Bulgaria

$11,635.0
6.89M
Ranking
36/ 82
Original Score

* As some Indicators can be skipped where data is unavailable, the maximum overall and Domain scores are not identical for each country. Country rankings are generated from ratios of the maximum scores and the achieved scores.

138/ 396
Executive partner
Central European Institute of Asian Studies
Index Year
2022
Layer Scores

The Indicators have been classified by the stage of the influence process at which they occur. Some Indicators correspond to exposure to PRC influence, e.g. the presence of Confucius Institutes. Others test for pressure – such as visa denials to academics or journalists. Finally, some Indicators capture the effect of PRC influence, such as national policy changes in favor of PRC interests.
The individual Layer scores for each country are tallied and displayed via rankings.

Exposure

44%

Exposure assesses the conditions that make the target country vulnerable to PRC's influence, e.g. in terms of economic dependence, or the receiving of some form of benefit.

Pressure

13%

Pressure measures the actions that the PRC directly or indirectly exerts over the target country in order to change the behavior of people in the target country, e.g. in terms of threatening economic punishment to provoke/prevent a political decision.

Effect

24%

Effect evaluates the degree of accommodations the target country makes to the PRC, and the actual effects and impacts on the target country.

In 2021, Bulgaria had a GDP per capita of US$11,635 and a total population of 6.89 million people.

Bulgaria established diplomatic relations with the People's Republic of China in 1949. Bulgaria was ranked 91st in Reporters Without Borders' 2022 World Press Freedom Index, and Free in Freedom House's 2022 Global Freedom Status, with a score of 79/100.

Domain Scores
Country Percentage
Index Average

Percentage scores do not suggest some degree out of a “completely influenced” level of 100%. The percentages express the country’s score out of the total achievable amount based on the Indicators for each Domain.

  • Media
    38.6% / 30.1%
  • Academia
    50.0% / 34%
  • Economy
    18.2% / 33.6%
  • Society
    27.3% / 23.6%
  • Military
    27.3% / 23.4%
  • Law Enforcement
    43.2% / 30.2%
  • Technology
    47.7% / 40.8%
  • Domestic Politics
    27.3% / 37.2%
  • Foreign Policy
    34.1% / 41%

Media

The Media Domain evaluates how PRC entities influence public debate and media coverage about the PRC in the Index country.

1.
Exposure

In my country, there are media organizations that belong to the World Chinese Media (世界华文媒体) network.

No

Answer ( 0 / 4 )

More

Skipped

2 countries chose this answer

0/ No

42 countries chose this answer

1/ Few, but insignificant

19 countries chose this answer

2/ More than a few, but insignificant

4 countries chose this answer

3/ Few, but significant

13 countries chose this answer

4/ More than a few, and significant

2 countries chose this answer

80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

Supporting Evidence

Not Found

    Supplementary Notes

    No evidence to suggest otherwise exists.

      Answered by Rumena Filipova and Mirela Petkova, and has been reviewed by Matej Šimalčík

      Hide
      2.
      Exposure

      In my country, there are journalists or media organizations which are members of the Belt and Road Media Cooperation Alliance/Union, the Belt and Road News Alliance, or other Belt and Road media networks that connected to PRC (e.g. Belt and Road Media Community, Belt and Road Journalists Network, Belt and Road News Network, or B&R TV Networks).

      Yes

      Answer ( 3 / 4 )

      More

      Skipped

      1 countries chose this answer

      0/ No

      39 countries chose this answer

      1/ Few, but insignificant

      23 countries chose this answer

      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

      4 countries chose this answer

      3/ Few, but significant

      14 countries chose this answer

      4/ More than a few, and significant

      1 countries chose this answer

      81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

      Hide
      3.
      Exposure

      In my country, there are journalists, media organizations or online influencers who have attended all-expenses paid media tours in PRC.

      Yes

      Answer ( 3 / 4 )

      More

      Skipped

      11 countries chose this answer

      0/ No

      15 countries chose this answer

      1/ Few, but insignificant

      15 countries chose this answer

      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

      5 countries chose this answer

      3/ Few, but significant

      23 countries chose this answer

      4/ More than a few, and significant

      13 countries chose this answer

      71 countries answered this indicator; 11 countries skipped this indicator

      Supporting Evidence

      Some Bulgarian journalists attended BRI World Journalism Forum

      1. https://sbj-bg.eu/index.php?t=39723

        Answered by Rumena Filipova and Mirela Petkova, and has been reviewed by Matej Šimalčík

        Hide
        4.
        Exposure

        In my country, there are journalists, media organizations or online influencers who have received trainings from PRC state-owned media or PRC-connected entities.

        Yes

        Answer ( 1 / 4 )

        More

        Skipped

        3 countries chose this answer

        0/ No

        37 countries chose this answer

        1/ Few, but insignificant

        16 countries chose this answer

        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

        2 countries chose this answer

        3/ Few, but significant

        14 countries chose this answer

        4/ More than a few, and significant

        10 countries chose this answer

        79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

        Supporting Evidence

        Union of Bulgarian Journalists is regularly interacting and conducting exchanges with Chinese partners.

        1. https://sbj-bg.eu/index.php?t=48380
        2. https://sbj-bg.eu/index.php?t=39723
        3. https://sbj-bg.eu/index.php?t=35717
        4. https://sbj-bg.eu/index.php?t=31565

          Answered by Rumena Filipova and Mirela Petkova, and has been reviewed by Matej Šimalčík

          Hide
          5.
          Exposure

          In my country, PRC state-media (including print, radio, and video) is broadcasted or distributed in a local language.

          Yes

          Answer ( 3 / 4 )

          More

          Skipped

          1 countries chose this answer

          0/ No

          24 countries chose this answer

          1/ Few, but insignificant

          22 countries chose this answer

          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

          7 countries chose this answer

          3/ Few, but significant

          18 countries chose this answer

          4/ More than a few, and significant

          10 countries chose this answer

          81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

          Supporting Evidence

          China Radio International maintains a Bulgarian language version.

          1. https://bulgarian.cri.cn/

            Answered by Rumena Filipova and Mirela Petkova, and has been reviewed by Matej Šimalčík

            Hide
            6.
            Exposure

            In my country, there are local media outlets wholly or partly owned by PRC citizens or corporations.

            No

            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

            More

            Skipped

            2 countries chose this answer

            0/ No

            44 countries chose this answer

            1/ Few, but insignificant

            19 countries chose this answer

            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

            3 countries chose this answer

            3/ Few, but significant

            14 countries chose this answer

            4/ More than a few, and significant

            0 countries chose this answer

            80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

            Supporting Evidence

            Not Found

              Supplementary Notes

              No evidence to suggest otherwise.

                Answered by Rumena Filipova and Mirela Petkova, and has been reviewed by Matej Šimalčík

                Hide
                7.
                Exposure

                In my country, there are media outlets that have delivered cheap or free contents provided by PRC state-fund media.

                Yes

                Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                More

                Skipped

                3 countries chose this answer

                0/ No

                22 countries chose this answer

                1/ Few, but insignificant

                21 countries chose this answer

                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                6 countries chose this answer

                3/ Few, but significant

                23 countries chose this answer

                4/ More than a few, and significant

                7 countries chose this answer

                79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                Supporting Evidence

                Bulgarian media maintain numerous cooperation partnership with Chinese media. Most visible is the reprinting of content from Chinese media by the Bulgarian medium 24 Chasa. Also, the Bulgarian newspaper China Today (Китай днес) republishes content from Chinese state media.

                1. https://www.kitajdnes.com/
                2. https://www.24chasa.bg/novini/6864124/
                3. https://www.kas.de/documents/281902/281951/%E2%80%9CChina%E2%80%99s+Rising+Media+Presence+in+South+East+Europe%E2%80%9D.pdf/0beb5c40-b6dd-7292-5cc3-fd8a5c1be824?version=1.1&t=1607417514942

                  Answered by Rumena Filipova and Mirela Petkova, and has been reviewed by Matej Šimalčík

                  Hide
                  8.
                  Exposure

                  In my country, there are regular PRC state-media or government advertisements inserted within local newspapers, online news websites or social media.

                  No

                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                  More

                  Skipped

                  1 countries chose this answer

                  0/ No

                  38 countries chose this answer

                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                  13 countries chose this answer

                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                  7 countries chose this answer

                  3/ Few, but significant

                  15 countries chose this answer

                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                  8 countries chose this answer

                  81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                  Supporting Evidence

                  Not Found

                    Supplementary Notes

                    No evidence to suggest otherwise

                      Answered by Rumena Filipova and Mirela Petkova, and has been reviewed by Matej Šimalčík

                      Hide
                      9.
                      Pressure

                      In my country, there are journalists who have had pressure exerted on them by the PRC, including (but not limited to) public denouncement, revocation of journalist ID, denial of visa.

                      No

                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                      More

                      Skipped

                      1 countries chose this answer

                      0/ No

                      57 countries chose this answer

                      4/ Yes

                      24 countries chose this answer

                      81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                      Supporting Evidence

                      Not Found

                        Supplementary Notes

                        No evidence to suggest otherwise.

                          Answered by Rumena Filipova and Mirela Petkova, and has been reviewed by Matej Šimalčík

                          Hide
                          10.
                          Effect

                          In my country, there are incidents of media outlets censoring views critical of the PRC government.

                          No

                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                          More

                          Skipped

                          4 countries chose this answer

                          0/ No

                          51 countries chose this answer

                          1/ Few, but insignificant

                          11 countries chose this answer

                          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                          3 countries chose this answer

                          3/ Few, but significant

                          9 countries chose this answer

                          4/ More than a few, and significant

                          4 countries chose this answer

                          78 countries answered this indicator; 4 countries skipped this indicator

                          Supporting Evidence

                          Not Found

                            Supplementary Notes

                            No evidence to suggest otherwise.

                              Answered by Rumena Filipova and Mirela Petkova, and has been reviewed by Matej Šimalčík

                              Hide
                              11.
                              Effect

                              In my country, there are media personalities (including reporters, journalists or commentators) or celebrities who deny the existence of human rights abuses in the PRC (e.g. a media personality that doubts there are re-education camps for Uyghurs in Xinjiang).

                              Yes

                              Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                              More

                              Skipped

                              2 countries chose this answer

                              0/ No

                              44 countries chose this answer

                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                              18 countries chose this answer

                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                              4 countries chose this answer

                              3/ Few, but significant

                              9 countries chose this answer

                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                              5 countries chose this answer

                              80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                              Hide

                              Academia

                              The Academia Domain measures how the PRC state attempts to restrict academic freedom by influencing or interfering with the Index country’s academic and educational activities.

                              1.
                              Exposure

                              In my country, universities have established research partnerships with PRC-connected entities. (e.g. Huawei, Tencent or Alibaba)

                              Yes

                              Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                              More

                              0/ No

                              9 countries chose this answer

                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                              11 countries chose this answer

                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                              6 countries chose this answer

                              3/ Few, but significant

                              31 countries chose this answer

                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                              25 countries chose this answer

                              82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                              Supporting Evidence

                              Not Found

                              1. https://academytracker.ceias.eu/map/eu/Bulgaria
                              2. https://academytracker.ceias.eu/articles/2g28FMwxCHaHLZ59kBlPfb

                                Answered by Rumena Filipova, and has been reviewed by Matej Šimalčík

                                Hide
                                2.
                                Exposure

                                In my country, there are Confucius Institutes/Classrooms.

                                Yes

                                Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                More

                                0/ No

                                5 countries chose this answer

                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                14 countries chose this answer

                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                5 countries chose this answer

                                3/ Few, but significant

                                31 countries chose this answer

                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                27 countries chose this answer

                                82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                Supporting Evidence

                                Two Confucius Institutes - at Sofia University and Veliko Tarnovo University. There are Confucius classrooms at South-West University “Neofit Rilski” – Blagoevgrad and the University of Ruse.

                                1. https://academytracker.ceias.eu/map/eu/Bulgaria
                                2. https://academytracker.ceias.eu/articles/2g28FMwxCHaHLZ59kBlPfb
                                3. http://confuciusinstitute.bg/en/
                                4. https://www.confuciusinstitute-velikoturnovo.bg/

                                  Answered by Rumena Filipova, and has been reviewed by Matej Šimalčík

                                  Hide
                                  3.
                                  Exposure

                                  My country plans to include, or does include, Chinese as a foreign language in K12 or primary education, and receives free or subsidized (e.g. offered below market price) educational books and teachers from PRC.

                                  Yes

                                  Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                  More

                                  Skipped

                                  1 countries chose this answer

                                  0/ No

                                  46 countries chose this answer

                                  4/ Yes

                                  35 countries chose this answer

                                  81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                  Supporting Evidence

                                  Schools across Bulgaria teach Chinese, particularly through a patnership with Confucius Institutes.

                                  1. http://www.confuciusinstitute-velikoturnovo.bg/bg/the-institute/annual-reports

                                    Answered by Rumena Filipova, and has been reviewed by Matej Šimalčík

                                    Hide
                                    4.
                                    Exposure

                                    In my country, one or more think tanks and academic research centers belong to PRC-affiliated networks/associations (such as: the Silk Road Think Tank Association, Silk Road Think Tank Network [SiLKS], Belt and Road Studies Network, University Alliance of the Silk Road, University Consortium of the 21st Century Maritime Silk Road).

                                    Yes

                                    Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                    More

                                    Skipped

                                    2 countries chose this answer

                                    0/ No

                                    40 countries chose this answer

                                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                                    17 countries chose this answer

                                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                    7 countries chose this answer

                                    3/ Few, but significant

                                    14 countries chose this answer

                                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                                    2 countries chose this answer

                                    80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                    Supporting Evidence

                                    Various Bulgarian universities participate in Belt and Road networks.

                                    1. https://academytracker.ceias.eu/articles/2g28FMwxCHaHLZ59kBlPfb
                                    2. https://academytracker.ceias.eu/map/eu/Bulgaria

                                      Answered by Rumena Filipova, and has been reviewed by Matej Šimalčík

                                      Hide
                                      5.
                                      Exposure

                                      In my country, think tanks and academic research centers have received financial support from PRC-connected individuals or entities.

                                      Yes

                                      Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                      More

                                      Skipped

                                      10 countries chose this answer

                                      0/ No

                                      21 countries chose this answer

                                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                                      11 countries chose this answer

                                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                      11 countries chose this answer

                                      3/ Few, but significant

                                      19 countries chose this answer

                                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                                      10 countries chose this answer

                                      72 countries answered this indicator; 10 countries skipped this indicator

                                      Supporting Evidence

                                      Several Bulgarian universities receive funding from their Chinese partners. In some case, the funding is routed via Confucius Institutes. However, there is a general lack of transparency on the issue.

                                      1. https://academytracker.ceias.eu/map/eu/Bulgaria
                                      2. https://academytracker.ceias.eu/articles/2g28FMwxCHaHLZ59kBlPfb

                                        Answered by Rumena Filipova, and has been reviewed by Matej Šimalčík

                                        Hide
                                        6.
                                        Exposure

                                        In my country, experts participate in PRC talent recruitment programs such as the Thousand Talents Program or Changjiang Scholars program.

                                        Yes

                                        Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                        More

                                        Skipped

                                        3 countries chose this answer

                                        0/ No

                                        47 countries chose this answer

                                        1/ Few, but insignificant

                                        11 countries chose this answer

                                        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                        6 countries chose this answer

                                        3/ Few, but significant

                                        10 countries chose this answer

                                        4/ More than a few, and significant

                                        5 countries chose this answer

                                        79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                                        Supporting Evidence

                                        Huawei is active in terms of organizing talent competitions and has funded scholarship programs for Bulgarian students.

                                        1. https://academytracker.ceias.eu/articles/2g28FMwxCHaHLZ59kBlPfb
                                        2. https://academytracker.ceias.eu/map/eu/Bulgaria

                                          Answered by Rumena Filipova, and has been reviewed by Matej Šimalčík

                                          Hide
                                          7.
                                          Exposure

                                          In my country, scholars have taken trips to the PRC paid for by PRC-connected individuals or entities.

                                          Yes

                                          Answer ( 2 / 4 )

                                          More

                                          Skipped

                                          13 countries chose this answer

                                          0/ No

                                          17 countries chose this answer

                                          1/ Few, but insignificant

                                          15 countries chose this answer

                                          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                          11 countries chose this answer

                                          3/ Few, but significant

                                          12 countries chose this answer

                                          4/ More than a few, and significant

                                          14 countries chose this answer

                                          69 countries answered this indicator; 13 countries skipped this indicator

                                          Supporting Evidence

                                          Not Found

                                          1. https://academytracker.ceias.eu/articles/2g28FMwxCHaHLZ59kBlPfb

                                            Answered by Rumena Filipova, and has been reviewed by Matej Šimalčík

                                            Hide
                                            8.
                                            Pressure

                                            In my country, organized PRC-connected student groups, such as Chinese Students and Scholars Associations (CSSAs), are involved in attempts to censor staff or students (e.g. by harassing students protesting human rights abuses in the PRC, or formally complaining about the identification of Taiwan as a country in lecture slides).

                                            No

                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                            More

                                            Skipped

                                            1 countries chose this answer

                                            0/ No

                                            64 countries chose this answer

                                            1/ Few, but insignificant

                                            6 countries chose this answer

                                            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                            3 countries chose this answer

                                            3/ Few, but significant

                                            5 countries chose this answer

                                            4/ More than a few, and significant

                                            3 countries chose this answer

                                            81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                            Supporting Evidence

                                            Not Found

                                              Supplementary Notes

                                              No evidence to suggest otherwise

                                                Answered by Rumena Filipova, and has been reviewed by Matej Šimalčík

                                                Hide
                                                9.
                                                Pressure

                                                In my country, scholars or academics have been denied visas to travel to the PRC after expressing opinions or producing scholarship that is critical of the PRC.

                                                No

                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                More

                                                Skipped

                                                7 countries chose this answer

                                                0/ No

                                                64 countries chose this answer

                                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                1 countries chose this answer

                                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                0 countries chose this answer

                                                3/ Few, but significant

                                                6 countries chose this answer

                                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                4 countries chose this answer

                                                75 countries answered this indicator; 7 countries skipped this indicator

                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                Not Found

                                                  Supplementary Notes

                                                  No evidence to suggest otherwise

                                                    Answered by Rumena Filipova, and has been reviewed by Matej Šimalčík

                                                    Hide
                                                    10.
                                                    Effect

                                                    In my country, PRC-connected entities have been involved in school or university curriculum design, such as courses about East Asian history, modern politics, etc.

                                                    No

                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                    More

                                                    Skipped

                                                    2 countries chose this answer

                                                    0/ No

                                                    64 countries chose this answer

                                                    4/ Yes

                                                    16 countries chose this answer

                                                    80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                    Not Found

                                                      Supplementary Notes

                                                      No evidence to suggest otherwise

                                                        Answered by Rumena Filipova, and has been reviewed by Matej Šimalčík

                                                        Hide
                                                        11.
                                                        Effect

                                                        In my country, there are confirmed reports of teachers or professors avoiding the discussion of sensitive political issues (e.g. Uyghur re-education camps, Taiwan independence, Tiananmen Square Massacre).

                                                        No

                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                        More

                                                        Skipped

                                                        5 countries chose this answer

                                                        0/ No

                                                        65 countries chose this answer

                                                        1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                        1 countries chose this answer

                                                        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                        1 countries chose this answer

                                                        3/ Few, but significant

                                                        6 countries chose this answer

                                                        4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                        4 countries chose this answer

                                                        77 countries answered this indicator; 5 countries skipped this indicator

                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                        Not Found

                                                          Supplementary Notes

                                                          No evidence to suggest otherwise

                                                            Answered by Rumena Filipova, and has been reviewed by Matej Šimalčík

                                                            Hide

                                                            Economy

                                                            The Economy Domain measures the PRC’s economic leverage in the Index country, and how this is used to influence economic policy or corporate behavior in ways that favor the PRC.

                                                            1.
                                                            Exposure

                                                            The PRC is my country's number one trading partner (for trade in goods only).

                                                            No

                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                            More

                                                            0/ No

                                                            51 countries chose this answer

                                                            4/ Yes

                                                            31 countries chose this answer

                                                            82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                            Not Found

                                                            1. https://nsi.bg/en/content/7503/main-trade-partners

                                                              Answered by Rumena Filipova and Mirela Petkova, and has been reviewed by Matej Šimalčík

                                                              Hide
                                                              2.
                                                              Exposure

                                                              PRC-connected entities own more than 50% of my country’s sovereign debt.

                                                              No

                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                              More

                                                              Skipped

                                                              1 countries chose this answer

                                                              0/ No

                                                              77 countries chose this answer

                                                              4/ Yes

                                                              4 countries chose this answer

                                                              81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                              Not Found

                                                              1. https://sites.google.com/site/christophtrebesch/data

                                                                Answered by Rumena Filipova and Mirela Petkova, and has been reviewed by Matej Šimalčík

                                                                Hide
                                                                3.
                                                                Exposure

                                                                The PRC is the top customer for my country’s extractive industries.

                                                                No

                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                More

                                                                0/ No

                                                                62 countries chose this answer

                                                                4/ Yes

                                                                20 countries chose this answer

                                                                82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                The PRC is not the top customer of Bulgaria's extractive industry but it should be noted that Imore than 70 percent of the products that Bulgaria exports to China consist of primary commodities—refined copper and copper mine materials make up about 75 percent of exports followed by agricultural products such as corn and sunflower seeds.

                                                                1. https://ceias.eu/chinese-corrosive-capital-bulgaria-romania/

                                                                  Answered by Rumena Filipova and Mirela Petkova, and has been reviewed by Matej Šimalčík

                                                                  Hide
                                                                  4.
                                                                  Exposure

                                                                  In my country, PRC-related entities own, operate or substantially control critical infrastructure (e.g. ports, power plants, digital data centers, etc) or sensitive sectors (biotech, raw materials, etc.)

                                                                  No

                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                  More

                                                                  0/ No

                                                                  36 countries chose this answer

                                                                  4/ Yes

                                                                  46 countries chose this answer

                                                                  82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                  China does not operate/control critical infrastructure industries. It should be noted, however, that in 2019 the China Machinery Engineering Corporation (CMEC) signed a €120 million contract with the joint-stock company Logistic CenterVarna for the joint development of port infrastructure in Varna.

                                                                  1. https://ceias.eu/chinese-corrosive-capital-bulgaria-romania/

                                                                    Answered by Rumena Filipova and Mirela Petkova, and has been reviewed by Matej Šimalčík

                                                                    Hide
                                                                    5.
                                                                    Exposure

                                                                    My country joined (or applied to join) the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB).

                                                                    No

                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                    More

                                                                    0/ No

                                                                    27 countries chose this answer

                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                    55 countries chose this answer

                                                                    82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                    Not Found

                                                                    1. https://www.aiib.org/en/about-aiib/governance/members-of-bank/index.html

                                                                      Answered by Rumena Filipova and Mirela Petkova, and has been reviewed by Matej Šimalčík

                                                                      Hide
                                                                      6.
                                                                      Exposure

                                                                      In my country, major businesses are members of the Silk Road Chamber of International Commerce, or of the Belt and Road Industrial and Commercial Alliance, or of the Belt and Road General Chamber of Commerce.

                                                                      Yes

                                                                      Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                      More

                                                                      0/ No

                                                                      41 countries chose this answer

                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                      41 countries chose this answer

                                                                      82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                      The Bulgarian Chamber of Commerce and Industry is a member of the Silk Road Chamber of International Commerce. The Bulgarian government and the Bulgarian Chamber of Commerce and Industry have cooperated with the Belt and Road General Chamber of Commerce.

                                                                      1. https://srcic.org/silk-road-members/
                                                                      2. https://www.mi.government.bg/bg/news/news-3602.html

                                                                        Answered by Rumena Filipova and Mirela Petkova, and has been reviewed by Matej Šimalčík

                                                                        Hide
                                                                        7.
                                                                        Pressure

                                                                        My country has been the target of PRC economic coercion (e.g. trade or investment sanctions) that was specifically tailored at products or services that are highly dependent on the PRC market.

                                                                        No

                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                        More

                                                                        0/ No

                                                                        64 countries chose this answer

                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                        18 countries chose this answer

                                                                        82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                        Not Found

                                                                          Supplementary Notes

                                                                          No evidence to suggest otherwise

                                                                            Answered by Rumena Filipova and Mirela Petkova, and has been reviewed by Matej Šimalčík

                                                                            Hide
                                                                            8.
                                                                            Pressure

                                                                            In my country, local businesses have been harassed, threatened, or boycotted, due to their activities or statements in support of causes deemed unacceptable by the PRC government (e.g. Taiwanese independence, Hong Kong democracy, Tibet or Xinjiang issues, etc).

                                                                            No

                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                            More

                                                                            Skipped

                                                                            2 countries chose this answer

                                                                            0/ No

                                                                            65 countries chose this answer

                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                            15 countries chose this answer

                                                                            80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                            Not Found

                                                                              Supplementary Notes

                                                                              No evidence to suggest otherwise

                                                                                Answered by Rumena Filipova and Mirela Petkova, and has been reviewed by Matej Šimalčík

                                                                                Hide
                                                                                9.
                                                                                Effect

                                                                                My country has free-trade agreement(s) with the PRC (either bilateral or as part of regional agreement(s)) that primarily deals with trade in goods or services, including digital goods or services.

                                                                                No

                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                More

                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                51 countries chose this answer

                                                                                4/ Yes

                                                                                31 countries chose this answer

                                                                                82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                No FTA with China was signed. Bulgaria is an EU member state, negotiations about FTA are an exclusive competence of the EU.

                                                                                    Answered by Rumena Filipova and Mirela Petkova, and has been reviewed by Matej Šimalčík

                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                    10.
                                                                                    Effect

                                                                                    In my country, central or local governments have relaxed or removed regulatory restrictions, or have established special economic zones (or free trade zones, industrial parks, etc.) to attract investments or economic participation from the PRC.

                                                                                    Yes

                                                                                    Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                    More

                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                    47 countries chose this answer

                                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                                    35 countries chose this answer

                                                                                    82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                    In 2017, there was a pledge linked to the development of a large-scale smart city, Saint Sophia. The mega project foresees the construction of a tourist and entertainment near the town of Elin Pelin. The total amount of investment is planned to reach €750 million. According to the Bulgarian Investment Promotion Act, priority investments benefit from a number of state-granted incentives, including shorter administrative procedures, easier acquisitions of properties, state aid for investments in production and science, concessions for labor costs.

                                                                                    1. https://balkaninsight.com/2017/08/09/bulgaria-extends-support-for-chinese-smart-city-near-sofia-08-08-2017/

                                                                                      Answered by Rumena Filipova and Mirela Petkova, and has been reviewed by Matej Šimalčík

                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                      11.
                                                                                      Effect

                                                                                      In my country, PRC-connected entities requisitioned infrastructure or land for failure to repay debts in a timely manner.

                                                                                      No

                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                      More

                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                      2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                      76 countries chose this answer

                                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                                      4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                      80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                      Not Found

                                                                                        Supplementary Notes

                                                                                        No evidence to suggest otherwise

                                                                                          Answered by Rumena Filipova and Mirela Petkova, and has been reviewed by Matej Šimalčík

                                                                                          Hide

                                                                                          Society

                                                                                          The Society Domain measures the extent and effectiveness of the PRC’s efforts to advance its soft power in the Index country, including its influence over the actions and views of local organizations and citizens.

                                                                                          1.
                                                                                          Exposure

                                                                                          In my country, there are local groups or organizations with words like “Promotion of Peaceful Reunification” in their name, and they regularly publicize their views on Taiwan, Hong Kong, Tibet and Xinjiang issues.

                                                                                          No

                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                          More

                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                          1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                          49 countries chose this answer

                                                                                          1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                          12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                          7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                          3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                          9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                          4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                          4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                          81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                          Not Found

                                                                                            Supplementary Notes

                                                                                            No evidence to suggest otherwise.

                                                                                              Answered by Rumena Filipova and Mirela Petkova, and has been reviewed by Matej Šimalčík

                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                              2.
                                                                                              Exposure

                                                                                              In my country, there are members and member organizations of United World Chinese Association (世界华人协会).

                                                                                              No

                                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                              More

                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                              1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                              62 countries chose this answer

                                                                                              4/ Yes

                                                                                              19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                              81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                              Not Found

                                                                                                Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                No evidence to suggest otherwise.

                                                                                                  Answered by Rumena Filipova and Mirela Petkova, and has been reviewed by Matej Šimalčík

                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                  3.
                                                                                                  Exposure

                                                                                                  In my country, labor unions cooperate on exchanges or official visits to the All-China Federation of Trade Unions (ACFTU) in the PRC.

                                                                                                  No

                                                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                  1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                  68 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                  4/ Yes

                                                                                                  13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                  81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                  Not Found

                                                                                                    Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                    No evidence to suggest otherwise.

                                                                                                      Answered by Rumena Filipova and Mirela Petkova, and has been reviewed by Matej Šimalčík

                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                      4.
                                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                                      In my country, there are local reports of personnel linked to the UFWD who make appearances at Chinese diaspora community events and activities (e.g. Lunar New Year events, Dragon Boat festival tournaments, etc).

                                                                                                      No

                                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                      2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                      50 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                      9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                      5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                      3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                      9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                      7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                      80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                      Not Found

                                                                                                        Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                        No evidence to suggest otherwise.

                                                                                                          Answered by Rumena Filipova and Mirela Petkova, and has been reviewed by Matej Šimalčík

                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                          5.
                                                                                                          Exposure

                                                                                                          In my country, there are PRC-connected professional associations that are closely engaged with their counterparts locally, such as All-China Journalists Association (中华全国新闻工作者协会), China Artists Association (中国艺术家协会), China Writers Association (中国作家协会) or All-China Women Federation (全国妇联).

                                                                                                          Yes

                                                                                                          Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                          2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                          33 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                          1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                          25 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                          8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                          3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                          8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                          4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                          6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                          80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                          For example, the Bulgarian publishing house Iztok-Zapad (East-West) is a member of the Association of publishers of China and the 16+1. Moreover, the Union of Bulgarian Journalists and the All-China Journalists Association agreed to collaborate and conduct exchange visits already in the 1980s, while in 2018, the Union of Bulgarian Journalists also signed a cooperation agreement with the One-Belt One-Road Journalist Forum. The most recent visit to Bulgaria took place in 2019. The delegation from China was composed of high-ranking media officials, including the Executive Director of the All-China Journalists Association, the deputy editor in chief of China Daily, the Director of the mobile version of People’s Daily, who met with Bulgarian journalists oriented on promoting cooperation with Beijing.

                                                                                                          1. https://petkohinov.com/archives/2591
                                                                                                          2. https://nova.bg/mynews/view/2018/06/28/77493/%D1%81%D0%B1%D0%B6-%D0%BF%D0%B0%D1%80%D1%82%D0%BD%D1%8C%D0%BE%D1%80-%D0%BD%D0%B0-%D0%B6%D1%83%D1%80%D0%BD%D0%B0%D0%BB%D0%B8%D1%81%D1%82%D0%B8%D1%87%D0%B5%D1%81%D0%BA%D0%B8%D1%8F-%D1%84%D0%BE%D1%80%D1%83%D0%BC-%D0%B5%D0%B4%D0%B8%D0%BD-%D0%BF%D0%BE%D1%8F%D1%81-%D0%B5%D0%B4%D0%B8%D0%BD-%D0%BF%D1%8A%D1%82
                                                                                                          3. https://blackandwhitemag.bg/2019/03/05/%D0%B8%D0%B7%D0%BF%D1%8A%D0%BB%D0%BD%D0%B8%D1%82%D0%B5%D0%BB%D0%BD%D0%B8%D1%8F%D1%82-%D1%81%D0%B5%D0%BA%D1%80%D0%B5%D1%82%D0%B0%D1%80-%D0%BD%D0%B0-%D0%BE%D0%B1%D1%89%D0%BE%D0%BA%D0%B8%D1%82%D0%B0/

                                                                                                            Answered by Rumena Filipova and Mirela Petkova, and has been reviewed by Matej Šimalčík

                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                            6.
                                                                                                            Exposure

                                                                                                            In my country, PRC-connected individuals or entities donate money or provide other types of support to religious communities and charities.

                                                                                                            Yes

                                                                                                            Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                            1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                            46 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                                                            35 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                            81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                            The deliveries were mostly organized by the Chinese community in Bulgaria, on the municipal level (i.e. carried out by Sofia’s sister cities in China) and by Huawei but cannot be compared to the large-scale and publicly resonant donations to other countries, such as Serbia. Please advise how to modify the grading.

                                                                                                            1. https://ecfr.eu/publication/let-a-thousand-contacts-bloom-how-china-competes-for-influence-in-bulgaria/

                                                                                                            Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                            No evidence to suggest otherwise.

                                                                                                              Answered by Rumena Filipova and Mirela Petkova, and has been reviewed by Matej Šimalčík

                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                              7.
                                                                                                              Exposure

                                                                                                              In my country, the PRC government or PRC-connected entities distribute entertainment products (including: drama and TV shows) or related hardwares (e.g. OTT streaming players hosting PRC media channels) freely or at a cheap price.

                                                                                                              Yes

                                                                                                              Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                              2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                              38 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                              21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                              4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                              3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                              11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                              6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                              80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                              This is a very limited phenomenon. Yet, it should be noted that Chinese films can be streamed on YouTube on the initiative of local actors as it happened in 2020 regarding the Chinese film 'Alive'.

                                                                                                              1. https://www.ploshtadslaveikov.com/kultov-kitajski-film-bezplatno-onlajn-spetsialno-za-balgariya/

                                                                                                                Answered by Rumena Filipova and Mirela Petkova, and has been reviewed by Matej Šimalčík

                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                8.
                                                                                                                Effect

                                                                                                                Cultural products (such as films and TV shows) produced by my country’s production studios typically portray the PRC in a positive light.

                                                                                                                No

                                                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                60 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                4/ Yes

                                                                                                                15 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                75 countries answered this indicator; 7 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                Films and TV shows produced in Bulgaria do not focus on China.

                                                                                                                    Answered by Rumena Filipova and Mirela Petkova, and has been reviewed by Matej Šimalčík

                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                    9.
                                                                                                                    Effect

                                                                                                                    In my country, celebrities regularly publish or share propaganda narratives from the PRC.

                                                                                                                    No

                                                                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                    67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                    10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                    0 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                    3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                    3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                    2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                    82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                    Bulgarian celebrities do not touch on the China-related topics.

                                                                                                                        Answered by Rumena Filipova and Mirela Petkova, and has been reviewed by Matej Šimalčík

                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                        10.
                                                                                                                        Effect

                                                                                                                        In my country, the national or local governments regularly publish or share propaganda narratives from the PRC (e.g. statements from the PRC government or embassies).

                                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                        2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                        54 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                        1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                        12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                        2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                        3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                        7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                        4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                        5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                        80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                        No examplese of such behavior exist.

                                                                                                                            Answered by Rumena Filipova and Mirela Petkova, and has been reviewed by Matej Šimalčík

                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                            11.
                                                                                                                            Effect

                                                                                                                            In my country, a majority of citizens have positive views of the PRC government.

                                                                                                                            Yes

                                                                                                                            Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                            7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                            50 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                                                                            25 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                            75 countries answered this indicator; 7 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                            Unlike their overly emotionally positive attitude towards Russia, Bulgarians are only cautiously positive towards China, prefigured by the lack of deep political, economic and cultural ties between Bulgaria and China. Some 55% of the Bulgarians maintain a favorable view of Beijing, which is higher than in the rest of the CEE and Western European countries surveyed by Pew (including, Poland, Lithuania, Hungary, Slovakia, Czechia, Greece, Spain, UK, Italy, Netherlands, Germany, France, Sweden).

                                                                                                                            1. https://www.pewresearch.org/global/2019/12/05/chinas-economic-growth-mostly-welcomed-in-emerging-markets-but-neighbors-wary-of-its-influence/

                                                                                                                              Answered by Rumena Filipova and Mirela Petkova, and has been reviewed by Matej Šimalčík

                                                                                                                              Hide

                                                                                                                              Military

                                                                                                                              The Military Domain gauges the bilateral military relationship between the PRC and the Index country, including PRC efforts to influence local military personnel.

                                                                                                                              1.
                                                                                                                              Exposure

                                                                                                                              My country currently imports (or receives in-kind donation of) military or law-enforcement equipment or components of equipment from the PRC.

                                                                                                                              Yes

                                                                                                                              Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                              36 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                              4/ Yes

                                                                                                                              46 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                              82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                              Not Found

                                                                                                                              1. https://ecfr.eu/publication/let-a-thousand-contacts-bloom-how-china-competes-for-influence-in-bulgaria/

                                                                                                                                Answered by Rumena Filipova and Mirela Petkova, and has been reviewed by Matej Šimalčík

                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                2.
                                                                                                                                Exposure

                                                                                                                                My country currently exports military or law-enforcement equipment or components of equipment to the PRC.

                                                                                                                                No

                                                                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                74 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                Not Found

                                                                                                                                  Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                  No evidence to suggest otherwise.

                                                                                                                                    Answered by Rumena Filipova and Mirela Petkova, and has been reviewed by Matej Šimalčík

                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                    3.
                                                                                                                                    Exposure

                                                                                                                                    My country co-develops or co-produces military or law-enforcement equipment with the PRC.

                                                                                                                                    Yes

                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                    1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                    66 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                    15 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                    81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                    Not Found

                                                                                                                                    1. https://ecfr.eu/publication/let-a-thousand-contacts-bloom-how-china-competes-for-influence-in-bulgaria/

                                                                                                                                      Answered by Rumena Filipova and Mirela Petkova, and has been reviewed by Matej Šimalčík

                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                      4.
                                                                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                                                                      In my country, there are reports that the PRC has expressed intentions or has taken actions to establish basing.

                                                                                                                                      No

                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                                      2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                      67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                      13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                      80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                      Not Found

                                                                                                                                        Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                        No evidence to suggest otherwise

                                                                                                                                          Answered by Rumena Filipova and Mirela Petkova, and has been reviewed by Matej Šimalčík

                                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                                          5.
                                                                                                                                          Exposure

                                                                                                                                          In my country, the People’s Liberation Army (PLA) has participated in a humanitarian relief/disaster assistance (HADR) effort.

                                                                                                                                          No

                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                                                          2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                          61 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                          4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                          19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                          80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                          Not Found

                                                                                                                                            Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                            No evidence to suggest otherwise

                                                                                                                                              Answered by Rumena Filipova and Mirela Petkova, and has been reviewed by Matej Šimalčík

                                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                                              6.
                                                                                                                                              Exposure

                                                                                                                                              In my country, People’s Liberation Army (PLA) military personnel are permanently or rotationally deployed (excluding defense attaches and peacekeepers).

                                                                                                                                              No

                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                              77 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                              4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                              5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                              82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                              Not Found

                                                                                                                                                Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                No evidence to suggest otherwise

                                                                                                                                                  Answered by Rumena Filipova and Mirela Petkova, and has been reviewed by Matej Šimalčík

                                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                                  7.
                                                                                                                                                  Exposure

                                                                                                                                                  In my country, members of the military have received professional military education from the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                  Yes

                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                                  48 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                  4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                  34 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                  82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                  Not Found

                                                                                                                                                  1. https://ecfr.eu/publication/let-a-thousand-contacts-bloom-how-china-competes-for-influence-in-bulgaria/

                                                                                                                                                    Answered by Rumena Filipova and Mirela Petkova, and has been reviewed by Matej Šimalčík

                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                    8.
                                                                                                                                                    Exposure

                                                                                                                                                    In my country, members of the military have received peacekeeping training from the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                    No

                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                                    2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                    67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                    13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                    80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                    Not Found

                                                                                                                                                      Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                      No evidence to suggest otherwise

                                                                                                                                                        Answered by Rumena Filipova and Mirela Petkova, and has been reviewed by Matej Šimalčík

                                                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                                                        9.
                                                                                                                                                        Exposure

                                                                                                                                                        In my country, high-ranking retired or current military and/or intelligence officers have received direct or deferred benefits from PRC-connected individuals or entities openly or covertly (e.g. have been appointed to lucrative positions as board members or consultants with PRC-invested firms, casinos, energy companies, etc.) during or in retirement from public service.

                                                                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                                                        4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                                        67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                        11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                        78 countries answered this indicator; 4 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                        Not Found

                                                                                                                                                          Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                          No evidence to suggest otherwise

                                                                                                                                                            Answered by Rumena Filipova and Mirela Petkova, and has been reviewed by Matej Šimalčík

                                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                                            10.
                                                                                                                                                            Effect

                                                                                                                                                            In my country, high-ranking retired or current military and/or intelligence officials advocate for more coordination with the People’s Liberation Army (PLA).

                                                                                                                                                            No

                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                                                            1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                            68 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                            13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                            81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                            Not Found

                                                                                                                                                              Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                              No evidence to suggest otherwise

                                                                                                                                                                Answered by Rumena Filipova and Mirela Petkova, and has been reviewed by Matej Šimalčík

                                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                                11.
                                                                                                                                                                Effect

                                                                                                                                                                My country cooperates with the People’s Liberation Army (PLA) on military exchange exercises, including drills and war games.

                                                                                                                                                                No

                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                51 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                31 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                There is no evidence to suggest Bulgaria has military exchange exercises with the PRC

                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by Rumena Filipova and Mirela Petkova, and has been reviewed by Matej Šimalčík

                                                                                                                                                                    Hide

                                                                                                                                                                    Law Enforcement

                                                                                                                                                                    The Law Enforcement Domain measures law enforcement cooperation between the PRC and the Index country, as well as the nature and extent of PRC-related criminal activity in the Index country.

                                                                                                                                                                    1.
                                                                                                                                                                    Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                    My country currently maintains an extradition treaty, legal mutual assistance or other similar arrangements with the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                    Yes

                                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                    32 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                    50 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                    82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                    China and Bulgaria signed an extradition treaty in 1998, which remains in force.

                                                                                                                                                                    1. https://www.ciela.net/svobodna-zona-darjaven-vestnik/document/1060675072/issue/2472/dogovor-za-ekstraditsiya-mezhdu-republika-balgariya-i-kitayskata-narodna-republika

                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by Rumena Filipova and Mirela Petkova, and has been reviewed by Matej Šimalčík

                                                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                                                      2.
                                                                                                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                      In my country, law enforcement authorities have signed cooperation agreements with the PRC on combatting terrorism.

                                                                                                                                                                      Yes

                                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                      1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                      55 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                      26 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                      81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                      Bulgarian and Chinese authorities signed agreements that deal with combatting transnational crime, including terrorism, in 2008 and 2016.

                                                                                                                                                                      1. https://www.mediapool.bg/bulgaria-i-kitai-zaedno-sreshtu-mafiyata-news138262.html
                                                                                                                                                                      2. https://dv.parliament.bg/DVWeb/showMaterialDV.jsp;jsessionid=A38ACA07F1926BD3B39C7509FCC5006C?idMat=110048

                                                                                                                                                                        Answered by Rumena Filipova and Mirela Petkova, and has been reviewed by Matej Šimalčík

                                                                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                                                                        3.
                                                                                                                                                                        Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                        In my country, PRC-connected gangs (such as Triad, 三合会) are known to be operating in my country.

                                                                                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                        1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                        52 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                        29 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                        81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                        Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                          Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                          No evidence to suggest otherwise

                                                                                                                                                                            Answered by Rumena Filipova and Mirela Petkova, and has been reviewed by Matej Šimalčík

                                                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                                                            4.
                                                                                                                                                                            Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                            In my country, there are reports of economic espionage targeting the private sector that were suspected to benefit PRC-connected entities.

                                                                                                                                                                            No

                                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                            2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                            49 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                            1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                            7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                            3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                            3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                            12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                            4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                            9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                            80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                            Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                              Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                              No evidence to suggest otherwise.

                                                                                                                                                                                Answered by Rumena Filipova and Mirela Petkova, and has been reviewed by Matej Šimalčík

                                                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                5.
                                                                                                                                                                                Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                In my country, there are reports of cyber attacks targeting government, critical infrastructure, or enterprises that were suspected to be initiated from the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                                Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                37 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                15 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                There have been reports that China hacked the Bulgarian Foreign Ministry along the foreign ministries of other European countries. In 2021, the hacking of the system that issues covid certificates was said to have been conducted also from Chinese locations, among others.

                                                                                                                                                                                1. https://bnr.bg/horizont/post/101545783/spored-informacionno-obslujvane-balgaria-e-obekt-na-golama-kiber-ataka
                                                                                                                                                                                2. https://bntnews.bg/bg/a/113406-kitajski_hakeri_atakuvat_evropejski_vynshni_ministerstva

                                                                                                                                                                                  Answered by Rumena Filipova and Mirela Petkova, and has been reviewed by Matej Šimalčík

                                                                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                  6.
                                                                                                                                                                                  Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                  In my country, triads are known to have threatened or used violence to coerce, intimidate or punish Chinese dissidents.

                                                                                                                                                                                  No

                                                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                  2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                  67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                  5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                  3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                  3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                  2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                  80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                  Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                    Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                    No evidence to suggest otherwise

                                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by Rumena Filipova and Mirela Petkova, and has been reviewed by Matej Šimalčík

                                                                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                      7.
                                                                                                                                                                                      Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                      My country has deployed video or internet surveillance systems from the PRC for law enforcement.

                                                                                                                                                                                      Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                      1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                      30 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                      51 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                      81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                      Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                      1. https://ecfr.eu/publication/let-a-thousand-contacts-bloom-how-china-competes-for-influence-in-bulgaria/

                                                                                                                                                                                        Answered by Rumena Filipova and Mirela Petkova, and has been reviewed by Matej Šimalčík

                                                                                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                        8.
                                                                                                                                                                                        Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                        In my country, representatives of the PRC police force have had joint patrols with local law enforcement.

                                                                                                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                        71 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                        11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                        82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                        Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                          Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                          No evidence to suggest otherwise.

                                                                                                                                                                                            Answered by Rumena Filipova and Mirela Petkova, and has been reviewed by Matej Šimalčík

                                                                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                            9.
                                                                                                                                                                                            Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                            My government has detained people at the request of the PRC for committing a crime involving engagements with social movements or resistance activities in Hong Kong, Xinjiang or for other human rights or civic rights issues.

                                                                                                                                                                                            No

                                                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                            1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                            68 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                            13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                            81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                            Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                              Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                              No evidence to suggest otherwise.

                                                                                                                                                                                                Answered by Rumena Filipova and Mirela Petkova, and has been reviewed by Matej Šimalčík

                                                                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                10.
                                                                                                                                                                                                Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                My country has deported Taiwan citizens to the PRC to face prosecution.

                                                                                                                                                                                                No

                                                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                71 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                  No evidence to suggest otherwise.

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by Rumena Filipova and Mirela Petkova, and has been reviewed by Matej Šimalčík

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                    11.
                                                                                                                                                                                                    Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                    My country has extradited or has deported individuals to the PRC, although such decisions had attracted criticisms from politicians, government employees or from local or foreign NGOs.

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                    61 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                    21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                    82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                    In 2018, Bulgaria became the first EU member state to extradite to China a former Chinese local official wanted by the Chinese authorities on suspicions of corruption.

                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-china-corruption-bulgaria-idUSKCN1NZ0A8

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by Rumena Filipova and Mirela Petkova, and has been reviewed by Matej Šimalčík

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Hide

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Technology

                                                                                                                                                                                                      The Technology Domain gauges the PRC’s influence over the technology sector in the Index country, including the activity and financial leverage of PRC companies, use of PRC hardware, and bilateral research partnerships.

                                                                                                                                                                                                      1.
                                                                                                                                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                      In my country, PRC-connected entities (such as China Mobile, China Unicom or China Telecom) or their subsidiaries provide telecom services.

                                                                                                                                                                                                      No

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                      52 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                      30 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                      82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                      China Telecom has a point of presence in Bulgaria but it does not provide telecommunications services.

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answered by Rumena Filipova and Mirela Petkova, and has been reviewed by Matej Šimalčík

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                          2.
                                                                                                                                                                                                          Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                          In my country, telecoms have signed agreements to adopt hardwares or technical specifications of 4G or 5G cellular networks that are produced or developed by Huawei, ZTE or other PRC enterprises.

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                          16 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                          1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                          5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                          4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                          3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                          27 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                          4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                          30 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                          82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                          One of Bulgaria’s biggest telecommunications providers, Yettel (formerly known as Telenor), has built its 5G networks with Huawei technology.

                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. https://www.bloombergtv.bg/a/17-v-razvitie/95100-edinstveno-telenor-ot-balgarskite-kompanii-izgrazhdat-5g-mrezhata-si-iztsyalo-s-huawei

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answered by Rumena Filipova and Mirela Petkova, and has been reviewed by Matej Šimalčík

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                            3.
                                                                                                                                                                                                            Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                            In my country, telecoms have adopted hardware or technical specifications by PRC-connected entities in internet/wifi/telecommunication service infrastructure projects, in addition to 4G/5G cellular network.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                            8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                            14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                            1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                            10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                            3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                            3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                            24 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                            4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                            23 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                            74 countries answered this indicator; 8 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                            The use of Huawei equipment for the provision of Internet services is a generic phenomenon in Bulgaria. All the major telecom providers in the country use Huawei routers.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. https://help.a1.bg/internet/fixed-internet/fiber-internet/huawei-echolife-hg8245h/internet-settings
                                                                                                                                                                                                            2. https://www.vivacom.bg/bg/files/16440-rykovodstvo-za-4g-huawei-router-b310s-22.pdf
                                                                                                                                                                                                            3. https://www.yettel.bg/bg/private/device/list/device_3g_modem/field_device_brand/huawei-22?mode=list

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answered by Rumena Filipova and Mirela Petkova, and has been reviewed by Matej Šimalčík

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                              4.
                                                                                                                                                                                                              Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                              In my country, PRC-connected entities are authorized vendors to supply tech-related equipment or services to our government, military or security services.

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                              1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                              28 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                              4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                              53 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                              81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Examples of such collaboration include research partnerships with Huawei; point of presence with China Telecom; a subsidiary of Dahua Technology.

                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. https://chinatechmap.aspi.org.au

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answered by Rumena Filipova and Mirela Petkova, and has been reviewed by Matej Šimalčík

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                5.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                In my country, central or local governments have collaboration (such as data collection or exchange agreement, or adoption of related hardwares) with the PRC government or PRC-connected entities on facial, voice recognition or other applications involving biometrics achieved by AI.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 2 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                42 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                In 2017, for example, representatives of the Bulgarian government, including those responsible for e-government, supported the establishment of a strategic partnership between Huawei and Vivacom (one of the largest Bulgarian telecommunication providers) to provide cloud technologies for the Bulgarian government and business.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. https://www.vivacom.bg/bg/residential/za-nas/novini/finansi?read=vivacom-i-huawei-sys-strategichesko-partniorstvo-za-razvitieto-na-oblachnite-tehnologii-v-polza-na-bylgarskija-biznes-i-pravitelstvo

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answered by Rumena Filipova and Mirela Petkova, and has been reviewed by Matej Šimalčík

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  6.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  In my country, one or more cities have procured, or have signed contracts with PRC-connected entities to establish “smart city” systems.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  35 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  25 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  The plans for Chinese-supported development of smart cities in Bulgaria tend to remain on the level of pledges. For instance, in 2017, there was a pledge linked to the development of a large-scale smart city, Saint Sophia, near Sofia, involving the construction of a tourist and entertainment center. The total amount of investment was planned to reach €750 million. Also, more recently, in 2021, the municipality of Ruse started negotiations for the development of a smart city with Chinese technology.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. https://www.mediapool.bg/kitai-shte-stroi-krai-sofiya-parviya-umen-grad-v-evropa-news267548.html
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2. https://www.dunavmost.com/novini/kitai-shte-pomaga-na-ruse-da-izgradi-umen-grad

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by Rumena Filipova and Mirela Petkova, and has been reviewed by Matej Šimalčík

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    7.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    In my country, financial institutions use the China Cross-Border Interbank Payment System (CIPS) clearing and settlement services system.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    63 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    18 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      No evidence to suggest otherwise.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answered by Rumena Filipova and Mirela Petkova, and has been reviewed by Matej Šimalčík

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        8.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        In my country, PRC-connected venture capital invests in technology start-ups.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        32 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        18 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        9.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        In my country, companies have publicly announced that they had signed MOUs to collaborate on technological development (such as collaborations in A.I., Blockchain, Cloud Computing, Big Data) with PRC-connected entities.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 2 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        31 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        In general, before the increase in scrutiny of Huawei's activities, Bulgarian telecom providers publicly spoke about their cooperation with Huawei. In their first trials of 5G, Telenor (now renamed as Yettel) used Huawei equipment; BTC (now Vivacom) combined the services of Huawei, Nokia, Ericsson and Cisco. Moreover, in 2017, a strategic partnership was established between Huawei and Vivacom to provide cloud technologies for the Bulgarian government and business.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. https://www.vivacom.bg/bg/residential/za-nas/novini/finansi?read=vivacom-i-huawei-sys-strategichesko-partniorstvo-za-razvitieto-na-oblachnite-tehnologii-v-polza-na-bylgarskija-biznes-i-pravitelstvo

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answered by Rumena Filipova and Mirela Petkova, and has been reviewed by Matej Šimalčík

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          10.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          In my country, PRC-connected entities are shareholders or developers of the top five popular social media/messaging apps, based on usage.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          44 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          36 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          TikTok is the 2nd most used social network in Bulgaria.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. https://appfigures.com/top-apps/google-play/bulgaria/social

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answered by Rumena Filipova and Mirela Petkova, and has been reviewed by Matej Šimalčík

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            11.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            In my country, the central or local government(s) has collaborated with the PRC on endorsing the use of BeiDou satellite navigation system.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            64 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            17 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              No evidence to suggest otherwise

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answered by Rumena Filipova and Mirela Petkova, and has been reviewed by Matej Šimalčík

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Hide

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Domestic Politics

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                The Domestic Politics Domain evaluates PRC efforts to influence the political landscape in the Index country, and the footprint of PRC security companies.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                In my country, politicians or government employees at the sub-national level are signing agreements with the PRC government or state-owned enterprises.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                20 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                23 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                In my country, local municipalities have sister-city ties (友好城市) with municipalities in the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                23 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                3.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                In my country, politicians or government employees have taken trips to the PRC paid for by PRC-connected individuals or entities.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                22 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                16 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                16 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                73 countries answered this indicator; 9 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                In general, there is a pattern, whereby politicians of certain parties (particularly the Bulgarian Socialist Party) are more likely to make trips to China, which was especially the case in 2013/2014 when the BSP was in power. However, there isn't information available regarding the financial details of Bulgarian politicians' visits to China.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  In general, there is a pattern, whereby politicians of certain parties (particularly the Bulgarian Socialist Party) are more likely to make trips to China, which was especially the case in 2013/2014 when the BSP was in power. However, there isn't information available regarding the financial details of Bulgarian politicians' visits to China.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by Rumena Filipova and Mirela Petkova, and has been reviewed by Matej Šimalčík

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    4.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    In my country, politicians or government employees visit the PRC and have meetings with PRC officials and think tanks.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 2 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    25 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    32 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Yes, politicians, particularly from the Socialist Party and GERB (Citizens for European Development of Bulgaria) have tended to visit China.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. https://bntnews.bg/bg/a/160462-vizita-na-plamen-oresharski-v-kitaj
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2. https://www.dnevnik.bg/bulgaria/2016/06/07/2773415_delegaciia_na_gerb_e_na_vizita_v_kitai_po_pokana_na/

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by Rumena Filipova and Mirela Petkova, and has been reviewed by Matej Šimalčík

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      5.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      In my country, law enforcement and judicial related training offered the PRC-connected individuals or entities has been accepted by national or subnational governments.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      46 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      16 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        No evidence to suggest otherwise

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answered by Rumena Filipova and Mirela Petkova, and has been reviewed by Matej Šimalčík

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          6.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          In my country, there are reports of politicians or political parties receiving campaign donations that originate in the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          60 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          0 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          78 countries answered this indicator; 4 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            No evidence to suggest otherwise

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answered by Rumena Filipova and Mirela Petkova, and has been reviewed by Matej Šimalčík

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              7.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              In my country, groups with reported links to the United Front Work Department (UFWD) have hosted fundraisings or have provided other forms of support for government employees, politicians or parties.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              64 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                No evidence to suggest otherwise

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answered by Rumena Filipova and Mirela Petkova, and has been reviewed by Matej Šimalčík

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  8.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  In my country, groups with reported links to the United Front Work Department (UFWD) have made public statements opposing the candidacy of a local political candidate or party, claiming them being “anti-China”.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  78 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  0 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  0 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    No evidence to suggest otherwise.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by Rumena Filipova and Mirela Petkova, and has been reviewed by Matej Šimalčík

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      9.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      In my country, politicians or government employees have publicly expressed positive views of the PRC government.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      37 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Such statements have come primarily from GERB, the BSP and the President.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. https://ceias.eu/chinese-corrosive-capital-bulgaria-romania/
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2. https://bntnews.bg/bg/a/borisov-blgariya-predlaga-izklyuchitelni-vzmozhnosti-za-investitsii
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      3. https://btvnovinite.bg/oresharski-ubezhdava-kitaiski-bogatashi-da-investirat-u-nas.html

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answered by Rumena Filipova and Mirela Petkova, and has been reviewed by Matej Šimalčík

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        10.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        In my country, politicians or government employees have received direct or deferred benefits from PRC-connected individuals or entities openly or covertly (e.g. have been appointed to lucrative positions as board members or consultants with PRC-invested firms, casinos, energy companies, etc.) during or in retirement from public office.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        40 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        0 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        18 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        73 countries answered this indicator; 9 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          No evidence to suggest otherwise.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answered by Rumena Filipova and Mirela Petkova, and has been reviewed by Matej Šimalčík

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            11.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            In my country, security services (安保/保安) offered by private PRC companies are contracted by national or subnational governments.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              No evidence to suggest otherwise

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answered by Rumena Filipova and Mirela Petkova, and has been reviewed by Matej Šimalčík

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Hide

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Foreign Policy

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                The Foreign Policy Domain gauges PRC efforts to achieve diplomatic objectives by influencing key actors in the Index country.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                My country’s legislature has a joint parliamentary friendship group, committee or other forms of sub-organizations with PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                25 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                57 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                In the current parliament there are no members of this group. But in previous parliaments it included numerous MPs.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. https://www.parliament.bg/bg/friendshipgroups/2695

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answered by Rumena Filipova and Mirela Petkova, and has been reviewed by Matej Šimalčík

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Representatives of a political party in my country’s national legislature have met officially with representatives of the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  20 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  40 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  The Bulgarian Socialist Party (BSP) has routinely met with CCP representatives. The BSP even established an affiliate in Wuhan.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. https://news.bg/politics/bsp-se-sreshta-s-komunisticheskite-partii-na-kitay-i-vietnam.html
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2. https://bsp.bg/news/view/5112-sergej_stanishev_se_sreshtna_s_delegaciq_ot_kitajskata_narodna_republika.html
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  3. https://www.mediapool.bg/bsp-s-partiyna-organizatsiya-v-kitai-v-chest-na-vizitata-na-oresharski-news210958.html

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by Rumena Filipova and Mirela Petkova, and has been reviewed by Matej Šimalčík

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    3.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    The PRC provides training to diplomats or civil servants on governance from my country (such as at 国家行政学院 or 中央党校).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    39 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    The Diplomatic Institute in Bulgaria conducts Chinese language course for Bulgarian diplomats and civil servants together with the Confucius Institute.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. https://bdi.bg/

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by Rumena Filipova and Mirela Petkova, and has been reviewed by Matej Šimalčík

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      4.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      In my country, politicians or government employees have been pressured by PRC diplomats to change their political or diplomatic stances.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      41 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Bulgarian MEP Ilhan Kyuchyuk was sanctioned by China together with other of his colleagues from the European Parliament in connection with the Uyghur issue.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. https://www.rferl.org/a/bulgarian-mep-kyuchyuk-china-sanctions-uyghur-tohti-sakharov-prize/31165846.html

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answered by Rumena Filipova and Mirela Petkova, and has been reviewed by Matej Šimalčík

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        5.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Citizens of my country have been detained in PRC or denied exit visas, and believed to be suffering from unfair legal treatments for political reasons, a.k.a. “hostage diplomacy”.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        61 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          No evidence to suggest otherwise

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answered by Rumena Filipova and Mirela Petkova, and has been reviewed by Matej Šimalčík

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            6.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            The head of state, head of government or foreign minister of my country has denied Taiwan’s right to participate as a member, observer or guest in WHO.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            65 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              No evidence to suggest otherwise.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answered by Rumena Filipova and Mirela Petkova, and has been reviewed by Matej Šimalčík

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                7.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                My country publicly supported the appointment of a PRC official to be the head of a United Nations agency (such as the FAO or ICAO) or other intergovernmental organizations (such as INTERPOL).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                62 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                73 countries answered this indicator; 9 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  No evidence to suggest otherwise

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by Rumena Filipova and Mirela Petkova, and has been reviewed by Matej Šimalčík

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    8.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    My government has shown support of PRC's territorial claims (such as on the South China Sea arbitration ruling issued by the UNCLOS Arbitral Tribunal in July 2016; except claims over Taiwan, which are indirectly covered in indicator 6.)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Oppose

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    0/ My country has rejected PRC’s claim

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    24 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2/ My country has remained silent

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    36 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    4/ My country has adhered to PRC’s claim

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. https://amti.csis.org/sides-in-south-china-sea/
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2. https://trud.bg/article-4804598/

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by Rumena Filipova and Mirela Petkova, and has been reviewed by Matej Šimalčík

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      9.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      My country has shown one of the following stances on PRC’s treatment of its Uyghur population.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Oppose

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      0/ My country has denounced PRC

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      31 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2/ My country has remained silent

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      32 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      4/ My country has voiced support to PRC’s stance

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      17 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. https://new-york-un.diplo.de/un-en/news-corner/201006-heusgen-china/2402648

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answered by Rumena Filipova and Mirela Petkova, and has been reviewed by Matej Šimalčík

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        10.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        My country has shown one of the following stances on PRC’s treatment of its Tibet population.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Silence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        0/ My country has denounced PRC

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2/ My country has remained silent

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        46 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        4/ My country has voiced support to PRC’s stance

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        There are no examples of Bulgaria taking stance on the issue.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answered by Rumena Filipova and Mirela Petkova, and has been reviewed by Matej Šimalčík

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            11.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            My government has not publicly criticized the PRC’s imposition of the National Security Law on Hong Kong.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Silence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            0/ My country has denounced PRC

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            24 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2/ My country has remained silent

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            36 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            4/ My country has voiced support to PRC’s stance

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            There are no examples of Bulgaria taking a position on the issue. note: It should be mentioned that this has only happened at the UN and no discussions/comments have been given on a national level - the government has not picked it up as a topic to raise to neither the domestic audience, nor the PRC itself. In general, there is a pattern in Bulgarian foreign policy whereby international coalitions/other EU member states are joined in order to make a statement on a certain matter - but very often this tends to be for the sake of participation. And as in this case, there was no discussion among policy-making circles or on the government level in a public manner regarding the PRC's imposition of National Security Law in HK. I think it would not be correct to say that the Bulgarian authorities have a clear position on the matter even if they joined the statement.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answered by Rumena Filipova and Mirela Petkova, and has been reviewed by Matej Šimalčík

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Media
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Academia
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Economy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Society
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Military
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Law Enforcement
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Technology
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Domestic Politics
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Foreign Policy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Open
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Cards
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Cards