Belgium

$51,767.8
11.5M
Ranking
75/ 82
Original Score

* As some Indicators can be skipped where data is unavailable, the maximum overall and Domain scores are not identical for each country. Country rankings are generated from ratios of the maximum scores and the achieved scores.

67/ 392
Executive partner
Central European Institute of Asian Studies
Index Year
2022
Layer Scores

The Indicators have been classified by the stage of the influence process at which they occur. Some Indicators correspond to exposure to PRC influence, e.g. the presence of Confucius Institutes. Others test for pressure – such as visa denials to academics or journalists. Finally, some Indicators capture the effect of PRC influence, such as national policy changes in favor of PRC interests.
The individual Layer scores for each country are tallied and displayed via rankings.

Exposure

24%

Exposure assesses the conditions that make the target country vulnerable to PRC's influence, e.g. in terms of economic dependence, or the receiving of some form of benefit.

Pressure

13%

Pressure measures the actions that the PRC directly or indirectly exerts over the target country in order to change the behavior of people in the target country, e.g. in terms of threatening economic punishment to provoke/prevent a political decision.

Effect

4%

Effect evaluates the degree of accommodations the target country makes to the PRC, and the actual effects and impacts on the target country.

In 2021, Belgium had a GDP per capita of US$51,767.80 and a total population of 11.58 million people.

Belgium established diplomatic relations with the People's Republic of China in 1971. Belgium was ranked 23rd in Reporters Without Borders' 2022 World Press Freedom Index, and Free in Freedom House's 2022 Global Freedom Status, with a score of 96/100.

Domain Scores
Country Percentage
Index Average

Percentage scores do not suggest some degree out of a “completely influenced” level of 100%. The percentages express the country’s score out of the total achievable amount based on the Indicators for each Domain.

  • Media
    11.4% / 30.1%
  • Academia
    29.5% / 34%
  • Economy
    9.1% / 33.6%
  • Society
    2.3% / 23.6%
  • Military
    0.0% / 23.4%
  • Law Enforcement
    18.2% / 30.2%
  • Technology
    42.5% / 40.8%
  • Domestic Politics
    25.0% / 37.2%
  • Foreign Policy
    18.2% / 41%

Media

The Media Domain evaluates how PRC entities influence public debate and media coverage about the PRC in the Index country.

1.
Exposure

In my country, there are media organizations that belong to the World Chinese Media (世界华文媒体) network.

No

Answer ( 0 / 4 )

More

Skipped

2 countries chose this answer

0/ No

42 countries chose this answer

1/ Few, but insignificant

19 countries chose this answer

2/ More than a few, but insignificant

4 countries chose this answer

3/ Few, but significant

13 countries chose this answer

4/ More than a few, and significant

2 countries chose this answer

80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

Supporting Evidence

No Belgian media is listed among the members.

      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Alfred Gerstl

      Hide
      2.
      Exposure

      In my country, there are journalists or media organizations which are members of the Belt and Road Media Cooperation Alliance/Union, the Belt and Road News Alliance, or other Belt and Road media networks that connected to PRC (e.g. Belt and Road Media Community, Belt and Road Journalists Network, Belt and Road News Network, or B&R TV Networks).

      No

      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

      More

      Skipped

      1 countries chose this answer

      0/ No

      39 countries chose this answer

      1/ Few, but insignificant

      23 countries chose this answer

      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

      4 countries chose this answer

      3/ Few, but significant

      14 countries chose this answer

      4/ More than a few, and significant

      1 countries chose this answer

      81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

      Supporting Evidence

      There is no evidence that Belgian journalists or media organizations are members of one of these networks

          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Alfred Gerstl

          Hide
          3.
          Exposure

          In my country, there are journalists, media organizations or online influencers who have attended all-expenses paid media tours in PRC.

          Yes

          Answer ( 2 / 4 )

          More

          Skipped

          11 countries chose this answer

          0/ No

          15 countries chose this answer

          1/ Few, but insignificant

          15 countries chose this answer

          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

          5 countries chose this answer

          3/ Few, but significant

          23 countries chose this answer

          4/ More than a few, and significant

          13 countries chose this answer

          71 countries answered this indicator; 11 countries skipped this indicator

          Supporting Evidence

          There is no open source on this matter. An expert told in an interview conducted by the researcher that for several years, China has offered journalists all-expenses-paid trips. The expert did not give me any further details on how exactly these tours were conducted.

              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Alfred Gerstl

              Hide
              4.
              Exposure

              In my country, there are journalists, media organizations or online influencers who have received trainings from PRC state-owned media or PRC-connected entities.

              No

              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

              More

              Skipped

              3 countries chose this answer

              0/ No

              37 countries chose this answer

              1/ Few, but insignificant

              16 countries chose this answer

              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

              2 countries chose this answer

              3/ Few, but significant

              14 countries chose this answer

              4/ More than a few, and significant

              10 countries chose this answer

              79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

              Supporting Evidence

              There is no evidence for this claim.

                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Alfred Gerstl

                  Hide
                  5.
                  Exposure

                  In my country, PRC state-media (including print, radio, and video) is broadcasted or distributed in a local language.

                  Yes

                  Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                  More

                  Skipped

                  1 countries chose this answer

                  0/ No

                  24 countries chose this answer

                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                  22 countries chose this answer

                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                  7 countries chose this answer

                  3/ Few, but significant

                  18 countries chose this answer

                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                  10 countries chose this answer

                  81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                  Supporting Evidence

                  Xinhua has its Europe Regional Bureau in Brussels, as it the main EU institutions are located in this city. Chun GAN, "Expansion of Chinese state media in Europe and its impact on Chinese media discourse on Europe: The case of Xinhua News Agency", Presented at the 15th Annual Conference on Asia Studies, 27 November 2021.

                  1. https://eias.org/publications/op-ed/bridging-europe-and-china-the-power-of-media-communication-and-storytelling/
                  2. https://asiepacifique.fr/chine-influence-lobbying-bruxelles-discours-medias-ue/

                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Alfred Gerstl

                    Hide
                    6.
                    Exposure

                    In my country, there are local media outlets wholly or partly owned by PRC citizens or corporations.

                    No

                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                    More

                    Skipped

                    2 countries chose this answer

                    0/ No

                    44 countries chose this answer

                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                    19 countries chose this answer

                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                    3 countries chose this answer

                    3/ Few, but significant

                    14 countries chose this answer

                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                    0 countries chose this answer

                    80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                    Supporting Evidence

                    There is no evidence for this claim.

                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Alfred Gerstl

                        Hide
                        7.
                        Exposure

                        In my country, there are media outlets that have delivered cheap or free contents provided by PRC state-fund media.

                        Yes

                        Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                        More

                        Skipped

                        3 countries chose this answer

                        0/ No

                        22 countries chose this answer

                        1/ Few, but insignificant

                        21 countries chose this answer

                        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                        6 countries chose this answer

                        3/ Few, but significant

                        23 countries chose this answer

                        4/ More than a few, and significant

                        7 countries chose this answer

                        79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                        Supporting Evidence

                        In 2018, Le Soir, a nationwide French newspaper, published a double page from China Daily and another from Xinhua newsagency ("Focus Belgique-Chine").

                        1. https://www.lesoir.be/

                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Alfred Gerstl

                          Hide
                          8.
                          Exposure

                          In my country, there are regular PRC state-media or government advertisements inserted within local newspapers, online news websites or social media.

                          Yes

                          Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                          More

                          Skipped

                          1 countries chose this answer

                          0/ No

                          38 countries chose this answer

                          1/ Few, but insignificant

                          13 countries chose this answer

                          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                          7 countries chose this answer

                          3/ Few, but significant

                          15 countries chose this answer

                          4/ More than a few, and significant

                          8 countries chose this answer

                          81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                          Supporting Evidence

                          De Staandard, a Flemish daily, is one of the many Western newspapers which regularly published "China Watch", produced by China Daily. Le Soir carries ChinaDaily advertisements on its website every day.

                          1. https://www.lesoir.be/
                          2. https://www.theguardian.com/news/2018/dec/07/china-plan-for-global-media-dominance-propaganda-xi-jinping

                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Alfred Gerstl

                            Hide
                            9.
                            Pressure

                            In my country, there are journalists who have had pressure exerted on them by the PRC, including (but not limited to) public denouncement, revocation of journalist ID, denial of visa.

                            No

                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                            More

                            Skipped

                            1 countries chose this answer

                            0/ No

                            57 countries chose this answer

                            4/ Yes

                            24 countries chose this answer

                            81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                            Supporting Evidence

                            There is no evidence that journalists faced in the last years such pressure. .

                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Alfred Gerstl

                                Hide
                                10.
                                Effect

                                In my country, there are incidents of media outlets censoring views critical of the PRC government.

                                No

                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                More

                                Skipped

                                4 countries chose this answer

                                0/ No

                                51 countries chose this answer

                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                11 countries chose this answer

                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                3 countries chose this answer

                                3/ Few, but significant

                                9 countries chose this answer

                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                4 countries chose this answer

                                78 countries answered this indicator; 4 countries skipped this indicator

                                Supporting Evidence

                                There is no evidence for this claim.

                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Alfred Gerstl

                                    Hide
                                    11.
                                    Effect

                                    In my country, there are media personalities (including reporters, journalists or commentators) or celebrities who deny the existence of human rights abuses in the PRC (e.g. a media personality that doubts there are re-education camps for Uyghurs in Xinjiang).

                                    No

                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                    More

                                    Skipped

                                    2 countries chose this answer

                                    0/ No

                                    44 countries chose this answer

                                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                                    18 countries chose this answer

                                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                    4 countries chose this answer

                                    3/ Few, but significant

                                    9 countries chose this answer

                                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                                    5 countries chose this answer

                                    80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                    Supporting Evidence

                                    There is no evidence for such a behavior.

                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Alfred Gerstl

                                        Hide

                                        Academia

                                        The Academia Domain measures how the PRC state attempts to restrict academic freedom by influencing or interfering with the Index country’s academic and educational activities.

                                        1.
                                        Exposure

                                        In my country, universities have established research partnerships with PRC-connected entities. (e.g. Huawei, Tencent or Alibaba)

                                        Yes

                                        Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                        More

                                        0/ No

                                        9 countries chose this answer

                                        1/ Few, but insignificant

                                        11 countries chose this answer

                                        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                        6 countries chose this answer

                                        3/ Few, but significant

                                        31 countries chose this answer

                                        4/ More than a few, and significant

                                        25 countries chose this answer

                                        82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                        Supporting Evidence

                                        There are more than 30% of Chinese partner institutions that are partners of Belgian universities that have a medium to very high risk profile" with this reference . For example, there is a cooperation agreement between Lingang Group and VIVES University. The University of Ghent has also an agreement with Huawei. DU BOIS, Cind & BALCAEN, Pieter "Sino-Belgian Research Collaborations", in China, Systemic Rival Economic Competitor and Negotiating Partner, Luk Sanders (ed.), Belgian Royal Higher Institute for Defence, October, 2020, p.39-50.

                                        1. https://www.durfdenken.be/nl/de-ugent/academische-samenwerking-die-bruggen-bouwt-15-jaar-china-platform
                                        2. http://www.baces.be/partners/

                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Alfred Gerstl

                                          Hide
                                          2.
                                          Exposure

                                          In my country, there are Confucius Institutes/Classrooms.

                                          Yes

                                          Answer ( 2 / 4 )

                                          More

                                          0/ No

                                          5 countries chose this answer

                                          1/ Few, but insignificant

                                          14 countries chose this answer

                                          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                          5 countries chose this answer

                                          3/ Few, but significant

                                          31 countries chose this answer

                                          4/ More than a few, and significant

                                          27 countries chose this answer

                                          82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                          Hide
                                          3.
                                          Exposure

                                          My country plans to include, or does include, Chinese as a foreign language in K12 or primary education, and receives free or subsidized (e.g. offered below market price) educational books and teachers from PRC.

                                          No

                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                          More

                                          Skipped

                                          1 countries chose this answer

                                          0/ No

                                          46 countries chose this answer

                                          4/ Yes

                                          35 countries chose this answer

                                          81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                          Supporting Evidence

                                          There is no evidence for such a plan.

                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Alfred Gerstl

                                              Hide
                                              4.
                                              Exposure

                                              In my country, one or more think tanks and academic research centers belong to PRC-affiliated networks/associations (such as: the Silk Road Think Tank Association, Silk Road Think Tank Network [SiLKS], Belt and Road Studies Network, University Alliance of the Silk Road, University Consortium of the 21st Century Maritime Silk Road).

                                              Yes

                                              Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                                              More

                                              Skipped

                                              2 countries chose this answer

                                              0/ No

                                              40 countries chose this answer

                                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                                              17 countries chose this answer

                                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                              7 countries chose this answer

                                              3/ Few, but significant

                                              14 countries chose this answer

                                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                                              2 countries chose this answer

                                              80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                              Supporting Evidence

                                              The Flanders-China Chamber of Commerce is not a member of these particular networks but has other relationships with the PRC.

                                              1. https://www.flanders-china.be/en/about-us

                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Alfred Gerstl

                                                Hide
                                                5.
                                                Exposure

                                                In my country, think tanks and academic research centers have received financial support from PRC-connected individuals or entities.

                                                Yes

                                                Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                More

                                                Skipped

                                                10 countries chose this answer

                                                0/ No

                                                21 countries chose this answer

                                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                11 countries chose this answer

                                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                11 countries chose this answer

                                                3/ Few, but significant

                                                19 countries chose this answer

                                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                10 countries chose this answer

                                                72 countries answered this indicator; 10 countries skipped this indicator

                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                In 2014, Brussels Academy for China and European Studies (BACES) was founded by Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Renmin University of China, Fudan University and Sichuan University. The think tank is conceived as "a platform for exchanging academic ideas, supporting academic activities and for promoting understanding between Chinese and European people". Partners are the universities of Ghent (Belgium), Lancaster (UK), Sofia (Bulgaria), Bucharest (Romania), and Deakin (Australia). According to the BACES website, Huawei (The Netherlands) sponsor "currently" a Chair at BACES. The Brussels-based Europe-China Forum organizes events attended by high-ranking current and former Belgian and EU politicians. Its annual Europe-China Forum, a come-together of European and Chinese policymakers, is co-organized by the Chinese Mission to the EU and the China Institute for Reform and Development (CIRD), a public research institute in Haikou (Hainan, China). President is former EU Commissioner Etienne Davignon. DU BOIS, Cind & BALCAEN, Pieter "Sino-Belgian Research Collaborations", in China, Systemic Rival Economic Competitor and Negotiating Partner, Luk Sanders (ed.), Belgian Royal Higher Institute for Defence, October, 2020, p.39-50.

                                                1. http://be.china-embassy.gov.cn/eng/sghd/202009/t20200919_2076840.htm
                                                2. http://www.baces.be/partners/
                                                3. https://corporateeurope.org/en/2019/04/follow-new-silk-road-chinas-growing-trail-think-tanks-and-lobbyists-europe
                                                4. https://www.friendsofeurope.org/events/europe-china-forum-2022/
                                                5. http://be.china-embassy.gov.cn/eng/sghd/202009/t20200919_2076840.htm

                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Alfred Gerstl

                                                  Hide
                                                  6.
                                                  Exposure

                                                  In my country, experts participate in PRC talent recruitment programs such as the Thousand Talents Program or Changjiang Scholars program.

                                                  No

                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                  More

                                                  Skipped

                                                  3 countries chose this answer

                                                  0/ No

                                                  47 countries chose this answer

                                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                  11 countries chose this answer

                                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                  6 countries chose this answer

                                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                                  10 countries chose this answer

                                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                  5 countries chose this answer

                                                  79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                  There is no evidence for this claim.

                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Alfred Gerstl

                                                      Hide
                                                      7.
                                                      Exposure

                                                      In my country, scholars have taken trips to the PRC paid for by PRC-connected individuals or entities.

                                                      Yes

                                                      Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                      More

                                                      Skipped

                                                      13 countries chose this answer

                                                      0/ No

                                                      17 countries chose this answer

                                                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                      15 countries chose this answer

                                                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                      11 countries chose this answer

                                                      3/ Few, but significant

                                                      12 countries chose this answer

                                                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                      14 countries chose this answer

                                                      69 countries answered this indicator; 13 countries skipped this indicator

                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                      According to an expert interview conducted by the researcher, university professors and researchers, often working on China, have been invited to give lectures and courses in China for years. Although researchers used to have a certain freedom, since a few years Belgian professors are strongly invited to tell the "right" vision of China and can no longer afford to express themselves on certain subjects.

                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Alfred Gerstl

                                                          Hide
                                                          8.
                                                          Pressure

                                                          In my country, organized PRC-connected student groups, such as Chinese Students and Scholars Associations (CSSAs), are involved in attempts to censor staff or students (e.g. by harassing students protesting human rights abuses in the PRC, or formally complaining about the identification of Taiwan as a country in lecture slides).

                                                          No

                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                          More

                                                          Skipped

                                                          1 countries chose this answer

                                                          0/ No

                                                          64 countries chose this answer

                                                          1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                          6 countries chose this answer

                                                          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                          3 countries chose this answer

                                                          3/ Few, but significant

                                                          5 countries chose this answer

                                                          4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                          3 countries chose this answer

                                                          81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                          There is no evidence for such claims.

                                                          1. https://www.veto.be/artikel/navigating-allegations-of-chinese-espionage-and-interference-in-academia

                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Alfred Gerstl

                                                            Hide
                                                            9.
                                                            Pressure

                                                            In my country, scholars or academics have been denied visas to travel to the PRC after expressing opinions or producing scholarship that is critical of the PRC.

                                                            No

                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                            More

                                                            Skipped

                                                            7 countries chose this answer

                                                            0/ No

                                                            64 countries chose this answer

                                                            1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                            1 countries chose this answer

                                                            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                            0 countries chose this answer

                                                            3/ Few, but significant

                                                            6 countries chose this answer

                                                            4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                            4 countries chose this answer

                                                            75 countries answered this indicator; 7 countries skipped this indicator

                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                            Academics deny that they have been censored by China or were not allowed to travel to China due to their critical research.

                                                            1. https://www.veto.be/artikel/navigating-allegations-of-chinese-espionage-and-interference-in-academia

                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Alfred Gerstl

                                                              Hide
                                                              10.
                                                              Effect

                                                              In my country, PRC-connected entities have been involved in school or university curriculum design, such as courses about East Asian history, modern politics, etc.

                                                              No

                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                              More

                                                              Skipped

                                                              2 countries chose this answer

                                                              0/ No

                                                              64 countries chose this answer

                                                              4/ Yes

                                                              16 countries chose this answer

                                                              80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                              There is no evidence for this claim.

                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Alfred Gerstl

                                                                  Hide
                                                                  11.
                                                                  Effect

                                                                  In my country, there are confirmed reports of teachers or professors avoiding the discussion of sensitive political issues (e.g. Uyghur re-education camps, Taiwan independence, Tiananmen Square Massacre).

                                                                  No

                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                  More

                                                                  Skipped

                                                                  5 countries chose this answer

                                                                  0/ No

                                                                  65 countries chose this answer

                                                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                  1 countries chose this answer

                                                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                  1 countries chose this answer

                                                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                                                  6 countries chose this answer

                                                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                  4 countries chose this answer

                                                                  77 countries answered this indicator; 5 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                  There is no evidence for this claim.

                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Alfred Gerstl

                                                                      Hide

                                                                      Economy

                                                                      The Economy Domain measures the PRC’s economic leverage in the Index country, and how this is used to influence economic policy or corporate behavior in ways that favor the PRC.

                                                                      1.
                                                                      Exposure

                                                                      The PRC is my country's number one trading partner (for trade in goods only).

                                                                      No

                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                      More

                                                                      0/ No

                                                                      51 countries chose this answer

                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                      31 countries chose this answer

                                                                      82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                      Not Found

                                                                      1. https://wits.worldbank.org/CountrySnapshot/en/BEL
                                                                      2. https://oec.world/en/profile/country/bel

                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Alfred Gerstl

                                                                        Hide
                                                                        2.
                                                                        Exposure

                                                                        PRC-connected entities own more than 50% of my country’s sovereign debt.

                                                                        No

                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                        More

                                                                        Skipped

                                                                        1 countries chose this answer

                                                                        0/ No

                                                                        77 countries chose this answer

                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                        4 countries chose this answer

                                                                        81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                        Interview with expert n°3

                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Alfred Gerstl

                                                                            Hide
                                                                            3.
                                                                            Exposure

                                                                            The PRC is the top customer for my country’s extractive industries.

                                                                            No

                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                            More

                                                                            0/ No

                                                                            62 countries chose this answer

                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                            20 countries chose this answer

                                                                            82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                            The PRC is not Belgium's top customer.

                                                                            1. https://oec.world/en/profile/country/bel

                                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Alfred Gerstl

                                                                              Hide
                                                                              4.
                                                                              Exposure

                                                                              In my country, PRC-related entities own, operate or substantially control critical infrastructure (e.g. ports, power plants, digital data centers, etc) or sensitive sectors (biotech, raw materials, etc.)

                                                                              No

                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                              More

                                                                              0/ No

                                                                              36 countries chose this answer

                                                                              4/ Yes

                                                                              46 countries chose this answer

                                                                              82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                              Not according the two links provided. However, according to the report "European seaports and Chinese strategic influence" (see below URL1) and the artical "La Chine s'est emparée de près 90% du terminal de conteneurs de Zeebrugge. " (see below URL2), both of these descriptions show that "in Zeebrugge, COSCO owns 90 per cent of the only terminal operator, COSCO Shipping Ports Zeebrugge Terminal".

                                                                              1. https://www.clingendael.org/sites/default/files/2019-12/Report_European_ports_and_Chinese_influence_December_2019.pdf
                                                                              2. https://www.lalibre.be/economie/entreprises-startup/2019/12/26/la-chine-sest-emparee-de-pres-90-du-terminal-de-conteneurs-de-zeebrugge-FTZYBBFPYFH4LHOKYTXTHFKCCI/

                                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Alfred Gerstl

                                                                                Hide
                                                                                5.
                                                                                Exposure

                                                                                My country joined (or applied to join) the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB).

                                                                                Yes

                                                                                Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                More

                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                27 countries chose this answer

                                                                                4/ Yes

                                                                                55 countries chose this answer

                                                                                82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                Belgium became an official member in July 2019. The AIIB's Board of Governors approved ist membership in March 2017.

                                                                                1. https://www.aiib.org/en/about-aiib/governance/members-of-bank/index.html

                                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Alfred Gerstl

                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                  6.
                                                                                  Exposure

                                                                                  In my country, major businesses are members of the Silk Road Chamber of International Commerce, or of the Belt and Road Industrial and Commercial Alliance, or of the Belt and Road General Chamber of Commerce.

                                                                                  No

                                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                  More

                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                  41 countries chose this answer

                                                                                  4/ Yes

                                                                                  41 countries chose this answer

                                                                                  82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                  No but we can notice that there are several Belgian the team members of Silk Road Partners.

                                                                                  1. https://silkroadpartners.eu/team/

                                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Alfred Gerstl

                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                    7.
                                                                                    Pressure

                                                                                    My country has been the target of PRC economic coercion (e.g. trade or investment sanctions) that was specifically tailored at products or services that are highly dependent on the PRC market.

                                                                                    No

                                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                    More

                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                    64 countries chose this answer

                                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                                    18 countries chose this answer

                                                                                    82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                    There is no evidence for this claim.

                                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Alfred Gerstl

                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                        8.
                                                                                        Pressure

                                                                                        In my country, local businesses have been harassed, threatened, or boycotted, due to their activities or statements in support of causes deemed unacceptable by the PRC government (e.g. Taiwanese independence, Hong Kong democracy, Tibet or Xinjiang issues, etc).

                                                                                        No

                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                        More

                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                        2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                        65 countries chose this answer

                                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                                        15 countries chose this answer

                                                                                        80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                        There is no evidence for this claim.

                                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Alfred Gerstl

                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                            9.
                                                                                            Effect

                                                                                            My country has free-trade agreement(s) with the PRC (either bilateral or as part of regional agreement(s)) that primarily deals with trade in goods or services, including digital goods or services.

                                                                                            No

                                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                            More

                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                            51 countries chose this answer

                                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                                            31 countries chose this answer

                                                                                            82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                            On 30 December 2020, the EU and China concluded in principle the negotiations on the Comprehensive Agreement on Investment (CAI) (see below URL1). But in this artical "Is the EU-China Investment Agreement Dead?" (see below URL2)., it shows that since China’s refusal to condemn the Russian invasion of Ukraine, the agreement is already on ice.

                                                                                            1. https://policy.trade.ec.europa.eu/eu-trade-relationships-country-and-region/countries-and-regions/china/eu-china-agreement_en
                                                                                            2. https://thediplomat.com/2022/03/is-the-eu-china-investment-agreement-dead/

                                                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Alfred Gerstl

                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                              10.
                                                                                              Effect

                                                                                              In my country, central or local governments have relaxed or removed regulatory restrictions, or have established special economic zones (or free trade zones, industrial parks, etc.) to attract investments or economic participation from the PRC.

                                                                                              No

                                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                              More

                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                              47 countries chose this answer

                                                                                              4/ Yes

                                                                                              35 countries chose this answer

                                                                                              82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                              There is no evidence for this claim. No restrictions were lowered for attracting the China-Belgium Technoly Center (CBTC), launched in 2016 in Louvain-la-Neuve.

                                                                                              1. https://www.wallonia.be/en/news/china-closely-monitors-its-incubator-louvain-la-neuve

                                                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Alfred Gerstl

                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                11.
                                                                                                Effect

                                                                                                In my country, PRC-connected entities requisitioned infrastructure or land for failure to repay debts in a timely manner.

                                                                                                No

                                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                More

                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                76 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                4/ Yes

                                                                                                4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                There is no evidence for this claim.

                                                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Alfred Gerstl

                                                                                                    Hide

                                                                                                    Society

                                                                                                    The Society Domain measures the extent and effectiveness of the PRC’s efforts to advance its soft power in the Index country, including its influence over the actions and views of local organizations and citizens.

                                                                                                    1.
                                                                                                    Exposure

                                                                                                    In my country, there are local groups or organizations with words like “Promotion of Peaceful Reunification” in their name, and they regularly publicize their views on Taiwan, Hong Kong, Tibet and Xinjiang issues.

                                                                                                    No

                                                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                    1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                    49 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                    12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                    7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                    3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                    9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                    4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                    81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                    There is no evidence for such activities.

                                                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Alfred Gerstl

                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                        2.
                                                                                                        Exposure

                                                                                                        In my country, there are members and member organizations of United World Chinese Association (世界华人协会).

                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                        1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                        62 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                                                        19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                        81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                        Not Found

                                                                                                        1. http://www.uwca.net/member.html

                                                                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Alfred Gerstl

                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                          3.
                                                                                                          Exposure

                                                                                                          In my country, labor unions cooperate on exchanges or official visits to the All-China Federation of Trade Unions (ACFTU) in the PRC.

                                                                                                          No

                                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                          1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                          68 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                          4/ Yes

                                                                                                          13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                          81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                          There is no evidence for recent meetings.

                                                                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Alfred Gerstl

                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                              4.
                                                                                                              Exposure

                                                                                                              In my country, there are local reports of personnel linked to the UFWD who make appearances at Chinese diaspora community events and activities (e.g. Lunar New Year events, Dragon Boat festival tournaments, etc).

                                                                                                              No

                                                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                              2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                              50 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                              9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                              5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                              3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                              9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                              7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                              80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                              There is no evidence for this claim.

                                                                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Alfred Gerstl

                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                  5.
                                                                                                                  Exposure

                                                                                                                  In my country, there are PRC-connected professional associations that are closely engaged with their counterparts locally, such as All-China Journalists Association (中华全国新闻工作者协会), China Artists Association (中国艺术家协会), China Writers Association (中国作家协会) or All-China Women Federation (全国妇联).

                                                                                                                  Yes

                                                                                                                  Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                  2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                  33 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                  25 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                  8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                  8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                  6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                  80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                  There are only few such relations. For instance, a meeting of the Party Leadership Group of the All-China Women's Federation with the Belgian Chinese Women's Federation took place in Beijing in September 2019.

                                                                                                                  1. https://www.womenofchina.cn/womenofchina/html1/19112/2806-1.htm

                                                                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Alfred Gerstl

                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                    6.
                                                                                                                    Exposure

                                                                                                                    In my country, PRC-connected individuals or entities donate money or provide other types of support to religious communities and charities.

                                                                                                                    No

                                                                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                    1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                    46 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                                                                    35 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                    81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                    No evidence could be found.

                                                                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Alfred Gerstl

                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                        7.
                                                                                                                        Exposure

                                                                                                                        In my country, the PRC government or PRC-connected entities distribute entertainment products (including: drama and TV shows) or related hardwares (e.g. OTT streaming players hosting PRC media channels) freely or at a cheap price.

                                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                        2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                        38 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                        1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                        21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                        4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                        3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                        11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                        4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                        6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                        80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                        There is no evidence for this claim.

                                                                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Alfred Gerstl

                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                            8.
                                                                                                                            Effect

                                                                                                                            Cultural products (such as films and TV shows) produced by my country’s production studios typically portray the PRC in a positive light.

                                                                                                                            No

                                                                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                            7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                            60 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                                                                            15 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                            75 countries answered this indicator; 7 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                            There is no evidence for this claim.

                                                                                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Alfred Gerstl

                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                9.
                                                                                                                                Effect

                                                                                                                                In my country, celebrities regularly publish or share propaganda narratives from the PRC.

                                                                                                                                No

                                                                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                0 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                There is no evidence for this claim.

                                                                                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Alfred Gerstl

                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                    10.
                                                                                                                                    Effect

                                                                                                                                    In my country, the national or local governments regularly publish or share propaganda narratives from the PRC (e.g. statements from the PRC government or embassies).

                                                                                                                                    No

                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                    2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                    54 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                    12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                    2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                    3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                    7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                    5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                    80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                    There is no evidence for this claim.

                                                                                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Alfred Gerstl

                                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                                        11.
                                                                                                                                        Effect

                                                                                                                                        In my country, a majority of citizens have positive views of the PRC government.

                                                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                                        7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                        50 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                        25 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                        75 countries answered this indicator; 7 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                        Hide

                                                                                                                                        Military

                                                                                                                                        The Military Domain gauges the bilateral military relationship between the PRC and the Index country, including PRC efforts to influence local military personnel.

                                                                                                                                        1.
                                                                                                                                        Exposure

                                                                                                                                        My country currently imports (or receives in-kind donation of) military or law-enforcement equipment or components of equipment from the PRC.

                                                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                        36 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                        46 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                        82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                        There is no evidence for such imports.

                                                                                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Alfred Gerstl

                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                            2.
                                                                                                                                            Exposure

                                                                                                                                            My country currently exports military or law-enforcement equipment or components of equipment to the PRC.

                                                                                                                                            No

                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                                            1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                            74 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                            7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                            81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                            There exists no evidence for such exports.

                                                                                                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Alfred Gerstl

                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                3.
                                                                                                                                                Exposure

                                                                                                                                                My country co-develops or co-produces military or law-enforcement equipment with the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                No

                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                                1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                66 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                15 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                There is no evidence for such cooperation.

                                                                                                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Alfred Gerstl

                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                    4.
                                                                                                                                                    Exposure

                                                                                                                                                    In my country, there are reports that the PRC has expressed intentions or has taken actions to establish basing.

                                                                                                                                                    No

                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                                    2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                    67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                    13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                    80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                    There is no evidence for this claim.

                                                                                                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Alfred Gerstl

                                                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                                                        5.
                                                                                                                                                        Exposure

                                                                                                                                                        In my country, the People’s Liberation Army (PLA) has participated in a humanitarian relief/disaster assistance (HADR) effort.

                                                                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                                                        2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                                        61 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                        19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                        80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                        There is no evidence for this claim.

                                                                                                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Alfred Gerstl

                                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                                            6.
                                                                                                                                                            Exposure

                                                                                                                                                            In my country, People’s Liberation Army (PLA) military personnel are permanently or rotationally deployed (excluding defense attaches and peacekeepers).

                                                                                                                                                            No

                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                            77 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                            5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                            82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                            There is no evidence for this claim.

                                                                                                                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Alfred Gerstl

                                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                                7.
                                                                                                                                                                Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                In my country, members of the military have received professional military education from the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                No

                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                48 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                34 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                There is no evidence for this claim.

                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Alfred Gerstl

                                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                                    8.
                                                                                                                                                                    Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                    In my country, members of the military have received peacekeeping training from the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                    No

                                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                    2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                    67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                    13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                    80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                    There is no evidence for this claim.

                                                                                                                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Alfred Gerstl

                                                                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                                                                        9.
                                                                                                                                                                        Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                        In my country, high-ranking retired or current military and/or intelligence officers have received direct or deferred benefits from PRC-connected individuals or entities openly or covertly (e.g. have been appointed to lucrative positions as board members or consultants with PRC-invested firms, casinos, energy companies, etc.) during or in retirement from public service.

                                                                                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                        4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                        67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                        11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                        78 countries answered this indicator; 4 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                        No evidence could be found.

                                                                                                                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Alfred Gerstl

                                                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                                                            10.
                                                                                                                                                                            Effect

                                                                                                                                                                            In my country, high-ranking retired or current military and/or intelligence officials advocate for more coordination with the People’s Liberation Army (PLA).

                                                                                                                                                                            No

                                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                            1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                            68 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                            13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                            81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                            There is no evidence for such a behavior.

                                                                                                                                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Alfred Gerstl

                                                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                11.
                                                                                                                                                                                Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                My country cooperates with the People’s Liberation Army (PLA) on military exchange exercises, including drills and war games.

                                                                                                                                                                                No

                                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                51 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                31 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                There is no evidence for this claim.

                                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Alfred Gerstl

                                                                                                                                                                                    Hide

                                                                                                                                                                                    Law Enforcement

                                                                                                                                                                                    The Law Enforcement Domain measures law enforcement cooperation between the PRC and the Index country, as well as the nature and extent of PRC-related criminal activity in the Index country.

                                                                                                                                                                                    1.
                                                                                                                                                                                    Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                    My country currently maintains an extradition treaty, legal mutual assistance or other similar arrangements with the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                                    Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                    32 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                    50 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                    82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                    Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                    1. https://www.ejustice.just.fgov.be/cgi/article_body.pl?language=fr&caller=summary&pub_date=20-12-16&numac=2019010102

                                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Alfred Gerstl

                                                                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                      2.
                                                                                                                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                      In my country, law enforcement authorities have signed cooperation agreements with the PRC on combatting terrorism.

                                                                                                                                                                                      No

                                                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                      1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                      55 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                      26 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                      81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                      Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                      1. https://diplomatie.belgium.be/fr/politique/themes-politiques/paix-et-securite/terrorisme/lutte-contre-le-terrorisme

                                                                                                                                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Alfred Gerstl

                                                                                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                        3.
                                                                                                                                                                                        Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                        In my country, PRC-connected gangs (such as Triad, 三合会) are known to be operating in my country.

                                                                                                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                        1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                        52 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                        29 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                        81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                        There is no evidence for such activities.

                                                                                                                                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Alfred Gerstl

                                                                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                            4.
                                                                                                                                                                                            Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                            In my country, there are reports of economic espionage targeting the private sector that were suspected to benefit PRC-connected entities.

                                                                                                                                                                                            Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                            2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                            49 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                            1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                            7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                            3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                            3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                            12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                            4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                            9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                            80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                            5.
                                                                                                                                                                                            Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                            In my country, there are reports of cyber attacks targeting government, critical infrastructure, or enterprises that were suspected to be initiated from the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                                            Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                            3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                            37 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                            1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                            9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                            4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                            3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                            14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                            4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                            15 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                            79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                            6.
                                                                                                                                                                                            Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                            In my country, triads are known to have threatened or used violence to coerce, intimidate or punish Chinese dissidents.

                                                                                                                                                                                            No

                                                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                            2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                            67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                            1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                            5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                            3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                            3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                            3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                            4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                            2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                            80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                            There is no evidence for such activities.

                                                                                                                                                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Alfred Gerstl

                                                                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                7.
                                                                                                                                                                                                Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                My country has deployed video or internet surveillance systems from the PRC for law enforcement.

                                                                                                                                                                                                No

                                                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                30 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                51 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                There is no evidence for this claim.

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Alfred Gerstl

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                    8.
                                                                                                                                                                                                    Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                    In my country, representatives of the PRC police force have had joint patrols with local law enforcement.

                                                                                                                                                                                                    No

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                    71 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                    11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                    82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                    There is no evidence for this claim.

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Alfred Gerstl

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                        9.
                                                                                                                                                                                                        Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                        My government has detained people at the request of the PRC for committing a crime involving engagements with social movements or resistance activities in Hong Kong, Xinjiang or for other human rights or civic rights issues.

                                                                                                                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                        1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                        68 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                        13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                        81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                        There is no evidence for such a behavior.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Alfred Gerstl

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                            10.
                                                                                                                                                                                                            Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                            My country has deported Taiwan citizens to the PRC to face prosecution.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            No

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                            2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                            71 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                            9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                            80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                            There is no evidence for such a behavior.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Alfred Gerstl

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                11.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                My country has extradited or has deported individuals to the PRC, although such decisions had attracted criticisms from politicians, government employees or from local or foreign NGOs.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                61 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                There is no evidence for such a behavior.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Alfred Gerstl

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Hide

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Technology

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    The Technology Domain gauges the PRC’s influence over the technology sector in the Index country, including the activity and financial leverage of PRC companies, use of PRC hardware, and bilateral research partnerships.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    In my country, PRC-connected entities (such as China Mobile, China Unicom or China Telecom) or their subsidiaries provide telecom services.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    52 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    30 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    There is no evidence that Chinese entities do provide telecom services.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Alfred Gerstl

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        In my country, telecoms have signed agreements to adopt hardwares or technical specifications of 4G or 5G cellular networks that are produced or developed by Huawei, ZTE or other PRC enterprises.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        16 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        27 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        30 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        In June 2020, Belgium reacted to the prominent presence of Huawei and ZTE as well as pressure from the US. It imposed new restrictions, including banning so-called high-risk vendors "in the 'core' and 'backbone' of 5G netowrks and a cap of 35 percent for such vendors in the 'radio access' part of the network". However, the Chinese companies were not mentioned by name.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. https://www.politico.eu/article/belgium-huawei-restrictions/
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-orange-nokia-security-5g-idUSKBN26U0YY

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Alfred Gerstl

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          3.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          In my country, telecoms have adopted hardware or technical specifications by PRC-connected entities in internet/wifi/telecommunication service infrastructure projects, in addition to 4G/5G cellular network.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          24 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          23 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          74 countries answered this indicator; 8 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          The Belgian Military boutght between 2016 and 2019 about 300 Huawei routers. After a political controversy, the Ministry of Defence ordered a replacement.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. https://www.brusselstimes.com/215899/controversy-as-belgian-defense-uses-chinese-huawei-to-access-the-internet
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2. https://www.techzine.eu/news/security/80317/belgian-military-forced-to-replace-huawei-wifi-hotspots/

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Alfred Gerstl

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            4.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            In my country, PRC-connected entities are authorized vendors to supply tech-related equipment or services to our government, military or security services.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            28 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            53 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            5.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            In my country, central or local governments have collaboration (such as data collection or exchange agreement, or adoption of related hardwares) with the PRC government or PRC-connected entities on facial, voice recognition or other applications involving biometrics achieved by AI.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            42 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            There is no evidence for this claim.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Alfred Gerstl

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                6.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                In my country, one or more cities have procured, or have signed contracts with PRC-connected entities to establish “smart city” systems.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 2 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                35 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                25 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                According to the website "Mapping China’s Tech Giants", there exist 36 projects in Belgium. An expert interview confirms these activities (see below URL1).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. https://chinatechmap.aspi.org.au/#/homepage/

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Alfred Gerstl

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  7.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  In my country, financial institutions use the China Cross-Border Interbank Payment System (CIPS) clearing and settlement services system.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  63 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  18 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. https://www.cips.com.cn

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Alfred Gerstl

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    8.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    In my country, PRC-connected venture capital invests in technology start-ups.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    32 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    18 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    9.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    In my country, companies have publicly announced that they had signed MOUs to collaborate on technological development (such as collaborations in A.I., Blockchain, Cloud Computing, Big Data) with PRC-connected entities.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    31 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. https://www.yicaiglobal.com/news/baidu-partners-belgium-wabco-on-driverless-vehicle-solutions

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Alfred Gerstl

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      10.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      In my country, PRC-connected entities are shareholders or developers of the top five popular social media/messaging apps, based on usage.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Skip

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      44 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      36 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      11.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      In my country, the central or local government(s) has collaborated with the PRC on endorsing the use of BeiDou satellite navigation system.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      64 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      17 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      There is no evidence for this claim.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Alfred Gerstl

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Hide

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Domestic Politics

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          The Domestic Politics Domain evaluates PRC efforts to influence the political landscape in the Index country, and the footprint of PRC security companies.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          In my country, politicians or government employees at the sub-national level are signing agreements with the PRC government or state-owned enterprises.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          20 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          23 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          "Chinese company COSCO Shipping signed a concession agreement with the Port of Zeebrugge in Belgium in 2018. The event was chaired by Kris Peeters (Deputy Prime Minister Minister for Work, Economic Affairs and Consumer Affairs, responsible for Foreign Trade), Carl Decaluwé (Governor, Province of West Flanders) and Renaat Landuyt (Mayor of the City of Bruges). In January 2022, Cosco obtained an extension of its concession for another 15 years, until December 31, 2055. The West Flanders Governor Carl Decaluwé has been collaborating with the Chinese province of Zhejiang for several decades. Both the Federal and the Flemish government signed cooperation agreements with Chinese ministries. Wallonia-Bruxelles has also a few agreements with provincial counterparts. "

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. https://www.made-in.be/west-vlaanderen/haven-zeebrugge-en-chinese-cosco-verlengen-hun-relatie-tot-en-met-2055/
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2. https://en.coscoshipping.com/art/2018/1/23/art_6923_72178.html
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          3. https://www.fdfa.be/en/treaties-and-mous?f%5B0%5D=treaties-and-mous-countries-and-regions%3Achina-1&sort_by=paddle_publication_date&sort_order=DESC
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          4. http://be.china-embassy.gov.cn/eng/sghd/202206/t20220629_10711565.htm

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Alfred Gerstl

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            In my country, local municipalities have sister-city ties (友好城市) with municipalities in the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            23 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            3.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            In my country, politicians or government employees have taken trips to the PRC paid for by PRC-connected individuals or entities.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            22 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            16 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            16 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            73 countries answered this indicator; 9 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            There is no evidence for this claim.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Alfred Gerstl

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                4.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                In my country, politicians or government employees visit the PRC and have meetings with PRC officials and think tanks.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                25 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                32 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                There are regular visits of Belgian politicians in China, inter alia, the high-level visit of King Philippe in 2015. The Prime Ministers also travel regularly to China to meet their counterparts. During the COVID-19 pandemics, online meetings were hold.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. https://www.premier.be/en/video-call-li-keqiang-prime-minister-china

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Alfred Gerstl

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  5.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  In my country, law enforcement and judicial related training offered the PRC-connected individuals or entities has been accepted by national or subnational governments.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  46 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  16 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  There is no evidence for such activities.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Alfred Gerstl

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      6.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      In my country, there are reports of politicians or political parties receiving campaign donations that originate in the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      60 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      0 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      78 countries answered this indicator; 4 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      No such reports exist.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Alfred Gerstl

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          7.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          In my country, groups with reported links to the United Front Work Department (UFWD) have hosted fundraisings or have provided other forms of support for government employees, politicians or parties.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          64 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          There is no evidence for such activities.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Alfred Gerstl

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              8.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              In my country, groups with reported links to the United Front Work Department (UFWD) have made public statements opposing the candidacy of a local political candidate or party, claiming them being “anti-China”.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              78 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              0 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              0 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              There is no evidence for such activities.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Alfred Gerstl

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  9.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  In my country, politicians or government employees have publicly expressed positive views of the PRC government.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  37 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  The Workers' Party (PTB) abstained from voting for the resolution in favor of the Uighur people in March 2021.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. https://www.ptb.be/la_r_pression_des_ou_ghours_en_chine_et_la_nouvelle_guerre_froide

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Alfred Gerstl

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    10.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    In my country, politicians or government employees have received direct or deferred benefits from PRC-connected individuals or entities openly or covertly (e.g. have been appointed to lucrative positions as board members or consultants with PRC-invested firms, casinos, energy companies, etc.) during or in retirement from public office.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    40 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    0 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    18 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    73 countries answered this indicator; 9 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    The only known prominent example is Yves Leterme, a former Prime Minister

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. https://www.europarl.europa.eu/doceo/document/A-9-2022-0022_FR.html

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Alfred Gerstl

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      11.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      In my country, security services (安保/保安) offered by private PRC companies are contracted by national or subnational governments.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      There is no evidence for this claim.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Alfred Gerstl

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Hide

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Foreign Policy

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          The Foreign Policy Domain gauges PRC efforts to achieve diplomatic objectives by influencing key actors in the Index country.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          My country’s legislature has a joint parliamentary friendship group, committee or other forms of sub-organizations with PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          25 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          57 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          The Belgian parliament has many bilateral friendship groups with different countries, among them with China.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. http://uip.fed-parl.be/index_ipu_fr.html

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Alfred Gerstl

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Representatives of a political party in my country’s national legislature have met officially with representatives of the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            20 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            40 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            There are regular meeting between Chinese politicians and the Chinese ambassador in Belgium with members of the Belgium-China Friendship Group of the Federal Belgium Parliament.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. https://www.mfa.gov.cn/ce/cebel/eng/sghd/t1638270.htm
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2. http://uip.fed-parl.be/ipu/complete_list_fr.html#list
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            3. http://uip.fed-parl.be/ipu/reports/2020/20200717_China/fr.pdf

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Alfred Gerstl

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              3.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              The PRC provides training to diplomats or civil servants on governance from my country (such as at 国家行政学院 or 中央党校).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              39 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              No such services are provided to Belgian diplomats.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Alfred Gerstl

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  4.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  In my country, politicians or government employees have been pressured by PRC diplomats to change their political or diplomatic stances.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  41 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  According to an expert interviewed by the researcher, Belgian politicians have been pressured by Chinese diplomats (including through letters from PRC diplomats) during debates or when taking a position, for example on the Uighur issue. Threats have also been made on the issue of Tibet at the federal political level.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Alfred Gerstl

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      5.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Citizens of my country have been detained in PRC or denied exit visas, and believed to be suffering from unfair legal treatments for political reasons, a.k.a. “hostage diplomacy”.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      61 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      There is no evidence for such actions.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Alfred Gerstl

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          6.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          The head of state, head of government or foreign minister of my country has denied Taiwan’s right to participate as a member, observer or guest in WHO.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          65 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. https://apps.who.int/gb/or/

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Alfred Gerstl

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            7.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            My country publicly supported the appointment of a PRC official to be the head of a United Nations agency (such as the FAO or ICAO) or other intergovernmental organizations (such as INTERPOL).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            62 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            73 countries answered this indicator; 9 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            There is no evidence for such a behavior.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Alfred Gerstl

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                8.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                My government has shown support of PRC's territorial claims (such as on the South China Sea arbitration ruling issued by the UNCLOS Arbitral Tribunal in July 2016; except claims over Taiwan, which are indirectly covered in indicator 6.)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Oppose

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                0/ My country has rejected PRC’s claim

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                24 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2/ My country has remained silent

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                36 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                4/ My country has adhered to PRC’s claim

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Belgium shares the position of the EU.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. https://www.consilium.europa.eu/en/press/press-releases/2016/07/15/south-china-sea-arbitration/

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Alfred Gerstl

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  9.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  My country has shown one of the following stances on PRC’s treatment of its Uyghur population.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Oppose

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  0/ My country has denounced PRC

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  31 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2/ My country has remained silent

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  32 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  4/ My country has voiced support to PRC’s stance

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  17 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  In June 2021, the foreign relations committe of the Belgian Parliament passed a motion related to Xinjiang in which it warns of "a serious risk of genocide" against Uygur Muslims in the autonomous province. The motion speaks of "mass violations of human rights that may constitute crimes against humanity". In July 2022, the Belgian Parliament adopted a critical resolution too.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. https://www.scmp.com/news/china/diplomacy/article/3137686/china-sanctions-belgian-lawmaker-motion-warning-genocide-risk
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2. https://www.lachambre.be/doc/flwb/pdf/55/1789/55k1789008.pdf#search=%22ouighours%20%2055k%20%3Cin%3E%20keywords%22

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Alfred Gerstl

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    10.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    My country has shown one of the following stances on PRC’s treatment of its Tibet population.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Oppose

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    0/ My country has denounced PRC

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2/ My country has remained silent

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    46 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    4/ My country has voiced support to PRC’s stance

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    11.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    My government has not publicly criticized the PRC’s imposition of the National Security Law on Hong Kong.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Oppose

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    0/ My country has denounced PRC

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    24 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2/ My country has remained silent

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    36 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    4/ My country has voiced support to PRC’s stance

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    As recently as June 2022, the Belgian Parliament adopted a specific resolution on the Situation in Hong Kong.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. https://www.lachambre.be/doc/flwb/pdf/55/1524/55k1524006.pdf#search=%22hong%20kong%20%2055k%20%3Cin%3E%20keywords%22

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Alfred Gerstl

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Hide
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