technology companies Dahua Technology and Hikvision have established local subsidiaries.

                                                                                                                                                                                            1. https://q.stock.sohu.com/newpdf/201934732856.pdf
                                                                                                                                                                                            2. https://www.hikvision.com/en/about-us/contact-us/

                                                                                                                                                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                              8.
                                                                                                                                                                                              Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                              In my country, representatives of the PRC police force have had joint patrols with local law enforcement.

                                                                                                                                                                                              No

                                                                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                              71 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                              4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                              11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                              82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                              There are no reports of this having happened.

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                  9.
                                                                                                                                                                                                  Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                  My government has detained people at the request of the PRC for committing a crime involving engagements with social movements or resistance activities in Hong Kong, Xinjiang or for other human rights or civic rights issues.

                                                                                                                                                                                                  No

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                  1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                  68 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                  4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                  13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                  81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                  This has not happened.

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                      10.
                                                                                                                                                                                                      Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                      My country has deported Taiwan citizens to the PRC to face prosecution.

                                                                                                                                                                                                      No

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                      2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                      71 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                      9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                      80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                      This has not happened.

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                          11.
                                                                                                                                                                                                          Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                          My country has extradited or has deported individuals to the PRC, although such decisions had attracted criticisms from politicians, government employees or from local or foreign NGOs.

                                                                                                                                                                                                          No

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                          61 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                          4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                          21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                          82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                          This has not happened.

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Hide

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Technology

                                                                                                                                                                                                              The Technology Domain gauges the PRC’s influence over the technology sector in the Index country, including the activity and financial leverage of PRC companies, use of PRC hardware, and bilateral research partnerships.

                                                                                                                                                                                                              1.
                                                                                                                                                                                                              Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                              In my country, PRC-connected entities (such as China Mobile, China Unicom or China Telecom) or their subsidiaries provide telecom services.

                                                                                                                                                                                                              No

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                              52 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                              4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                              30 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                              82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                              As the above list shows, neither these companies nor do their subsidiaries provide such services.

                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. https://colombiatic.mintic.gov.co/estadisticas/stats.php?id=4&pres=content&jer=1

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                2.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                In my country, telecoms have signed agreements to adopt hardwares or technical specifications of 4G or 5G cellular networks that are produced or developed by Huawei, ZTE or other PRC enterprises.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                16 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                27 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                30 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                There is only one known case of this happening, though it’s only at a pilot stage at the moment, and with companies from other countries participating as well.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. https://www.bnamericas.com/en/news/america-movil-set-to-pilot-5g-in-colombia

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  3.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  In my country, telecoms have adopted hardware or technical specifications by PRC-connected entities in internet/wifi/telecommunication service infrastructure projects, in addition to 4G/5G cellular network.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  24 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  23 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  74 countries answered this indicator; 8 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  There is only one known case of this happening. It occurred at the level, and 13 years ago, with no significant consequence, nor leading to any long-lasting relationship.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. https://www.commsupdate.com/articles/2008/08/19/emcali-selects-zte-for-mobile-wimax-rollout/

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    4.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    In my country, PRC-connected entities are authorized vendors to supply tech-related equipment or services to our government, military or security services.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    28 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    53 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    As recently as 2020, the Minister of Information Technologies and Communications restated that Huawei and other such companies are not banned from participating in bids for the acquisition of these services and products. However, this has not translated into an actual decision on authorizing Huawei or other such companies as official vendors for the government, military, or security services.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. https://labsnews.com/en/news/technology/colombia-wont-ban-huawei-5g-firm-advances-in-latin-america/

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      5.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      In my country, central or local governments have collaboration (such as data collection or exchange agreement, or adoption of related hardwares) with the PRC government or PRC-connected entities on facial, voice recognition or other applications involving biometrics achieved by AI.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      42 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      There are no reports of this occurring.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          6.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          In my country, one or more cities have procured, or have signed contracts with PRC-connected entities to establish “smart city” systems.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          35 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          25 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          There is one such pilot in the country, in a small city outside of Bogota. The pilot started in 2018, and no new reports have emerged since, nor any new pilots in other cities.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. http://chia-cundinamarca.gov.co/index.php/2899-chia-da-el-primer-paso-para-convertirse-en-una-ciudad-inteligente-y-segura

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            7.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            In my country, financial institutions use the China Cross-Border Interbank Payment System (CIPS) clearing and settlement services system.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            63 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            18 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            As the link shows, CIPS is not approved for use by Colombian financial institutions.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. https://www.banrep.gov.co/es/sistemas-de-pago

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              8.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              In my country, PRC-connected venture capital invests in technology start-ups.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              32 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              18 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              There are no reports of Chinese financial institutions investing in tech start-ups in Colombia.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  9.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  In my country, companies have publicly announced that they had signed MOUs to collaborate on technological development (such as collaborations in A.I., Blockchain, Cloud Computing, Big Data) with PRC-connected entities.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  31 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Two little-known Colombian companies have partnered with a PRC-connected entity (Uniview) to collaborate on tech development.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. http://sgcdn.uniview.com/About_Us/Partner/

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    10.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    In my country, PRC-connected entities are shareholders or developers of the top five popular social media/messaging apps, based on usage.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    44 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    36 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    The most recent report on use of social media and messaging apps in Colombia shows none in the top 5 to be connected to PRC-connected entities either through equity or development agreements.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. https://branch.com.co/marketing-digital/estadisticas-de-la-situacion-digital-de-colombia-en-el-2020-2021/

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      11.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      In my country, the central or local government(s) has collaborated with the PRC on endorsing the use of BeiDou satellite navigation system.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      64 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      17 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      No such endorsement has come about.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Hide

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Domestic Politics

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          The Domestic Politics Domain evaluates PRC efforts to influence the political landscape in the Index country, and the footprint of PRC security companies.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          In my country, politicians or government employees at the sub-national level are signing agreements with the PRC government or state-owned enterprises.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          20 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          23 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          A few agreements are being signed, though their impact varies. On the one hand, there have been a few sister city and sister departmental/provincial agreements, though these have been more symbolic than substantive. During the pandemic, some of these agreements were activated to provide facemasks from the Chinese side to the Colombian side, but no other substantive results have come out of them. On the other hand, recently, there has been an increasing number of infrastructure agreements with SOE’s, though they are not signed exclusively by sub-national governments, in that the central government also plays a major role in them. Regardless, these agreements have the potential to shape the very way life is lived in the city/department.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. https://china.embajada.gov.co/node/news/21270/marco-del-proyecto-hermanamientos-entre-colombia-y-china-la-embajada-colombia
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2. https://www.mintransporte.gov.co/publicaciones/8669/con-apoyo-de-la-nacion-regiotram-de-occidente-en-cundinamarca-firma-acta-de-inicio-para-sus-obras-de-construccion/
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          3. https://www.lafm.com.co/colombia/china-dona-20000-tapabocas-para-personas-de-escasos-recursos-en-ibague

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            In my country, local municipalities have sister-city ties (友好城市) with municipalities in the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            23 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            As mentioned above, these agreements have indeed come into effect, though there are few of them (no more than 10, including sister departmental/provincial agreements) and they have had little impact.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. https://caracol.com.co/emisora/2019/09/19/sincelejo/1568854940_315829.html
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2. https://www.barranquilla.gov.co/desarrolloeconomico/relaciones-internacionales/hermanamientos

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              3.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              In my country, politicians or government employees have taken trips to the PRC paid for by PRC-connected individuals or entities.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              22 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              16 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              16 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              73 countries answered this indicator; 9 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Colombian congressmen and women have been invited to China for specialized paid visits on relevant topics, like technology. It is notable, however, that these politicians have done much to minimize the impact of the trip. Colombian media also did not cover these visits in a major way. Other than congressmen and women, other kinds of politicians (mayors, ministers, etc.) have not been found to be invited for paid visits.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. https://twitter.com/horaciojserpa/status/1087355581818646528?lang=da
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2. https://www.eltiempo.com/politica/congreso/que-hace-alejandro-chacon-expresidente-de-la-camara-en-china-379246

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                4.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                In my country, politicians or government employees visit the PRC and have meetings with PRC officials and think tanks.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                25 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                32 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Similar to the above, some Colombian politicians have visited China, but the impact of these visits appears to be low. Other than the visits by some congressmen and women, a notable visit was that done by the President of Colombia and his team in 2019. This visit included meetings with PRC officials and think tanks. Outside of the scope of this visit, there have been a few other visits, at the vice-ministerial and mayoral level, but not by others (ministers, governors).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. https://www.cancilleria.gov.co/newsroom/news/presidente-duque-presento-shanghai-iniciativa-colombia-china-fortalecer-lazos
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2. https://china.embajada.gov.co/node/news/16969/embajada-colombia-acompana-la-viceministra-comercio-exterior-laura-valdivieso-quien
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                3. https://www.alertatolima.com/noticias/tolima/ibague/alcalde-jaramillo-viaja-la-china-y-se-ausenta-de-la-ciudad-por-10-dias

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  5.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  In my country, law enforcement and judicial related training offered the PRC-connected individuals or entities has been accepted by national or subnational governments.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  46 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  16 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Though the evidence is scant, there are reports (provided by Chinese sources themselves, not Colombian ones) that suggest that such training has been provided to members of the national police force.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. https://archive.fo/10iVx/a62920c2c56335fe4a5e27fc85b31fef0470dfe3.jpg
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2. https://public.opentech.fund/documents/English_Weber_WWW_of_Information_Controls_Final.pdf

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    6.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    In my country, there are reports of politicians or political parties receiving campaign donations that originate in the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    60 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    0 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    78 countries answered this indicator; 4 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    There have been no such reports in Colombia. In fact, Law 1475 of 2011 explicitly prohibits candidates from receiving any kind of foreign support in funds or through other material means.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. https://www.eltiempo.com/politica/partidos-politicos/la-ley-prohibe-la-financiacion-extrajera-a-candidatos-colombianos-293914

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      7.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      In my country, groups with reported links to the United Front Work Department (UFWD) have hosted fundraisings or have provided other forms of support for government employees, politicians or parties.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      64 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      No group connected to the UFWD has organized such activities or form of support for any politician, in part because of stringent national laws providing such support.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          8.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          In my country, groups with reported links to the United Front Work Department (UFWD) have made public statements opposing the candidacy of a local political candidate or party, claiming them being “anti-China”.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          78 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          0 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          0 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          There has been no such occurrence in Colombia.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              9.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              In my country, politicians or government employees have publicly expressed positive views of the PRC government.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              37 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Though local Colombian politicians rarely express their views on foreign affairs or other countries, when they have, the comments have indeed been positive.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. https://www.facebook.com/watch/?v=773973606788404

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                10.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                In my country, politicians or government employees have received direct or deferred benefits from PRC-connected individuals or entities openly or covertly (e.g. have been appointed to lucrative positions as board members or consultants with PRC-invested firms, casinos, energy companies, etc.) during or in retirement from public office.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                40 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                0 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                18 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                73 countries answered this indicator; 9 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                There are no known cases of this happening. Former ambassadors and other politicians somehow connected to China move on to other areas that are considered “more important” or “more distinguished”.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    11.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    In my country, security services (安保/保安) offered by private PRC companies are contracted by national or subnational governments.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Security services per se have not been provided in the way described above. However, there has been at least one known instances in which security technology was acquired and used, this one by the private operator of the capital’s airport. Since the decision was made by the private operator, not by the local or national government, the score above is a 0.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. https://www.revistamasseguridad.com.mx/aeropuerto-el-dorado-accesos-dahua-thermal-solution/

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Hide

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Foreign Policy

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      The Foreign Policy Domain gauges PRC efforts to achieve diplomatic objectives by influencing key actors in the Index country.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      My country’s legislature has a joint parliamentary friendship group, committee or other forms of sub-organizations with PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      25 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      57 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      There is such a group at the level of the Senate, but it’s not active, does not speak publicly on matters relevant to the relationship, and there is not even a list of members. Whatever influence it might have, it is very weak.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. http://co.china-embassy.org/esp/zggx/t769773.htm

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Representatives of a political party in my country’s national legislature have met officially with representatives of the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        20 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        40 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        There have been meetings between congresspeople/political party leaders and the Chinese ambassador in Colombia. These meetings, however, are commonplace, and mostly protocolary. Similar meetings have been had between the same Colombian political figures and ambassadors from other countries, with no implications. Meanwhile, during the period of study (2020-2021), there have been no meetings between China-based PRC officials and congresspeople.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. https://mp.weixin.qq.com/s/-2PK8pB7snX5zXDPUq9Lhw
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2. https://mp.weixin.qq.com/s/oFLFhZRpcGqxmw8yp72pQg

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          3.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          The PRC provides training to diplomats or civil servants on governance from my country (such as at 国家行政学院 or 中央党校).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          39 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          There are no such programs in place. One likely reason for this is that there are no cooperation agreements to facilitate this, especially on the issue of governance.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. http://apw.cancilleria.gov.co/tratados/SitePages/BuscadorTratados.aspx?Estado=232&Tipo=B

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            4.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            In my country, politicians or government employees have been pressured by PRC diplomats to change their political or diplomatic stances.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            41 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            There is no instance of this occurring. One likely reason is that few measures passed by the government directly affect Chinese interests. Instead, there are Colombian politicians who are openly close to the Taiwan authorities, and there appears to be no pressure to change their alignment.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Cj81rGkyDLM&ab_channel=ElNodoColombia

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              5.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Citizens of my country have been detained in PRC or denied exit visas, and believed to be suffering from unfair legal treatments for political reasons, a.k.a. “hostage diplomacy”.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              61 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              There has been no instance of a “hostage diplomacy” type of scenario involving a Colombian national. There are Colombians who are in prison in China, but this is mostly for drug trafficking charges. The two countries recently agreed and ratified an agreement for the repatriation of these prisoners.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. https://www.eltiempo.com/colombia/cali/el-dramatico-relato-de-caleno-condenado-en-china-por-narcotrafico-449258
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2. https://www.semana.com/nacion/articulo/familia-de-colombiano-preso-en-china-pide-su-repatriacion-por-grave-estado-de-salud/202104/

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                6.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                The head of state, head of government or foreign minister of my country has denied Taiwan’s right to participate as a member, observer or guest in WHO.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                65 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                There has been no statement from the mentioned political figures on the issue. At the same time, no Colombian political figure has shown support for the participation of Taiwan in the WHO.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    7.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    My country publicly supported the appointment of a PRC official to be the head of a United Nations agency (such as the FAO or ICAO) or other intergovernmental organizations (such as INTERPOL).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    62 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    73 countries answered this indicator; 9 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Colombian authorities did not publicly back any Chinese candidate to be head of a UN agency or other intergovernmental organization, nor did it publicly signal support for any other candidate.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        8.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        My government has shown support of PRC's territorial claims (such as on the South China Sea arbitration ruling issued by the UNCLOS Arbitral Tribunal in July 2016; except claims over Taiwan, which are indirectly covered in indicator 6.)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Silence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        0/ My country has rejected PRC’s claim

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        24 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2/ My country has remained silent

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        36 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        4/ My country has adhered to PRC’s claim

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Colombia, like most Latin American countries, has not expressed any opinion on territorial issues involving China, including those of the South China Sea, Aksai Chin, Arunachal Pradesh, or others. One likely reason is that Colombia is in a similar situation as China in a maritime dispute with Nicaragua. Nicaragua has won several legal cases on this issue, but Colombia rejects the findings.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. https://www.chinadailyasia.com/special/southchinasea/2016-07/13/content_15462953_2.html

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          9.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          My country has shown one of the following stances on PRC’s treatment of its Uyghur population.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Silence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          0/ My country has denounced PRC

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          31 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2/ My country has remained silent

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          32 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          4/ My country has voiced support to PRC’s stance

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          17 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          This is another issue on which Colombia has remained silent.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              10.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              My country has shown one of the following stances on PRC’s treatment of its Tibet population.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Silence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              0/ My country has denounced PRC

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2/ My country has remained silent

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              46 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              4/ My country has voiced support to PRC’s stance

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              This is another issue on which Colombia has remained silent.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  11.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  My government has not publicly criticized the PRC’s imposition of the National Security Law on Hong Kong.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Silence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  0/ My country has denounced PRC

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  24 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2/ My country has remained silent

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  36 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  4/ My country has voiced support to PRC’s stance

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  This is another issue on which Colombia has remained silent.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Hide
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