Brazil

$7,518.8
213.9M
Ranking
32/ 82
Original Score

* As some Indicators can be skipped where data is unavailable, the maximum overall and Domain scores are not identical for each country. Country rankings are generated from ratios of the maximum scores and the achieved scores.

136/ 384
Executive partner
Data Privacy Brazil
Index Year
2021
Layer Scores

The Indicators have been classified by the stage of the influence process at which they occur. Some Indicators correspond to exposure to PRC influence, e.g. the presence of Confucius Institutes. Others test for pressure – such as visa denials to academics or journalists. Finally, some Indicators capture the effect of PRC influence, such as national policy changes in favor of PRC interests.
The individual Layer scores for each country are tallied and displayed via rankings.

Exposure

46%

Exposure assesses the conditions that make the target country vulnerable to PRC's influence, e.g. in terms of economic dependence, or the receiving of some form of benefit.

Pressure

15%

Pressure measures the actions that the PRC directly or indirectly exerts over the target country in order to change the behavior of people in the target country, e.g. in terms of threatening economic punishment to provoke/prevent a political decision.

Effect

21%

Effect evaluates the degree of accommodations the target country makes to the PRC, and the actual effects and impacts on the target country.

In 2021, Brazil had a GDP per capita of US$7,519 and a total population of 213.99 million people, with the Chinese population comprising 26,078 people, or 0.012% of the total population. 

Brazil established diplomatic relations with the People's Republic of China in 1974. Brazil was ranked 110th in Reporters Without Borders’ 2022 World Press Freedom Index, and Free in Freedom House’s 2022 Global Freedom Status, with a score of 73/100.

Domain Scores
Country Percentage
Index Average

Percentage scores do not suggest some degree out of a “completely influenced” level of 100%. The percentages express the country’s score out of the total achievable amount based on the Indicators for each Domain.

  • Media
    5.0% / 30.1%
  • Academia
    22.5% / 34%
  • Economy
    54.5% / 33.6%
  • Society
    35.0% / 23.6%
  • Military
    18.2% / 23.4%
  • Law Enforcement
    27.3% / 30.2%
  • Technology
    61.4% / 40.8%
  • Domestic Politics
    38.6% / 37.2%
  • Foreign Policy
    52.3% / 41%

Media

The Media Domain evaluates how PRC entities influence public debate and media coverage about the PRC in the Index country.

1.
Exposure

In my country, there are media organizations that belong to the World Chinese Media (世界华文媒体) network.

Yes

Answer ( 1 / 4 )

More

Skipped

2 countries chose this answer

0/ No

42 countries chose this answer

1/ Few, but insignificant

19 countries chose this answer

2/ More than a few, but insignificant

4 countries chose this answer

3/ Few, but significant

13 countries chose this answer

4/ More than a few, and significant

2 countries chose this answer

80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

Supporting Evidence

There are two active sites in Brazil linked to World Chinese Media. The first is the South American Overseas Chinese News Network, located in the city of São Paulo. The second is the Brazilian Chinese Network, also with an office in the city of São Paulo. Information available on the World Chinese Media website (Reference 1).

  1. https://worldchinesemedia.com/
  2. http://www.br-cn.com/
  3. https://www.brasilcn.com/

    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

    Hide
    2.
    Exposure

    In my country, there are journalists or media organizations which are members of the Belt and Road Media Cooperation Alliance/Union, the Belt and Road News Alliance, or other Belt and Road media networks that connected to PRC (e.g. Belt and Road Media Community, Belt and Road Journalists Network, Belt and Road News Network, or B&R TV Networks).

    No

    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

    More

    Skipped

    1 countries chose this answer

    0/ No

    39 countries chose this answer

    1/ Few, but insignificant

    23 countries chose this answer

    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

    4 countries chose this answer

    3/ Few, but significant

    14 countries chose this answer

    4/ More than a few, and significant

    1 countries chose this answer

    81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

    Supporting Evidence

    On the Belt and Road News Alliance website there is no Brazilian media organization in its membership list. On the Belt and Road Media Cooperation Alliance/Union website there is also nothing in relation to Brazil. In local sources too there is no evidence of participation of a Brazilian media organization in the Bealt and Road News Alliance or in the Belt and Road Media Cooperation Alliance/Union.

    1. https://brnalink.com/members.html

      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

      Hide
      3.
      Exposure

      In my country, there are journalists, media organizations or online influencers who have attended all-expenses paid media tours in PRC.

      Skip

      More

      Skipped

      11 countries chose this answer

      0/ No

      15 countries chose this answer

      1/ Few, but insignificant

      15 countries chose this answer

      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

      5 countries chose this answer

      3/ Few, but significant

      23 countries chose this answer

      4/ More than a few, and significant

      13 countries chose this answer

      71 countries answered this indicator; 11 countries skipped this indicator

      Supporting Evidence

      Not Found

      1. https://www.uol.com.br/tilt/noticias/redacao/2019/08/11/harmonyos-1-aparelho-com-sistema-da-huawei-e-tv-para-nao-so-ver-tv.htm
      2. https://canaltech.com.br/mercado/huawei-mira-em-expansao-fora-da-china-com-70-mil-lojas-de-varejo-ate-2017-40117/

      Supplementary Notes

      It was found the case of the reporter Helton Simões Gomes, from the UOL news portal, who, according to the report, traveled to the city of Dongguan (China) at the invitation of Huawei. The same with the reporter Rafael Romer, from the Canal Tech portal, who also traveled to Shenzhen, according to a report, at the invitation of Huawei. More evidence was looked for, first through search engines and later on Brazilian media sites, on the official press site of Brazil, Diário Oficial da União, and on the website of reporters without borders, but no concrete evidence of journalists, influencers or a media group that traveled with expenses paid by China was found. In the journalistic environment, invitations from foreign companies and governments are a common practice in Brazil. In this sense, we found examples from IBM, Apple, Samsung.

        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

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        4.
        Exposure

        In my country, there are journalists, media organizations or online influencers who have received trainings from PRC state-owned media or PRC-connected entities.

        No

        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

        More

        Skipped

        3 countries chose this answer

        0/ No

        37 countries chose this answer

        1/ Few, but insignificant

        16 countries chose this answer

        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

        2 countries chose this answer

        3/ Few, but significant

        14 countries chose this answer

        4/ More than a few, and significant

        10 countries chose this answer

        79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

        Supporting Evidence

        It was searched for evidence first through search engines and later on Brazilian media sites (O Globo, Folha de São Paulo and Estadão), on the official Brazilian press website, Diário Oficial da União, and on the website of reporters without borders, but no evidence was found of journalists, influencers or media groups receiving training in China. In addition, Empresa Brasil de Comunicação (EBC) was asked, through the Brazil's Access to Information Law, about sending personnel to receive training in China. In response, the EBC informed that despite the partnership with the China Media Group (CMG) there was no exchange of personnel for training neither from Brazil to China nor from China to Brazil.

            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

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            5.
            Exposure

            In my country, PRC state-media (including print, radio, and video) is broadcasted or distributed in a local language.

            Yes

            Answer ( 1 / 4 )

            More

            Skipped

            1 countries chose this answer

            0/ No

            24 countries chose this answer

            1/ Few, but insignificant

            22 countries chose this answer

            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

            7 countries chose this answer

            3/ Few, but significant

            18 countries chose this answer

            4/ More than a few, and significant

            10 countries chose this answer

            81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

            Supporting Evidence

            There are cooperation agreements between China Media Group (CMG) and Brazilian media organizations such as Bandeirantes group, Globo group and Empresa Brasil de Comunicação (EBC). The agreement with the EBC provides for the exchange of content and technology, joint productions, cooperative broadcasts and personnel training. The three agreements were signed in 2019 and are aimed, above all, at presenting Chinese culture to the Brazilian public. News from Chinese sources, such as Xinhua, does not appear in the major Brazilian media. On the other hand, CCTV has a partnership with BAND, which broadcasts CCTV Latin America reports in Portuguese.

            1. https://agenciabrasil.ebc.com.br/en/geral/noticia/2019-11/brazils-and-chinas-communication-firms-expand-cooperation
            2. https://bandnewsfm.band.uol.com.br/2019/11/11/grupo-bandeirantes-assina-parceria-com-o-china-media-group-maior-grupo-de-midia-do-pais-asiatico/
            3. https://cdn.cfr.org/sites/default/files/pdf/trevisan-cfr-cebri-paper_0.pdf

              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

              Hide
              6.
              Exposure

              In my country, there are local media outlets wholly or partly owned by PRC citizens or corporations.

              No

              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

              More

              Skipped

              2 countries chose this answer

              0/ No

              44 countries chose this answer

              1/ Few, but insignificant

              19 countries chose this answer

              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

              3 countries chose this answer

              3/ Few, but significant

              14 countries chose this answer

              4/ More than a few, and significant

              0 countries chose this answer

              80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

              Supporting Evidence

              There is no information on media groups in Brazil that belong to the Chinese media and there was also no evidence of Chinese capital participation in Brazilian media organizations. On the other hand, according to chapter V, article 222, paragraph 2 of the Brazilian Constitution, the editorial responsibility and the activities of selection and direction of the programming broadcast in Brazil are exclusive to native Brazilians or naturalized for more than 10 years, in any medium of Social Communication. In addition, evidence was sought from sources of the Brazilian government, at the Ministry of Communications, through the Brazil's Law on Access to Information, and no record of Chinese capital participation in radio and open TV broadcast vehicles was found.

              1. http://www.planalto.gov.br/ccivil_03/constituicao/constituicaocompilado.htm

                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

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                7.
                Exposure

                In my country, there are media outlets that have delivered cheap or free contents provided by PRC state-fund media.

                No

                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                More

                Skipped

                3 countries chose this answer

                0/ No

                22 countries chose this answer

                1/ Few, but insignificant

                21 countries chose this answer

                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                6 countries chose this answer

                3/ Few, but significant

                23 countries chose this answer

                4/ More than a few, and significant

                7 countries chose this answer

                79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                Supporting Evidence

                Not Found

                  Supplementary Notes

                  No evidence was found on cheap or free contents provided by PRC state-fund media in Brazil.

                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                    Hide
                    8.
                    Exposure

                    In my country, there are regular PRC state-media or government advertisements inserted within local newspapers, online news websites or social media.

                    No

                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                    More

                    Skipped

                    1 countries chose this answer

                    0/ No

                    38 countries chose this answer

                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                    13 countries chose this answer

                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                    7 countries chose this answer

                    3/ Few, but significant

                    15 countries chose this answer

                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                    8 countries chose this answer

                    81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                    Supporting Evidence

                    It was searched for evidence first through search engines and later on Brazilian media sites (O Globo, Folha de São Paulo and Estadão), on the official Brazilian press website, Diário Oficial da União, and on the website of reporters without borders, but no evidence of PRC propaganda in Brazil in printed newspapers, news portals or on social media was found.

                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                        Hide
                        9.
                        Pressure

                        In my country, there are journalists who have had pressure exerted on them by the PRC, including (but not limited to) public denouncement, revocation of journalist ID, denial of visa.

                        No

                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                        More

                        Skipped

                        1 countries chose this answer

                        0/ No

                        57 countries chose this answer

                        4/ Yes

                        24 countries chose this answer

                        81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                        Supporting Evidence

                        No evidence was found of journalists in the country who have come under pressure from the PRC.

                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                            Hide
                            10.
                            Effect

                            In my country, there are incidents of media outlets censoring views critical of the PRC government.

                            No

                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                            More

                            Skipped

                            4 countries chose this answer

                            0/ No

                            51 countries chose this answer

                            1/ Few, but insignificant

                            11 countries chose this answer

                            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                            3 countries chose this answer

                            3/ Few, but significant

                            9 countries chose this answer

                            4/ More than a few, and significant

                            4 countries chose this answer

                            78 countries answered this indicator; 4 countries skipped this indicator

                            Supporting Evidence

                            No evidence was found of Brazilian media that have censored criticism of the PRC government.

                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                Hide
                                11.
                                Effect

                                In my country, there are media personalities (including reporters, journalists or commentators) or celebrities who deny the existence of human rights abuses in the PRC (e.g. a media personality that doubts there are re-education camps for Uyghurs in Xinjiang).

                                No

                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                More

                                Skipped

                                2 countries chose this answer

                                0/ No

                                44 countries chose this answer

                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                18 countries chose this answer

                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                4 countries chose this answer

                                3/ Few, but significant

                                9 countries chose this answer

                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                5 countries chose this answer

                                80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                Supporting Evidence

                                No local figures were found who cast doubts on human rights abuses in the digital repository of the main Brazilian newspapers.

                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                    Hide

                                    Academia

                                    The Academia Domain measures how the PRC state attempts to restrict academic freedom by influencing or interfering with the Index country’s academic and educational activities.

                                    1.
                                    Exposure

                                    In my country, universities have established research partnerships with PRC-connected entities. (e.g. Huawei, Tencent or Alibaba)

                                    Yes

                                    Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                    More

                                    0/ No

                                    9 countries chose this answer

                                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                                    11 countries chose this answer

                                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                    6 countries chose this answer

                                    3/ Few, but significant

                                    31 countries chose this answer

                                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                                    25 countries chose this answer

                                    82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                    Supporting Evidence

                                    Since 2016, the University of São Paulo (USP) has had a scientific technical cooperation agreement with Huawei do Brasil. In 2017, the University of Brasília signed a similar partnership. Huawei has partnerships with other Brazilian universities, such as the Federal University of Campina Grande (UFCG), Federal University of Alagoas (UFAL) and the Pontifical Catholic University of Rio Grande do Sul (PUC-RS). In addition, through a partnership with Capes (Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Education Personnel), a foundation linked to the Ministry of Education, Brazil is part of Huawei's global program "Seeds for the Future", which aims to train university students in advanced information and communication technologies. In addition, Huawei's global program provides travel for an exchange period in China for selected Brazilian students, with all expenses paid by Huawei. Until 2019, around 100 Brazilian students participated in this Huawei exchange.

                                    1. http://ibe.usp.br/2016/05/16/usp-firma-acordo-de-cooperacao-tecnico-cientifica-com-huawei-do-brasil-telecomunicacoes/
                                    2. https://noticias.unb.br/publicacoes/76-institucional/1749-unb-e-huawei-assinam-memorando-de-entendimento
                                    3. https://www.gov.br/capes/pt-br/assuntos/noticias/capes-anuncia-programa-de-estagio-com-multinacional-chinesa

                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                      Hide
                                      2.
                                      Exposure

                                      In my country, there are Confucius Institutes/Classrooms.

                                      Yes

                                      Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                      More

                                      0/ No

                                      5 countries chose this answer

                                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                                      14 countries chose this answer

                                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                      5 countries chose this answer

                                      3/ Few, but significant

                                      31 countries chose this answer

                                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                                      27 countries chose this answer

                                      82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                      Supporting Evidence

                                      According to Luis Antonio Paulino (2019), Brazil is the country with the largest presence of the Confucius Institute in Latin America and the Caribbean. Of the 41 Confucius Institutes that exist in Latin America and the Caribbean, 10 are in Brazil.

                                      1. https://ieei.unesp.br/index.php/IEEI_MundoeDesenvolvimento/article/view/44

                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                        Hide
                                        3.
                                        Exposure

                                        My country plans to include, or does include, Chinese as a foreign language in K12 or primary education, and receives free or subsidized (e.g. offered below market price) educational books and teachers from PRC.

                                        No

                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                        More

                                        Skipped

                                        1 countries chose this answer

                                        0/ No

                                        46 countries chose this answer

                                        4/ Yes

                                        35 countries chose this answer

                                        81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                        Supporting Evidence

                                        According to Resolution No. 3, of November 21, 2018, of the National Council of Education, which updates the National Curriculum Guidelines for Secondary Education, English must be offered, and the teaching of other foreign languages of optional character may be included, Spanish is preferable. However, the Professor Fernando Duarte Rabelo State Center for Full Time, in the state of Espírito Santo, offers Mandarin classes in partnership with a Confucius Institute in Brazil. Classes are taught by Chinese teachers. The state of Espírito Santo bears the costs of teachers.

                                        1. https://www.in.gov.br/materia/-/asset_publisher/Kujrw0TZC2Mb/content/id/51281622
                                        2. https://g1.globo.com/es/espirito-santo/noticia/2019/02/17/mandarim-passa-a-integrar-curriculo-de-escola-publica-no-es.ghtml

                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                          Hide
                                          4.
                                          Exposure

                                          In my country, one or more think tanks and academic research centers belong to PRC-affiliated networks/associations (such as: the Silk Road Think Tank Association, Silk Road Think Tank Network [SiLKS], Belt and Road Studies Network, University Alliance of the Silk Road, University Consortium of the 21st Century Maritime Silk Road).

                                          No

                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                          More

                                          Skipped

                                          2 countries chose this answer

                                          0/ No

                                          40 countries chose this answer

                                          1/ Few, but insignificant

                                          17 countries chose this answer

                                          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                          7 countries chose this answer

                                          3/ Few, but significant

                                          14 countries chose this answer

                                          4/ More than a few, and significant

                                          2 countries chose this answer

                                          80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                          Supporting Evidence

                                          No evidence was found of think tanks or research centers that are linked to Chinese networks or associations. It was first looked for on a search engine for specific terms. Then, It was searched by think tanks or research centers in Brazil on the websites of the Silk Road Think Tank Association, Silk Road Think Tank Network, Belt and Road Studies Network, University Alliance of the Silk Road, University Consortium of the 21st Century Maritime Silk Road, but no evidence was found of an institution in Brazil that belongs to these networks affiliated to the PRC.

                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                              Hide
                                              5.
                                              Exposure

                                              In my country, think tanks and academic research centers have received financial support from PRC-connected individuals or entities.

                                              No

                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                              More

                                              Skipped

                                              10 countries chose this answer

                                              0/ No

                                              21 countries chose this answer

                                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                                              11 countries chose this answer

                                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                              11 countries chose this answer

                                              3/ Few, but significant

                                              19 countries chose this answer

                                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                                              10 countries chose this answer

                                              72 countries answered this indicator; 10 countries skipped this indicator

                                              Supporting Evidence

                                              No evidence was found of think tanks or academic research centers that have received financial support from the PRC. A search was carried out, using these same terms, on the websites of CEBRI, Fundação Instituto Fernando Henrique Cardoso, FGV and IPEA, four large think tanks in Brazil, and also found no evidence of financial support from the PRC. Other than that, in October of 2019, through Capes, Brazil signed an international collaboration agreement with the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC), China's innovation promotion and research agency. FGV also has partnerships with Chinese think tanks, but there is no mention of financial support.

                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                  Hide
                                                  6.
                                                  Exposure

                                                  In my country, experts participate in PRC talent recruitment programs such as the Thousand Talents Program or Changjiang Scholars program.

                                                  Yes

                                                  Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                                                  More

                                                  Skipped

                                                  3 countries chose this answer

                                                  0/ No

                                                  47 countries chose this answer

                                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                  11 countries chose this answer

                                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                  6 countries chose this answer

                                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                                  10 countries chose this answer

                                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                  5 countries chose this answer

                                                  79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                  No concrete/official evidence of recruitment of Brazilians was found, nor a recruiting list on the Thousand Talents Program websites. The Changjiang Scholars Program website was down. However, it was found the name of a Brazilian academic who in his curriculum states that he was selected by the Thousand Talents Program.

                                                  1. http://lattes.cnpq.br/9745050077461951

                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                    Hide
                                                    7.
                                                    Exposure

                                                    In my country, scholars have taken trips to the PRC paid for by PRC-connected individuals or entities.

                                                    Skip

                                                    More

                                                    Skipped

                                                    13 countries chose this answer

                                                    0/ No

                                                    17 countries chose this answer

                                                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                    15 countries chose this answer

                                                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                    11 countries chose this answer

                                                    3/ Few, but significant

                                                    12 countries chose this answer

                                                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                    14 countries chose this answer

                                                    69 countries answered this indicator; 13 countries skipped this indicator

                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                    Not Found

                                                    1. http://br.china-embassy.org/por/whjy/t1681754.htm
                                                    2. https://direitorio.fgv.br/noticia/pedro-steenhagen-pesquisador-do-nucleo-de-estudos-brasil-china-e-admitido-no-phd-da

                                                    Supplementary Notes

                                                    For the 2019/2020 academic year, the China Scholarship Council granted, through the Embassy of China in Brazil, 14 scholarships (full grant) for Brazilian students in China. According to the China Scholarship Council website, China's embassies in the countries are the ways to apply for their scholarships. Also, in 2021, Pedro Steenhagen was approved, with a full scholarship from the China Scholarship Council (CSC), in the Ph.D. in International Politics of the School of International Relations and Public Affairs (SIRPA) of the Fudan University. However, we are not sure if the scholarship include paid trip. In addition to that, we know about trips paid by the PRC to scholars, especially from Fundação Getulio Vargas, but we do not have any evidences on it.

                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                      Hide
                                                      8.
                                                      Pressure

                                                      In my country, organized PRC-connected student groups, such as Chinese Students and Scholars Associations (CSSAs), are involved in attempts to censor staff or students (e.g. by harassing students protesting human rights abuses in the PRC, or formally complaining about the identification of Taiwan as a country in lecture slides).

                                                      No

                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                      More

                                                      Skipped

                                                      1 countries chose this answer

                                                      0/ No

                                                      64 countries chose this answer

                                                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                      6 countries chose this answer

                                                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                      3 countries chose this answer

                                                      3/ Few, but significant

                                                      5 countries chose this answer

                                                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                      3 countries chose this answer

                                                      81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                      No evidence was found.

                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                          Hide
                                                          9.
                                                          Pressure

                                                          In my country, scholars or academics have been denied visas to travel to the PRC after expressing opinions or producing scholarship that is critical of the PRC.

                                                          No

                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                          More

                                                          Skipped

                                                          7 countries chose this answer

                                                          0/ No

                                                          64 countries chose this answer

                                                          1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                          1 countries chose this answer

                                                          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                          0 countries chose this answer

                                                          3/ Few, but significant

                                                          6 countries chose this answer

                                                          4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                          4 countries chose this answer

                                                          75 countries answered this indicator; 7 countries skipped this indicator

                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                          The reason for denying a visa is Chinese administrative data. The searches found no evidence of academics that had been denied visas to China.

                                                            Supplementary Notes

                                                            It may be interesting to review this indicator, considering that this type of information is confidential to China.

                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                              Hide
                                                              10.
                                                              Effect

                                                              In my country, PRC-connected entities have been involved in school or university curriculum design, such as courses about East Asian history, modern politics, etc.

                                                              No

                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                              More

                                                              Skipped

                                                              2 countries chose this answer

                                                              0/ No

                                                              64 countries chose this answer

                                                              4/ Yes

                                                              16 countries chose this answer

                                                              80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                              No evidence was found of Chinese entities involved in the elaboration or revision of academic or school curricula in Brazil. The partnerships of Chinese entities with Brazilian universities evaluated do not cover curricular issues, being focused on partnerships/cooperation in research/extension.

                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                  Hide
                                                                  11.
                                                                  Effect

                                                                  In my country, there are confirmed reports of teachers or professors avoiding the discussion of sensitive political issues (e.g. Uyghur re-education camps, Taiwan independence, Tiananmen Square Massacre).

                                                                  No

                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                  More

                                                                  Skipped

                                                                  5 countries chose this answer

                                                                  0/ No

                                                                  65 countries chose this answer

                                                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                  1 countries chose this answer

                                                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                  1 countries chose this answer

                                                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                                                  6 countries chose this answer

                                                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                  4 countries chose this answer

                                                                  77 countries answered this indicator; 5 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                  No evidence was found.

                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                      Hide

                                                                      Economy

                                                                      The Economy Domain measures the PRC’s economic leverage in the Index country, and how this is used to influence economic policy or corporate behavior in ways that favor the PRC.

                                                                      1.
                                                                      Exposure

                                                                      The PRC is my country's number one trading partner (for trade in goods only).

                                                                      Yes

                                                                      Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                      More

                                                                      0/ No

                                                                      51 countries chose this answer

                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                      31 countries chose this answer

                                                                      82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                      Since 2009, China has been Brazil's main trading partner.

                                                                      1. https://www.gov.br/planalto/pt-br/acompanhe-o-planalto/noticias/2019/11/china-e-maior-parceiro-comercial-do-brasil-no-mundo
                                                                      2. http://comexstat.mdic.gov.br/pt/geral/34723
                                                                      3. http://comexstat.mdic.gov.br/pt/geral/34725

                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                        Hide
                                                                        2.
                                                                        Exposure

                                                                        PRC-connected entities own more than 50% of my country’s sovereign debt.

                                                                        No

                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                        More

                                                                        Skipped

                                                                        1 countries chose this answer

                                                                        0/ No

                                                                        77 countries chose this answer

                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                        4 countries chose this answer

                                                                        81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                        The biggest creditor is the BIRD (International Bank for Reconstruction and Development) with a 26.6% share of Brazil's external debt (page 5).

                                                                        1. https://sisweb.tesouro.gov.br/apex/f?p=2501:9::::9:P9_ID_PUBLICACAO:37089

                                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                          Hide
                                                                          3.
                                                                          Exposure

                                                                          The PRC is the top customer for my country’s extractive industries.

                                                                          Yes

                                                                          Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                          More

                                                                          0/ No

                                                                          62 countries chose this answer

                                                                          4/ Yes

                                                                          20 countries chose this answer

                                                                          82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                          China is the main destination for Brazilian exports of iron ore and oil.

                                                                          1. https://valor.globo.com/brasil/noticia/2020/08/14/china-e-maior-mercado-de-7-dos-10-principais-itens-exportados-pelo-brasil.ghtml
                                                                          2. https://balanca.economia.gov.br/balanca/mes/2021/BCE020A.xlsx

                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                            Hide
                                                                            4.
                                                                            Exposure

                                                                            In my country, PRC-related entities own, operate or substantially control critical infrastructure (e.g. ports, power plants, digital data centers, etc) or sensitive sectors (biotech, raw materials, etc.)

                                                                            Yes

                                                                            Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                            More

                                                                            0/ No

                                                                            36 countries chose this answer

                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                            46 countries chose this answer

                                                                            82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                            In 2018, the terminal operator China Merchants Port (CMPort) purchased the Port of Paranaguá and is expected to operate and control 90% of the container terminal. In 2017, the São Simão Hydroelectric Power Plant was auctioned by SPIC Pacific Energy. Since then, the plant has been operated by the Chinese company.

                                                                            1. https://www12.senado.leg.br/noticias/materias/2018/02/22/parceria-com-empresa-chinesa-para-controle-de-porto-e-firmada-no-congresso
                                                                            2. http://www.aneel.gov.br/home?p_p_id=101&p_p_lifecycle=0&p_p_state=maximized&p_p_mode=view&_101_struts_action=%2Fasset_publisher%2Fview_content&_101_returnToFullPageURL=%2F&_101_assetEntryId=15767152&_101_type=content&_101_groupId=656877&_101_urlTitle=hidreletrica-sao-simao-e-arrematada-pela-chinesa-spic-pacific-energy&inheritRedirect=true
                                                                            3. https://www.gov.br/mme/pt-br/assuntos/noticias/leilao-concede-todas-as-quatro-usinas-com-bonus-de-r-12-13-bi

                                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                              Hide
                                                                              5.
                                                                              Exposure

                                                                              My country joined (or applied to join) the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB).

                                                                              Yes

                                                                              Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                              More

                                                                              0/ No

                                                                              27 countries chose this answer

                                                                              4/ Yes

                                                                              55 countries chose this answer

                                                                              82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                              Brazil integrates the AIIB as a non-regional member.

                                                                              1. https://www.aiib.org/en/about-aiib/governance/members-of-bank/index.html
                                                                              2. https://agenciabrasil.ebc.com.br/en/internacional/noticia/2015-03/brazil-join-asian-infrastructure-bank

                                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                                Hide
                                                                                6.
                                                                                Exposure

                                                                                In my country, major businesses are members of the Silk Road Chamber of International Commerce, or of the Belt and Road Industrial and Commercial Alliance, or of the Belt and Road General Chamber of Commerce.

                                                                                Yes

                                                                                Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                More

                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                41 countries chose this answer

                                                                                4/ Yes

                                                                                41 countries chose this answer

                                                                                82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                A list of members of the Belt and Road Industrial and Commercial Alliance (BRICA) can be found on the website of the China Federation of Industrial Economics. In this list, the National Confederation of Industry of Brazil (CNI) is included as a member. However, it is worth mentioning that in local sources, and especially on the CNI website, there is no mention to BRICA. The CNI was then asked about this partnership with BRICA. CNI responded that: "although CNI is part of BRICA, there has been no relevant participation in any initiative since 2017. We have been focusing our agenda within the scope of the BRICS Business Council, which has efficiently met the demands of the Brazilian private sector". Confederação Nacional da Indústria (National Industry Confederation) Link

                                                                                1. http://www.cfie.org.cn/index/information/show/id/1666.html

                                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                  7.
                                                                                  Pressure

                                                                                  My country has been the target of PRC economic coercion (e.g. trade or investment sanctions) that was specifically tailored at products or services that are highly dependent on the PRC market.

                                                                                  Yes

                                                                                  Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                  More

                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                  64 countries chose this answer

                                                                                  4/ Yes

                                                                                  18 countries chose this answer

                                                                                  82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                  Since 2019, China has imposed an anti-dumping tariff on Brazilian chicken imports. The measure is expected to last 5.

                                                                                  1. https://economia.estadao.com.br/noticias/geral,china-anuncia-tarifas-de-ate-32-4-ao-frango-brasileiro-por-5-anos,70002722443

                                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                    8.
                                                                                    Pressure

                                                                                    In my country, local businesses have been harassed, threatened, or boycotted, due to their activities or statements in support of causes deemed unacceptable by the PRC government (e.g. Taiwanese independence, Hong Kong democracy, Tibet or Xinjiang issues, etc).

                                                                                    No

                                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                    More

                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                    2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                    65 countries chose this answer

                                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                                    15 countries chose this answer

                                                                                    80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                    No evidence of boycott, harassment or threats by the Chinese government was found in response to any corporate support for causes considered sensitive to China.

                                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                        9.
                                                                                        Effect

                                                                                        My country has free-trade agreement(s) with the PRC (either bilateral or as part of regional agreement(s)) that primarily deals with trade in goods or services, including digital goods or services.

                                                                                        No

                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                        More

                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                        51 countries chose this answer

                                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                                        31 countries chose this answer

                                                                                        82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                        The possibility of a free trade agreement between Brazil and China was raised, however this type of approximation encounters internal resistance in Brazil and also depends on Mercosur. Since 2019, there has been no further news about this supposed agreement that was being negotiated, according to Minister Paulo Guedes. In addition, on the website of SisComex (Federal Government Foreign Trade Systems), there is no listed trade agreements between Brazil and China.

                                                                                        1. http://siscomex.gov.br/acordos-comerciais/
                                                                                        2. https://economia.estadao.com.br/noticias/geral,guedes-fala-sobre-possibilidade-de-area-de-livre-comercio-com-a-china,70003087943

                                                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                          10.
                                                                                          Effect

                                                                                          In my country, central or local governments have relaxed or removed regulatory restrictions, or have established special economic zones (or free trade zones, industrial parks, etc.) to attract investments or economic participation from the PRC.

                                                                                          No

                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                          More

                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                          47 countries chose this answer

                                                                                          4/ Yes

                                                                                          35 countries chose this answer

                                                                                          82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                          The searches found no evidence that the Brazilian government removed or relaxed regulatory restrictions or established special economic zones to attract Chinese investment.

                                                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                              11.
                                                                                              Effect

                                                                                              In my country, PRC-connected entities requisitioned infrastructure or land for failure to repay debts in a timely manner.

                                                                                              No

                                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                              More

                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                              2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                              76 countries chose this answer

                                                                                              4/ Yes

                                                                                              4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                              80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                              No evidence was found of PRC-connected entities that requested infrastructure or "land" for the payment of debts.

                                                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

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                                                                                                  Society

                                                                                                  The Society Domain measures the extent and effectiveness of the PRC’s efforts to advance its soft power in the Index country, including its influence over the actions and views of local organizations and citizens.

                                                                                                  1.
                                                                                                  Exposure

                                                                                                  In my country, there are local groups or organizations with words like “Promotion of Peaceful Reunification” in their name, and they regularly publicize their views on Taiwan, Hong Kong, Tibet and Xinjiang issues.

                                                                                                  Yes

                                                                                                  Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                  1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                  49 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                  12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                  7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                  9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                  4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                  81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                  In Brazil, there is the Brazilian Association for the Promotion of the Peaceful Reunification of China, the Hongmen Do Brasil Association (in São Paulo), the Association of Overseas Chinese in Brazil for the Promotion of the Peaceful Reunification of China and the China Pro-Reunification Association (in Rio de Janeiro).

                                                                                                  1. http://portuguese.people.com.cn/n3/2017/0616/c309809-9229587.html
                                                                                                  2. https://ccbcbr.org/zh-CN/post/ccbc-participou-do-simposio-da-comunidade-chinesa-do-discurso-de-xi-jinping-sobre-taiwan
                                                                                                  3. http://portuguese.cri.cn/1721/2017/07/04/1s233860.htm

                                                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                    2.
                                                                                                    Exposure

                                                                                                    In my country, there are members and member organizations of United World Chinese Association (世界华人协会).

                                                                                                    No

                                                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                    1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                    62 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                                                    19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                    81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                    Brazil is not on the list of countries with members of the United World Chinese Association. The consultation was made on the official website of the United World Chinese Association. In addition, no evidence of membership of the United World Chinese Association was found.

                                                                                                    1. http://www.uwca.net/member.html

                                                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                      3.
                                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                                      In my country, labor unions cooperate on exchanges or official visits to the All-China Federation of Trade Unions (ACFTU) in the PRC.

                                                                                                      Yes

                                                                                                      Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                      1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                      68 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                                                      13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                      81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                      In 2018, representatives of the Brazilian Workers' Center (CTB) participated in a course for training Latin American youth in China. The course was promoted by the World Trade Union Federation (WSF) with the Chinese trade union center ACFTU. In previous years, the CTB had already participated in other events in China, as well as having received ACFTU personnel who visited the Brazilian union. This was the most recent case found in the survey. But in 2014, for example, the CUT (Single Workers Center), the largest union center in Brazil, and the UGT (General Union of Workers) carried out visits to the ACFTU.

                                                                                                      1. https://ctb.org.br/noticias/internacional/ctb-participa-de-curso-de-formacao-para-jovens-latino-americanos-na-china/

                                                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                        4.
                                                                                                        Exposure

                                                                                                        In my country, there are local reports of personnel linked to the UFWD who make appearances at Chinese diaspora community events and activities (e.g. Lunar New Year events, Dragon Boat festival tournaments, etc).

                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                        2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                        50 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                        1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                        9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                        5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                        3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                        9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                        4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                        7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                        80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                        As occurred in indicators 7 and 8 of domain 4 (Domestic Politics) there was no evidence of anything that relates the United Front Work Department (UFWD) with Brazil.

                                                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                            5.
                                                                                                            Exposure

                                                                                                            In my country, there are PRC-connected professional associations that are closely engaged with their counterparts locally, such as All-China Journalists Association (中华全国新闻工作者协会), China Artists Association (中国艺术家协会), China Writers Association (中国作家协会) or All-China Women Federation (全国妇联).

                                                                                                            Yes

                                                                                                            Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                            2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                            33 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                            1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                            25 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                            8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                            3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                            8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                            4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                            6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                            80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                            At the end of 2018, the FENAJ (National Federation of Journalists) signed a cooperation agreement with ACJA – All-China Journalists Association, for the exchange of information with Chinese journalists on the economic and cultural initiative of the New Silk Road. On the FENAJ website, no other evidence was found. As for the China Artists Association, China Writers Associations and All-China Women Federation, no evidence was found of Brazilian professional associations closely connected with these associations.

                                                                                                            1. https://fenaj.org.br/associacao-chinesa-vai-premiar-jornalistas-por-microvideos-e-fotos-sobre-a-pandemia/

                                                                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                              6.
                                                                                                              Exposure

                                                                                                              In my country, PRC-connected individuals or entities donate money or provide other types of support to religious communities and charities.

                                                                                                              Yes

                                                                                                              Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                              1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                              46 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                              4/ Yes

                                                                                                              35 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                              81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                              In May 2020, the Municipal Secretariat for Social Assistance and Human Rights (SMASDH) of the city of Rio de Janeiro received a donation of 2,000 basic food baskets from the Chinese Community of Rio de Janeiro. In May 2020, the city of Rio also received a donation of 150,000 masks from the Chinese community. Another example, in 2018, the Manaus city hall received a donation of 100 stoves from the Amazonas China Association in Brazil, plus shoes and clothes to be delivered to families who were victims of a fire in the Educandos neighborhood, in the eastern region of the capital of Amazonas.

                                                                                                              1. https://prefeitura.rio/cidade/prefeitura-recebe-2-mil-cestas-basicas-comunidade-doadas-pela-comunidade-chinesa-do-rio-de-janeiro/
                                                                                                              2. https://prefeitura.rio/cidade/crivella-recebe-doacao-de-150-mil-mascaras-da-comunidade-chinesa-para-distribuir-a-populacao/
                                                                                                              3. https://www.manaus.am.gov.br/noticia/doacao-fogoes-associacao-chinesa-amazonas/

                                                                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                7.
                                                                                                                Exposure

                                                                                                                In my country, the PRC government or PRC-connected entities distribute entertainment products (including: drama and TV shows) or related hardwares (e.g. OTT streaming players hosting PRC media channels) freely or at a cheap price.

                                                                                                                No

                                                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                38 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                No evidence was found that PRC or PRC-connected entities distributed entertainment products or OTT streaming platform for free or for a low price.

                                                                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                    8.
                                                                                                                    Effect

                                                                                                                    Cultural products (such as films and TV shows) produced by my country’s production studios typically portray the PRC in a positive light.

                                                                                                                    Skip

                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                    7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                    60 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                                                                    15 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                    75 countries answered this indicator; 7 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                    National cultural productions that reproduce elements related to the PRC are quite uncommon. Thus, we consider that we do not have enough subsidies to respond to the indicator.

                                                                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                        9.
                                                                                                                        Effect

                                                                                                                        In my country, celebrities regularly publish or share propaganda narratives from the PRC.

                                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                        67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                        1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                        10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                        0 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                        3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                        3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                        4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                        2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                        82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                        No evidence was found of celebrities in Brazil who published or shared advertisements with PRC narratives.

                                                                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                            10.
                                                                                                                            Effect

                                                                                                                            In my country, the national or local governments regularly publish or share propaganda narratives from the PRC (e.g. statements from the PRC government or embassies).

                                                                                                                            No

                                                                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                            2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                            54 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                            1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                            12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                            2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                            3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                            7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                            4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                            5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                            80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                            No evidence was found of local government in Brazil having published or shared Chinese narrative advertisements.

                                                                                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                11.
                                                                                                                                Effect

                                                                                                                                In my country, a majority of citizens have positive views of the PRC government.

                                                                                                                                Yes

                                                                                                                                Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                50 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                25 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                75 countries answered this indicator; 7 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                According to LatinoBarómetro data for 2018, around 57.6% of Brazilians interviewed consider Brazil-China relations "rather good". Also according to data from the LatinoBarómetro 2018 on the respondent's opinion about China, about 50% of Brazilians interviewed have a good opinion about China and 15% have a very good opinion about China. For comparison, in relation to the opinion of respondents about the US, for example, around 47% have a good opinion of the US and 22% have a very good opinion of the US.

                                                                                                                                1. https://www.latinobarometro.org/latOnline.jsp

                                                                                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

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                                                                                                                                  Military

                                                                                                                                  The Military Domain gauges the bilateral military relationship between the PRC and the Index country, including PRC efforts to influence local military personnel.

                                                                                                                                  1.
                                                                                                                                  Exposure

                                                                                                                                  My country currently imports (or receives in-kind donation of) military or law-enforcement equipment or components of equipment from the PRC.

                                                                                                                                  Yes

                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                  36 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                  4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                  46 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                  82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                  According to data from the Foreign Trade Secretariat, in 2020 Brazil imported around US$ 3.8 million in arms and ammunition (such as air or other gas pistols, pistols and truncheons) from China. In addition, there are some public safety pilot projects in Brazil that use Huawei's facial recognition cameras.

                                                                                                                                  1. http://comexstat.mdic.gov.br/pt/geral/33936

                                                                                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                    2.
                                                                                                                                    Exposure

                                                                                                                                    My country currently exports military or law-enforcement equipment or components of equipment to the PRC.

                                                                                                                                    No

                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                    1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                    74 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                    7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                    81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                    According to data from the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI) there is no record of negotiations for the export of arms from Brazil to China in the period from 2005 to 2021. In addition, no evidence was found of Brazilian exports to China of military equipment or law enforcement equipment or components. The search was carried out by search engines and on the SIPRI website.

                                                                                                                                    1. https://armstrade.sipri.org/armstrade/page/trade_register.php

                                                                                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                      3.
                                                                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                                                                      My country co-develops or co-produces military or law-enforcement equipment with the PRC.

                                                                                                                                      No

                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                                      1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                      66 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                      15 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                      81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                      No evidence of partnership for the development or production of military or law-enforcement equipment between Brazil and China was found. Through the Access to Information Law, this information was requested from the Ministry of Defense.

                                                                                                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                                          4.
                                                                                                                                          Exposure

                                                                                                                                          In my country, there are reports that the PRC has expressed intentions or has taken actions to establish basing.

                                                                                                                                          No

                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                                                          2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                          67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                          4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                          13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                          80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                          No evidence was found that the PRC expressed its intention or even mobilized to establish a base in Brazilian territory.

                                                                                                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                                              5.
                                                                                                                                              Exposure

                                                                                                                                              In my country, the People’s Liberation Army (PLA) has participated in a humanitarian relief/disaster assistance (HADR) effort.

                                                                                                                                              No

                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                                              2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                              61 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                              4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                              19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                              80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                              No evidence was found that Brazil received humanitarian aid from the PLA.

                                                                                                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                                  6.
                                                                                                                                                  Exposure

                                                                                                                                                  In my country, People’s Liberation Army (PLA) military personnel are permanently or rotationally deployed (excluding defense attaches and peacekeepers).

                                                                                                                                                  No

                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                                  77 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                  4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                  5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                  82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                  There was no evidence of military presence of PLA personnel on Brazilian soil.

                                                                                                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                                      7.
                                                                                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                                                                                      In my country, members of the military have received professional military education from the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                      Yes

                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                      48 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                      34 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                      82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                      In 2020 three Brazilian Army officers completed a course at the International College of Defense Studies (ICDS) of the National Defense University (NDU) of China. The course lasted for 1 year. Also in 2020, another Brazilian army officer completed a General Staff course at the China People's Liberation Army (PLA) Land Force Command School. In 2019, another Brazilian army officer also completed the General Staff course at the Command School of the Land Force of the People's Liberation Army of China (PLA).

                                                                                                                                                      1. http://www.eb.mil.br/web/noticias/noticiario-do-exercito/-/asset_publisher/MjaG93KcunQI/content/id/11883242
                                                                                                                                                      2. https://www.eb.mil.br/web/noticias/noticiario-do-exercito/-/asset_publisher/MjaG93KcunQI/content/id/11882558#:~:text=Nanjing%20(China)%20%E2%80%93%20O%20Tenente,Popular%20de%20Liberta%C3%A7%C3%A3o%20da%20China.
                                                                                                                                                      3. https://www.eb.mil.br/web/noticias/noticiario-do-exercito/-/asset_publisher/MjaG93KcunQI/content/diplomacao-em-curso-de-estado-maior-na-china-2019/8357041#:~:text=Publicado%20em%3A%2015%20ago%202019,Popular%20de%20Liberta%C3%A7%C3%A3o%20da%20China.

                                                                                                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                                                        8.
                                                                                                                                                        Exposure

                                                                                                                                                        In my country, members of the military have received peacekeeping training from the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                                                        2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                                        67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                        13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                        80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                        Not Found

                                                                                                                                                          Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                          No more recent references to the indicator were found. In 2017 a Brazilian Army Major, instructor from the Joint Center for Peace Operations of Brazil (CCOPAB) attended the UN Peacekeeping Staff Membership Course (UNSOC), held at the Peace Operations Center Ministry of Defense of China in the city of Beijing (Link.

                                                                                                                                                          1. http://www.ccopab.eb.mil.br/pt/noticias-do-centro/145-2017/985-curso-na-china-tem-a-participacao-de-instrutor-do-ccopab?highlight=WyJjaGluYSJd%29

                                                                                                                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                                                          9.
                                                                                                                                                          Exposure

                                                                                                                                                          In my country, high-ranking retired or current military and/or intelligence officers have received direct or deferred benefits from PRC-connected individuals or entities openly or covertly (e.g. have been appointed to lucrative positions as board members or consultants with PRC-invested firms, casinos, energy companies, etc.) during or in retirement from public service.

                                                                                                                                                          No

                                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                                                                          4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                                          67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                          4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                          11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                          78 countries answered this indicator; 4 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                          No comments yet

                                                                                                                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                                                              10.
                                                                                                                                                              Effect

                                                                                                                                                              In my country, high-ranking retired or current military and/or intelligence officials advocate for more coordination with the People’s Liberation Army (PLA).

                                                                                                                                                              No

                                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                                                              1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                                              68 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                              4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                              13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                              81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                              No evidence was found of a Brazilian official (active or reserve) and/or an ABIN agent who advocated closer approximation and/or coordination with the PLA.

                                                                                                                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                                                  11.
                                                                                                                                                                  Effect

                                                                                                                                                                  My country cooperates with the People’s Liberation Army (PLA) on military exchange exercises, including drills and war games.

                                                                                                                                                                  No

                                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                  51 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                  4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                  31 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                  82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                  No evidence was found that Brazil cooperated with the PLA in military exercises or war games. The search was carried out first by Google's search engine and later on the website of the Ministry of Defense, of Brazil, and on the websites of three major Brazilian newspapers. The intention was to find evidence of the practice of Brazil-PLA cooperation. On the other hand, it is known that in 2011 the Brazilian government signed an agreement with China on cooperation in defense matters. This agreement provides, for example: "military instruction and training, joint military exercises, as well as the exchange of information related to these matters". Still, no evidence of cooperation in practical military exercises was found. Through the Access to Information Law, this information was requested from the Ministry of Defense, that informed that no records were found related to military cooperation or exercises with the PLA.

                                                                                                                                                                  1. http://antigo.itamaraty.gov.br/pt-BR/notas-a-imprensa/2565-atos-assinados-por-ocasiao-da-visita-da-presidenta-dilma-rousseff-a-republica-popular-da-china-pequim-12-de-abril-de-2011#ato1

                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                                                                                                                    Hide

                                                                                                                                                                    Law Enforcement

                                                                                                                                                                    The Law Enforcement Domain measures law enforcement cooperation between the PRC and the Index country, as well as the nature and extent of PRC-related criminal activity in the Index country.

                                                                                                                                                                    1.
                                                                                                                                                                    Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                    My country currently maintains an extradition treaty, legal mutual assistance or other similar arrangements with the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                    Yes

                                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                    32 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                    50 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                    82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                    Brazil and China have an extradition treaty in force since 8/16/2014. In 2019, the governments of Brazil and China signed an agreement to transfer convicted persons.

                                                                                                                                                                    1. http://www.planalto.gov.br/ccivil_03/_ato2015-2018/2015/decreto/D8431.htm
                                                                                                                                                                    2. https://concordia.itamaraty.gov.br/detalhamento-acordo/5247?page=11&s=china&tipoPesquisa=1
                                                                                                                                                                    3. https://www.gov.br/planalto/pt-br/acompanhe-o-planalto/noticias/2019/11/conheca-os-acordos-firmados-entre-brasil-e-china

                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                                                      2.
                                                                                                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                      In my country, law enforcement authorities have signed cooperation agreements with the PRC on combatting terrorism.

                                                                                                                                                                      No

                                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                      1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                      55 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                      26 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                      81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                      No evidence was found of a cooperation agreement to combat terrorism signed between Brazil and China.

                                                                                                                                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                                                                          3.
                                                                                                                                                                          Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                          In my country, PRC-connected gangs (such as Triad, 三合会) are known to be operating in my country.

                                                                                                                                                                          Yes

                                                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                          1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                          52 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                          4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                          29 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                          81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                          According to a report, in 2017, 14 members of the Chinese mafia were arrested. The Chinese mafia is strongest in the central region of the city of São Paulo, where most of the Chinese community in Brazil is also concentrated. We find no concrete evidence of this "Chinese Mafia" expressly linked with the Triads.

                                                                                                                                                                          1. https://agenciabrasil.ebc.com.br/geral/noticia/2017-03/policia-civil-prende-14-integrantes-da-mafia-chinesa-em-sao-paulo
                                                                                                                                                                          2. http://www.ssp.sp.gov.br/noticia/LeFotos.aspx?id=8674
                                                                                                                                                                          3. http://www.ssp.sp.gov.br/LeNoticia.aspx?ID=39235

                                                                                                                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                                                            4.
                                                                                                                                                                            Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                            In my country, there are reports of economic espionage targeting the private sector that were suspected to benefit PRC-connected entities.

                                                                                                                                                                            No

                                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                            2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                            49 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                            1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                            7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                            3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                            3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                            12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                            4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                            9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                            80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                            No evidence was found of cases of economic espionage targeting the Brazilian private sector.

                                                                                                                                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                5.
                                                                                                                                                                                Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                In my country, there are reports of cyber attacks targeting government, critical infrastructure, or enterprises that were suspected to be initiated from the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                                No

                                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                37 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                15 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                No evidence of cyber attacks directed at the Brazilian government, critical infrastructure apparatus or companies suspected of originating from the PRC was found.

                                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                    6.
                                                                                                                                                                                    Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                    In my country, triads are known to have threatened or used violence to coerce, intimidate or punish Chinese dissidents.

                                                                                                                                                                                    No

                                                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                    2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                    67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                    5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                    3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                    3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                    3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                    2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                    80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                    No evidence was found of Triades, or "Chinese mafia", who threatened or used violence to coerce, intimidate or punish Chinese dissidents. The presence of the Chinese mafia in Brazil is mainly concentrated in the city of São Paulo and evidence was found that this mafia charges fees from Chinese traders in the central region. Another activity of the Chinese mafia in São Paulo is smuggling. Issues of threats or the use of violence to punish Chinese dissidents seems to us to be out of Brazil's reality. The Chinese mafia, according to evidence found in the survey, practices extortion, threats and uses violence with compatriots in case of non-payment of "protection fees". The mafia charges these fees so that Chinese merchants can maintain their trading activity.

                                                                                                                                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                        7.
                                                                                                                                                                                        Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                        My country has deployed video or internet surveillance systems from the PRC for law enforcement.

                                                                                                                                                                                        Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                        1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                        30 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                        51 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                        81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                        The state government of Bahia implemented a public security pilot project using Huawei's face recognition system. Campinas also has a public security pilot project that uses the same technology from Huawei.

                                                                                                                                                                                        1. http://www.ssp.ba.gov.br/2019/05/5695/Bahia-apresenta-resultado-do-Reconhecimento-Facial-na-China.html
                                                                                                                                                                                        2. https://www.campinas.sp.gov.br/noticias-integra.php?id=35530

                                                                                                                                                                                        Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                        This has already been highlighted in previous indicators.

                                                                                                                                                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                          8.
                                                                                                                                                                                          Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                          In my country, representatives of the PRC police force have had joint patrols with local law enforcement.

                                                                                                                                                                                          No

                                                                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                          71 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                          4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                          11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                          82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                          No evidence of a joint patrol carried out between China and Brazil was found.

                                                                                                                                                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                              9.
                                                                                                                                                                                              Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                              My government has detained people at the request of the PRC for committing a crime involving engagements with social movements or resistance activities in Hong Kong, Xinjiang or for other human rights or civic rights issues.

                                                                                                                                                                                              No

                                                                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                              1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                              68 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                              4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                              13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                              81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                              No evidence was found on the detention of a fellow citizen at the request of the PRC for the appointed reasons.

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                  10.
                                                                                                                                                                                                  Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                  My country has deported Taiwan citizens to the PRC to face prosecution.

                                                                                                                                                                                                  No

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                  2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                  71 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                  4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                  9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                  80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                  No evidence of deportation of Taiwanese from Brazil to China was found.

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                      11.
                                                                                                                                                                                                      Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                      My country has extradited or has deported individuals to the PRC, although such decisions had attracted criticisms from politicians, government employees or from local or foreign NGOs.

                                                                                                                                                                                                      No

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                      61 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                      21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                      82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                      No evidence has been found of extradition or deportation of individuals to China under criticism from local politicians or foreign NGOs.

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Hide

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Technology

                                                                                                                                                                                                          The Technology Domain gauges the PRC’s influence over the technology sector in the Index country, including the activity and financial leverage of PRC companies, use of PRC hardware, and bilateral research partnerships.

                                                                                                                                                                                                          1.
                                                                                                                                                                                                          Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                          In my country, PRC-connected entities (such as China Mobile, China Unicom or China Telecom) or their subsidiaries provide telecom services.

                                                                                                                                                                                                          No

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                          52 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                          4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                          30 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                          82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                          It is known that China Telecom in 2019 showed interest in buying Oi, but the interest did not materialize in the purchase. In addition, according to Decree 2,617, of June 5, 1998, in its article 1: "Concessions, permissions and authorizations for the exploitation of telecommunications services of collective interest may be granted or issued only to companies incorporated under Brazilian law , with registered office and administration in the country, in which the majority of the shares or shares with voting rights belong to natural persons resident in Brazil or to companies incorporated under Brazilian law and with registered office and administration in the country”. Even so, it was searched in Anatel's Raking (National Telecommunications Agency), with data from March 2021, on the operators with the largest number of subscribers of telecommunications services (Fixed Broadband, Mobile Telephony, Pay TV and Fixed Telephony ). In this Ranking, the main companies in the telecommunications market in Brazil are: Oi, Claro, Vivo, Tim and SKY/AT&T. None of these four companies are controlled by Chinese companies.

                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. https://informacoes.anatel.gov.br/paineis/acessos
                                                                                                                                                                                                          2. http://www.planalto.gov.br/ccivil_03/decreto/d2617.htm

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                            2.
                                                                                                                                                                                                            Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                            In my country, telecoms have signed agreements to adopt hardwares or technical specifications of 4G or 5G cellular networks that are produced or developed by Huawei, ZTE or other PRC enterprises.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                            16 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                            1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                            5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                            4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                            3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                            27 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                            4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                            30 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                            82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Huawei has been operating in Brazil since 1998 and is the largest supplier of telecommunications equipment, including 4G.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. https://www.istoedinheiro.com.br/banir-huawei-sera-custoso-e-atrasara-rede-de-5g-no-pais/
                                                                                                                                                                                                            2. https://economia.estadao.com.br/noticias/geral,brasil-deve-manter-huawei-em-leilao,70003020906

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                              3.
                                                                                                                                                                                                              Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                              In my country, telecoms have adopted hardware or technical specifications by PRC-connected entities in internet/wifi/telecommunication service infrastructure projects, in addition to 4G/5G cellular network.

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                              8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                              14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                              10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                              3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                              3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                              24 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                              23 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                              74 countries answered this indicator; 8 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                              At least on the local government level, Brazilian government allow Huawei to become their 5G partner.

                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. https://www.storm.mg/article/1731610
                                                                                                                                                                                                              2. https://globalvoices.org/2021/05/28/why-huawei-was-almost-excluded-from-the-5g-race-in-brazil/

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                4.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                In my country, PRC-connected entities are authorized vendors to supply tech-related equipment or services to our government, military or security services.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                28 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                53 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                No law has been found to restrict PRC connected entities from providing technological equipment or services to the Brazilian government in the areas of military or security services. More than that, in 2019, for example, the telecommunications company Oi participated in a pilot project with the Public Security Secretariat of the state of Rio de Janeiro to use Huawei's facial recognition cameras. Campinas and Salvador also use this technology. We looked for evidence of technological equipment that the Brazilian army could use, for example, but we didn't find anything.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. https://oglobo.globo.com/rio/big-brother-da-vida-real-sistema-de-reconhecimento-facial-da-pm-comeca-ser-testado-na-sexta-em-copacabana-23481555

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                  5.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  In my country, central or local governments have collaboration (such as data collection or exchange agreement, or adoption of related hardwares) with the PRC government or PRC-connected entities on facial, voice recognition or other applications involving biometrics achieved by AI.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  42 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Pilot projects were found among some city halls for the deployment of Huawei's facial recognition cameras. As the question talks about collaboration, we considered the experimental projects of the municipality of Campinas and the Public Security Department of Bahia. We believe this is significant because, as highlighted in the comment on Domestic Politics indicator 11, the State of Rio de Janeiro and Ceará have already mobilized to acquire video surveillance equipment from Chinese companies. There is an expectation that these pilot projects in Brazil will move towards the effective implementation of these technologies, especially for public security issues.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. https://www1.folha.uol.com.br/tec/2018/10/chinesa-huawei-faz-parceria-com-oi-para-cameras-de-reconhecimento-facial.shtml
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2. https://www.campinas.sp.gov.br/noticias-integra.php?id=35659
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  3. http://www.ssp.ba.gov.br/2019/05/5695/Bahia-apresenta-resultado-do-Reconhecimento-Facial-na-China.html

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                    6.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    In my country, one or more cities have procured, or have signed contracts with PRC-connected entities to establish “smart city” systems.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    35 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    25 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Smart cities encompass video surveillance systems, in addition to many other elements dependent on IoT, 5G and artificial intelligence structures. It should also be noted that Brazil is still in the process of approving a notice for the 5G auctions. The issue of smart cities, which is quite comprehensive, is on the horizon, but still does not appear on the agenda with prominence on the national scene. Objectively, we consider the previous indicator to answer this one, since video surveillance systems make up smart cities systems. Still, evidence was sought that focused on other elements of smart cities. Thus, we return to reference the examples of the city of Rio de Janeiro, Campinas and the state of Bahia that used Huawei's facial recognition cameras. Thus, partnerships for video surveillance systems are considered as a smart cities system. It is also noteworthy that representatives of the state of Bahia and the city of Campinas attended the Smart City Forum, held in the Chinese city of Shenzhen in 2019. As there are 3 large cities, we chose the answer "Few, but significant".

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. https://www1.folha.uol.com.br/tec/2018/10/chinesa-huawei-faz-parceria-com-oi-para-cameras-de-reconhecimento-facial.shtml
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2. https://www.campinas.sp.gov.br/noticias-integra.php?id=35659
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    3. http://www.ssp.ba.gov.br/2019/05/5695/Bahia-apresenta-resultado-do-Reconhecimento-Facial-na-China.html

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                      7.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      In my country, financial institutions use the China Cross-Border Interbank Payment System (CIPS) clearing and settlement services system.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      63 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      18 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      No evidence was found of financial institutions in Brazil using the China Cross-Border Interbank Payment System (CIPS). The search results indicate that in Brazil, international transfer operations are carried out by the Society for Worldwide Interbank Financial Telecommunication (SWIFT). There is an order from 2018, from the Central Bank of Brazil, confirming that two Brazilian civil servants attended a meeting at the Central Bank of China and "watch a presentation on the Chinese experience with the Cross" border Interbank Payment System".

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                          8.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          In my country, PRC-connected venture capital invests in technology start-ups.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          32 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          18 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          In 2017, DiDi Chuxing, the company that owns the largest transport app in China, invested in 99 (Taxi). In October 2018, Tecent invested US$ 180 million in Brazilian fintech NuBank. These are two big investments confirmed in Brazil.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-tencent-holdings-nubank-m-a-idUKKCN1MI20L
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2. https://www.investe.sp.gov.br/noticia/didi-chuxing-da-china-investe-no-aplicativo-de-taxis-99/

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                            9.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            In my country, companies have publicly announced that they had signed MOUs to collaborate on technological development (such as collaborations in A.I., Blockchain, Cloud Computing, Big Data) with PRC-connected entities.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            31 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Only one MOU was found between Huawei and BioTIC S.A for the implementation of the first permanent 5G-test space, on national soil, with Huawei technology signed in June 2019.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. https://www.huawei.com/br/news/br/2019/junho/mou-para-fomentar-o-ambiente-da-inovacao-em-5g
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2. https://www.agenciabrasilia.df.gov.br/2021/05/06/impulso-tecnologico-por-uma-brasilia-mais-moderna/

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                              10.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              In my country, PRC-connected entities are shareholders or developers of the top five popular social media/messaging apps, based on usage.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              44 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              36 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              According to a survey by the Mobile Time portal, the main messaging apps in Brazil in February 2021 are: Whatsapp, Instagram, Facebook Messenger, Telegram and Signal. However, when it comes to social media apps, Tik Tok appears in fourth position in a survey released by the Mobile Time portal in December 2020.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. https://www.mobiletime.com.br/pesquisas/mensageria-no-brasil-fevereiro-de-2021/
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2. https://www.mobiletime.com.br/pesquisas/uso-de-apps-no-brasil-dezembro-de-2020/

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                11.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                In my country, the central or local government(s) has collaborated with the PRC on endorsing the use of BeiDou satellite navigation system.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                64 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                17 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                The Brazilian government has already manifested itself in favor of BeiDou in the context of the VII BRICS Summit in 2015, held in the city of Ufá, Russia. According to the Ufa declaration (2015): "We recognize that our [BRICS members] countries can benefit from opportunities for space cooperation in order to promote the application of relevant technologies for peaceful purposes. We will intensify our cooperation in areas of joint application of space technologies, satellite navigation, including GLONASS and Beidou, and space science". In addition, it is known that in 2014 the first Brazilian Station for Monitoring the Chinese Beidou Satellite Positioning System was installed on the campus of the National Observatory (ON), in Rio de Janeiro. Another detail, in 2018 a servant of the Brazilian Space Agency (AEB) was sent to participate in a technology conference organized by the National Center for Remote Sensing of China (NRSCC) which focused on the technology and applications of the BeiDou system.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. https://www.gov.br/mre/es/canales_servicio/prensa/notas-a-la-prensa/vii-cupula-do-brics-declaracao-de-ufa-ufa-russia-9-de-julho-de-2016
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2. https://www.gov.br/aeb/pt-br/assuntos/noticias/estacao-no-on-fornece-dados-de-satelites-a-brasileiros-e-chineses
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                3. http://www.portaltransparencia.gov.br/viagens/42726337

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Domestic Politics

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  The Domestic Politics Domain evaluates PRC efforts to influence the political landscape in the Index country, and the footprint of PRC security companies.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  In my country, politicians or government employees at the sub-national level are signing agreements with the PRC government or state-owned enterprises.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  20 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  23 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  The contract between the government of Paraná and the Chinese state-owned pharmaceutical company Sinopharm took place amidst the race for immunization against Covid-19, which demonstrates the relevance of the approximation. The contract between the Chinese consortium, which has a state-owned company China Communications Construction Company, and the government of the state of Bahia for the construction of a bridge with an estimated cost of R$7.7 billion. The contract between the state of São Paulo and SinoVac laboratory was not considered, as it is a private Chinese company.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. http://www.seti.pr.gov.br/Noticia/Governo-assina-termo-para-producao-de-vacina-contra-Covid
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2. https://www.pge.ba.gov.br/procurador-geral-acompanha-assinatura-do-contrato-para-construcao-da-ponte-salvador-itaparica/

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    In my country, local municipalities have sister-city ties (友好城市) with municipalities in the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    23 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Porto Alegre, the capital of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, has the Chinese city of Suzhou as its sister city. The capital of China, Beijing, is a sister city of São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro. Curitiba has had Hangzhou as its sister city since 1999. According to the Brazil-China Chamber of Commerce and Industry, more than 20 Brazilian cities have Chinese cities as sister cities.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. http://www2.portoalegre.rs.gov.br/expo2010/default.php?p_noticia=127905
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2. http://legislacao.prefeitura.sp.gov.br/leis/lei-14471-de-10-de-julho-de-2007
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    3. https://leismunicipais.com.br/a/rj/r/rio-de-janeiro/lei-ordinaria/2015/591/5919/lei-ordinaria-n-5919-2015-dispoe-sobre-a-consolidacao-da-legislacao-municipal-referente-as-cidades-irmas-da-cidade-do-rio-de-janeiro-e-da-outras-providencias

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      3.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      In my country, politicians or government employees have taken trips to the PRC paid for by PRC-connected individuals or entities.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      22 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      16 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      16 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      73 countries answered this indicator; 9 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      In 2019, there were two trips by representatives of the legislative power from Brazil to China, with expenses paid by the Chinese government. A delegation of senators visited Huawei. The delegation of PSL deputies (supporters of the Bolsonaro government) represented a step on the part of the Chinese government towards closer ties with Brazil, despite the alignment of these deputies with the Brazilian foreign policy agenda of Bolsonaro of closer ties with the United States.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. https://legis.senado.leg.br/diarios/ver/102062?sequencia=31&sequenciaFinal=40
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2. https://www1.folha.uol.com.br/mercado/2019/01/bancada-do-psl-vai-a-china-importar-sistema-que-reconhece-rosto-de-cidadaos.shtml

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        4.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        In my country, politicians or government employees visit the PRC and have meetings with PRC officials and think tanks.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        25 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        32 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        There was no evidence of a meeting of Brazilian politicians who visited the PRC and had meetings with PRC officials and also with think tanks. However, considering only a visit to China with a meeting with PRC officials, in 2019 there was a trip by a group of senators (already informed in the previous indicator), paid for by the PRC. According to a report on the Uol portal, the senators also met with representatives of the Chinese Communist Party. There was also the visit of vice president Hamilton Mourão in May 2019, with the meeting of the Brazilian vice president with the president of the PRC, Xi Jinping. Also in 2019, in October, the president of Brazil, Jair Bolsonaro, was in China and also met with Xi Jinping.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. https://economia.uol.com.br/noticias/bloomberg/2019/10/08/viagem-a-china-com-tudo-pago-impressiona-parlamentares.htm
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2. https://www.gov.br/planalto/pt-br/conheca-a-vice-presidencia/agenda-vice-presidente/2019-05-24
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        3. https://agenciabrasil.ebc.com.br/politica/noticia/2019-10/bolsonaro-se-encontra-com-presidente-chines-para-assinatura-de-acordos

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          5.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          In my country, law enforcement and judicial related training offered the PRC-connected individuals or entities has been accepted by national or subnational governments.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          46 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          16 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          In March 2019, a total of 16 police officers from São Paulo participated of a training at the Department of Public Security of China, being 8 Police Delegates and 7 Military Police Officers. This course took place in Jiangsu Province and lasted 15 days. In 2017, the civil police of the state of Minas Gerais carried out exchanges with the PRC police in the city of Xuzhou. Similar examples of bilateral and multilateral cooperation were found between the Public Security Secretariat of the State of São Paulo, in partnership with the New York City Police (USA) and the Ministry of Justice and Public Security of Brazil with Interpol, for example.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. https://www.policiacivil.sp.gov.br/portal/faces/pages_home/noticias/noticiasDetalhes?contentId=UCM_044799&collectionId=358412565221033554&rascunhoNoticia=0&_afrLoop=343180767870765&_afrWindowMode=0&_afrWindowId=null#!%40%40%3F_afrWindowId%3Dnull%26collectionId%3D358412565221033554%26_afrLoop%3D343180767870765%26contentId%3DUCM_044799%26rascunhoNoticia%3D0%26_afrWindowMode%3D0%26_adf.ctrl-state%3Dihoty01zm_4
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2. https://www.detran.mg.gov.br/sobre-o-detran/sala-de-imprensa/noticias/pcmg-realiza-intercambio-com-a-policia-chinesa-e-assina-memorando-de-cooperacao-policial

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            6.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            In my country, there are reports of politicians or political parties receiving campaign donations that originate in the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            60 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            0 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            78 countries answered this indicator; 4 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            The Brazilian Constitution, in article 17, prohibits political parties from receiving financial resources from a foreign entity or government. Still, a survey was carried out on PRC donations to politicians or political parties in Brazil and found no evidence.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. http://www.planalto.gov.br/ccivil_03/constituicao/constituicao.htm

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              7.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              In my country, groups with reported links to the United Front Work Department (UFWD) have hosted fundraisings or have provided other forms of support for government employees, politicians or parties.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              64 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              No evidence was found of groups linked to United Front Work Department (UFWD) that organized fundraising campaigns or provided other forms of support to local politicians or parties.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. http://www.planalto.gov.br/ccivil_03/constituicao/constituicao.htm

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                8.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                In my country, groups with reported links to the United Front Work Department (UFWD) have made public statements opposing the candidacy of a local political candidate or party, claiming them being “anti-China”.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                78 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                0 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                0 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                No evidence was found of groups linked to United Front Work Department (UFWD).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    9.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    In my country, politicians or government employees have publicly expressed positive views of the PRC government.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    37 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    The president of Brazil, Jair Bolsonaro, was the protagonist in several episodes of accusations directed at the Chinese government. The more pro-China wing, especially Vice President Hamilton Mourão, has, at times, a more pragmatic stance, but does not publicly express properly positive views of China. Mourão is more concerned with maintaining the normality of relations, above all, trade between China and Brazil.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        10.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        In my country, politicians or government employees have received direct or deferred benefits from PRC-connected individuals or entities openly or covertly (e.g. have been appointed to lucrative positions as board members or consultants with PRC-invested firms, casinos, energy companies, etc.) during or in retirement from public office.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        40 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        0 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        18 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        73 countries answered this indicator; 9 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        No evidence was found of Brazilian politicians who have received benefits from individuals or entities linked to the PRC overtly or secretly. It is known that Brazilian politician Eduardo Paes was vice president of BYDmotors in Latin America, a Chinese manufacturer of electric cars. However, there is no evidence on the criteria for hiring Eduardo Paes. In addition, it should be noted that BYD motors is a private company headquartered in Shenzhen. We found on some non-renowned websites and on Revista Veja (reference 1) the information that the former president Michel Temer was formally hired by Huawei to prepare a legal opinion on the company's entry into the Brazilian market to dispute concessions around 5G transmission networks. Informally, according to a news report, the former president was also hired because "he maintains good relations with President Jair Bolsonaro".

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. https://veja.abril.com.br/blog/radar-economico/que-tipo-de-servico-michel-temer-prestou-a-huawei/
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2. https://oglobo.globo.com/rio/derrotado-nas-urnas-eduardo-paes-reassume-cargo-executivo-em-fabricante-chinesa-de-veiculos-eletricos-23362273

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          11.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          In my country, security services (安保/保安) offered by private PRC companies are contracted by national or subnational governments.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. http://www.rj.gov.br/secretaria/NoticiaDetalhe.aspx?id_noticia=13091&pl=governo-do-rio-e-huawei-debatem-parcerias-tecnol%C3%B3gicas
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2. https://www.ceara.gov.br/2019/04/25/china-governo-do-ceara-firmara-parceria-com-gigante-da-tecnologia-em-seguranca/

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          The State of Rio de Janeiro hosted Huawei representatives to build a partnership agenda covering public safety issues. However, no contract negotiations were closed. Along the same lines, the government of Ceará has been approaching the Chinese company Dahua Technology to supply video surveillance products and services, but so far, no negotiations have been closed. Both are pilot projects.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Foreign Policy

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            The Foreign Policy Domain gauges PRC efforts to achieve diplomatic objectives by influencing key actors in the Index country.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            My country’s legislature has a joint parliamentary friendship group, committee or other forms of sub-organizations with PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            25 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            57 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            There is a parliamentary group Brazil - PRC, composed of 32 Brazilian deputies. The parliamentary group was founded in 1993. In the Brazilian senate there is also a parliamentary group, created in 2004.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. https://www2.camara.leg.br/legin/int/rescad/1993/resolucaodacamaradosdeputados-47-30-junho-1993-321226-norma-pl.html
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2. https://legis.senado.leg.br/norma/592946/publicacao/15678637

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Representatives of a political party in my country’s national legislature have met officially with representatives of the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              20 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              40 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              In September 2020, representatives of the PSB, PCdoB, PCB and PT debated virtually with representatives of the Chinese Communist Party on Covid-19's control and prevention strategies. The meeting was promoted by the Chinese Communist Party. In February 2021 there was another virtual meeting between the Workers' Party (PT) and the Chinese embassy in Brazil.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. http://www.psb40.org.br/noticias/em-encontro-promovido-pelo-partido-comunista-chines-psb-debate-estrategias-de-controle-e-prevencao-do-coronavirus/
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2. https://pt.org.br/em-reuniao-com-embaixada-partidos-de-oposicao-reforcam-parceria-brasil-china/

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                3.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                The PRC provides training to diplomats or civil servants on governance from my country (such as at 国家行政学院 or 中央党校).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                39 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Through an international cooperation agreement between the Government of the State of Goiás and the Province of Gansú, in 2019, two state employees were selected for an internship, training and capacity building program in China. About the diplomats, the MRE was questioned, through the Brazil's Law on Access to Information, but so far, no response has been received.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. https://www.goias.gov.br/servico/25-executivo/118217-governo-de-goi%C3%A1s-sorteia-servidores-que-far%C3%A3o-interc%C3%A2mbio-na-china.html

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  4.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  In my country, politicians or government employees have been pressured by PRC diplomats to change their political or diplomatic stances.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  41 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  The Chinese ambassador to Brazil, Yang Wanming, responded to comments by Federal Deputy Eduardo Bolsonaro, in which the deputy accused China and Chinese companies of engaging in espionage and, in addition, the deputy supported the clean network initiative (to ban Huawei from 5G of Brazil). In response, the Chinese ambassador said: "they will bear the negative consequences and bear the historic responsibility of disturbing the normality of the China-Brazil partnership." In addition, tensions arose over an decisive issue, which is 5G and the technological dispute between the United States and China. Ambassador Yang Wanming responded in another episode again to federal deputy Eduardo Bolsonaro, then leader of the Committee on Foreign Affairs and National Defense of the Chamber of Deputies, after the Brazilian parliamentarian blamed the Chinese government for the Covid-19 pandemic. In this reply, which was given via Twitter, the Chinese representative in Brazil strongly repudiated the comment from Eduardo Bolsonaro and demanded an apology. It should also be noted that the Chinese ambassador's responses were reactions to attacks by Brazilian parliamentarians.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. http://br.china-embassy.org/por/sghds/t1835292.htm
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2. https://twitter.com/WanmingYang/status/1240441812105519109

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    5.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Citizens of my country have been detained in PRC or denied exit visas, and believed to be suffering from unfair legal treatments for political reasons, a.k.a. “hostage diplomacy”.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    61 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    No evidence was found of visas being denied to Brazilian citizens, or of episodes of hostile treatment by China for political reasons. The research was carried out on search engines and in the main newspapers in Brazil (O Globo, Estadão and Folha de São Paulo).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        6.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        The head of state, head of government or foreign minister of my country has denied Taiwan’s right to participate as a member, observer or guest in WHO.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        65 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        There was no statement from the Brazilian government regarding Taiwan's participation in the WHO. The research was carried out on search engines and in the main newspapers in Brazil (O Globo, Estadão and Folha de São Paulo). However, Taiwan's foreign ministry has issued a thank you note to some countries for supporting Taipei's candidacy to join WHO as an observer. Among the countries, the note mentions Brazil. On the Brazilian side, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Brazil was asked about the country's position in relation to Taiwan's participation as an observer at the WHO. The response was: "Brazil does not oppose the participation of Taiwanese experts at the technical level in WHO meetings, with prior knowledge of the Chinese government, but does not support the participation of Taiwanese political representatives as WHO observers. Whenever the topic is debated at WHO, Brazil follows the Chinese position. In this context, it is necessary to bear in mind the World Health Assembly Resolution 25.1, dated May 1972 (which decided to expel Taiwan from the WHO), as well as the practice of the AMS, as consolidated in past sessions."

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. https://nspp.mofa.gov.tw/nsppe/content_tt.php?unit=2&post=177381&unitname=Taiwan-Today&postname=MOFA-thanks-Latin-America%E2%80%99s-Formosa-Club-for-supporting-WHO-bid

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          7.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          My country publicly supported the appointment of a PRC official to be the head of a United Nations agency (such as the FAO or ICAO) or other intergovernmental organizations (such as INTERPOL).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          62 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          73 countries answered this indicator; 9 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          In 2019, Brazil voted for the Chinese representative for the post of director-general of FAO. The Chinese candidate was elected. In 2013 Brazil also supported the re-election of Li Yong as director general of UNIDO (United Nations Industrial Development Organization).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. https://g1.globo.com/economia/agronegocios/noticia/2019/06/20/brasil-apoia-candidato-chines-para-substituir-graziano-lideranca-da-fao.ghtml

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            8.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            My government has shown support of PRC's territorial claims (such as on the South China Sea arbitration ruling issued by the UNCLOS Arbitral Tribunal in July 2016; except claims over Taiwan, which are indirectly covered in indicator 6.)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Silence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            0/ My country has rejected PRC’s claim

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            24 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2/ My country has remained silent

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            36 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            4/ My country has adhered to PRC’s claim

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            According to a survey by The Diplomat portal, Brazil remained silent in 2016 about the dispute in the South China Sea. Furthermore, while Brazil's traditional position is one of support for China's territorial integrity, the country tends to remain silent. In addition, no evidence was found of a manifestation by Brazil on other territorial issues of the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. https://thediplomat.com/2016/07/who-supports-china-in-the-south-china-sea-and-why/

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              9.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              My country has shown one of the following stances on PRC’s treatment of its Uyghur population.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Silence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              0/ My country has denounced PRC

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              31 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2/ My country has remained silent

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              32 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              4/ My country has voiced support to PRC’s stance

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              17 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              No evidence was found of denunciation or support from the Brazilian government on the Uighur issue. Therefore, it is assumed that Brazil remained silent. The research was carried out on search engines, in the main newspapers in Brazil (O Globo, Estadão and Folha de São Paulo) and on the website of the Brazilian Ministry of Foreign Affairs.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  10.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  My country has shown one of the following stances on PRC’s treatment of its Tibet population.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Silence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  0/ My country has denounced PRC

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2/ My country has remained silent

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  46 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  4/ My country has voiced support to PRC’s stance

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  No evidence was found of denunciation or support from the Brazilian government on the Tibet issue, at least in the last 10 years. The research was carried out on search engines, in the main newspapers in Brazil (O Globo, Estadão and Folha de São Paulo) and on the website of the Brazilian Ministry of Foreign Affairs.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      11.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      My government has not publicly criticized the PRC’s imposition of the National Security Law on Hong Kong.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Silence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      0/ My country has denounced PRC

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      24 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2/ My country has remained silent

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      36 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      4/ My country has voiced support to PRC’s stance

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      No evidence was found of criticism from the Brazilian government on the impositions brought by the the National Security Law in Hong Kong. The research was carried out on search engines and in the main newspapers in Brazil (O Globo, Estadão and Folha de São Paulo).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Hide
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