Belarus

$7,303.7
9.34M
Ranking
61/ 82
Original Score

* As some Indicators can be skipped where data is unavailable, the maximum overall and Domain scores are not identical for each country. Country rankings are generated from ratios of the maximum scores and the achieved scores.

84/ 376
Executive partner
Civic IDEA
Index Year
2022
Layer Scores

The Indicators have been classified by the stage of the influence process at which they occur. Some Indicators correspond to exposure to PRC influence, e.g. the presence of Confucius Institutes. Others test for pressure – such as visa denials to academics or journalists. Finally, some Indicators capture the effect of PRC influence, such as national policy changes in favor of PRC interests.
The individual Layer scores for each country are tallied and displayed via rankings.

Exposure

26%

Exposure assesses the conditions that make the target country vulnerable to PRC's influence, e.g. in terms of economic dependence, or the receiving of some form of benefit.

Pressure

0%

Pressure measures the actions that the PRC directly or indirectly exerts over the target country in order to change the behavior of people in the target country, e.g. in terms of threatening economic punishment to provoke/prevent a political decision.

Effect

26%

Effect evaluates the degree of accommodations the target country makes to the PRC, and the actual effects and impacts on the target country.

In 2021, Belarus had a GDP per capita of US$7,303.70 and a total population of 9.34 million people, with the Chinese population comprising 4,200 people (According to 2015 statistics) or 0.04% of the total population.

Belarus established diplomatic relations with the People's Republic of China in 1992. Belarus was ranked 153rd in Reporters Without Borders' 2022 World Press Freedom Index, and Not Free in Freedom House's 2022 Global Freedom Status, with a score of 8/100.

Domain Scores
Country Percentage
Index Average

Percentage scores do not suggest some degree out of a “completely influenced” level of 100%. The percentages express the country’s score out of the total achievable amount based on the Indicators for each Domain.

  • Media
    5.0% / 30.1%
  • Academia
    20.0% / 34%
  • Economy
    36.4% / 33.6%
  • Society
    7.5% / 23.6%
  • Military
    27.3% / 23.4%
  • Law Enforcement
    0.0% / 30.2%
  • Technology
    27.5% / 40.8%
  • Domestic Politics
    32.5% / 37.2%
  • Foreign Policy
    43.2% / 41%

Media

The Media Domain evaluates how PRC entities influence public debate and media coverage about the PRC in the Index country.

1.
Exposure

In my country, there are media organizations that belong to the World Chinese Media (世界华文媒体) network.

No

Answer ( 0 / 4 )

More

Skipped

2 countries chose this answer

0/ No

42 countries chose this answer

1/ Few, but insignificant

19 countries chose this answer

2/ More than a few, but insignificant

4 countries chose this answer

3/ Few, but significant

13 countries chose this answer

4/ More than a few, and significant

2 countries chose this answer

80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

Supporting Evidence

According to their website, there are no Belorusian media organizations that belong to the World Chinese Media Network. (see below URL)

  1. https://www.worldchinesemedia.com/2015/05/12/56/

    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Salome Svanidze

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    2.
    Exposure

    In my country, there are journalists or media organizations which are members of the Belt and Road Media Cooperation Alliance/Union, the Belt and Road News Alliance, or other Belt and Road media networks that connected to PRC (e.g. Belt and Road Media Community, Belt and Road Journalists Network, Belt and Road News Network, or B&R TV Networks).

    Yes

    Answer ( 1 / 4 )

    More

    Skipped

    1 countries chose this answer

    0/ No

    39 countries chose this answer

    1/ Few, but insignificant

    23 countries chose this answer

    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

    4 countries chose this answer

    3/ Few, but significant

    14 countries chose this answer

    4/ More than a few, and significant

    1 countries chose this answer

    81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

    Supporting Evidence

    Today Belarus Publishing Group is a member of the "Belt and Road" New Cooperation Alliance. (see below URL)

    1. http://cn.brnn.com/414904/414908/index.html

      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Salome Svanidze

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      3.
      Exposure

      In my country, there are journalists, media organizations or online influencers who have attended all-expenses paid media tours in PRC.

      Yes

      Answer ( 1 / 4 )

      More

      Skipped

      11 countries chose this answer

      0/ No

      15 countries chose this answer

      1/ Few, but insignificant

      15 countries chose this answer

      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

      5 countries chose this answer

      3/ Few, but significant

      23 countries chose this answer

      4/ More than a few, and significant

      13 countries chose this answer

      71 countries answered this indicator; 11 countries skipped this indicator

      Supporting Evidence

      The official ceremony of concluding the Agreement "On the exchange of delegations and cooperation in the field of journalism" was held on April 26 simultaneously in Minsk and Beijing. The document was signed between the Belarusian Union of Journalists (BUJ) and the All-China Association of Journalists (VJA). The agreement provides for the exchange of journalistic experience, organization of press tours and interviews, internships for Belarusian journalists in China and Chinese journalists in Belarus to study and implement the best practices in media development, participation in media forums and seminars. (see below URL)

      1. http://www.dompressy.by/2022/04/26/belorusskie-i-kitajskie-zhurnalisty-podpisali-soglashenie-o-sotrudnichestve/

        Answered by Salome Svanidze, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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        4.
        Exposure

        In my country, there are journalists, media organizations or online influencers who have received trainings from PRC state-owned media or PRC-connected entities.

        No

        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

        More

        Skipped

        3 countries chose this answer

        0/ No

        37 countries chose this answer

        1/ Few, but insignificant

        16 countries chose this answer

        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

        2 countries chose this answer

        3/ Few, but significant

        14 countries chose this answer

        4/ More than a few, and significant

        10 countries chose this answer

        79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

        Supporting Evidence

        No evidence found.

          Supplementary Notes

          According to the expert's knowledge, such accidents take place, but public data is not availale.

            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Salome Svanidze

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            5.
            Exposure

            In my country, PRC state-media (including print, radio, and video) is broadcasted or distributed in a local language.

            No

            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

            More

            Skipped

            1 countries chose this answer

            0/ No

            24 countries chose this answer

            1/ Few, but insignificant

            22 countries chose this answer

            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

            7 countries chose this answer

            3/ Few, but significant

            18 countries chose this answer

            4/ More than a few, and significant

            10 countries chose this answer

            81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

            Supporting Evidence

            No evidence found.

                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Salome Svanidze

                Hide
                6.
                Exposure

                In my country, there are local media outlets wholly or partly owned by PRC citizens or corporations.

                No

                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                More

                Skipped

                2 countries chose this answer

                0/ No

                44 countries chose this answer

                1/ Few, but insignificant

                19 countries chose this answer

                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                3 countries chose this answer

                3/ Few, but significant

                14 countries chose this answer

                4/ More than a few, and significant

                0 countries chose this answer

                80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                Supporting Evidence

                No evidence found.

                  Supplementary Notes

                  No evidence found in that regard.

                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Salome Svanidze

                    Hide
                    7.
                    Exposure

                    In my country, there are media outlets that have delivered cheap or free contents provided by PRC state-fund media.

                    No

                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                    More

                    Skipped

                    3 countries chose this answer

                    0/ No

                    22 countries chose this answer

                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                    21 countries chose this answer

                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                    6 countries chose this answer

                    3/ Few, but significant

                    23 countries chose this answer

                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                    7 countries chose this answer

                    79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                    Supporting Evidence

                    No evidence found.

                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Salome Svanidze

                        Hide
                        8.
                        Exposure

                        In my country, there are regular PRC state-media or government advertisements inserted within local newspapers, online news websites or social media.

                        No

                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                        More

                        Skipped

                        1 countries chose this answer

                        0/ No

                        38 countries chose this answer

                        1/ Few, but insignificant

                        13 countries chose this answer

                        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                        7 countries chose this answer

                        3/ Few, but significant

                        15 countries chose this answer

                        4/ More than a few, and significant

                        8 countries chose this answer

                        81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                        Supporting Evidence

                        No evidence found.

                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Salome Svanidze

                            Hide
                            9.
                            Pressure

                            In my country, there are journalists who have had pressure exerted on them by the PRC, including (but not limited to) public denouncement, revocation of journalist ID, denial of visa.

                            No

                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                            More

                            Skipped

                            1 countries chose this answer

                            0/ No

                            57 countries chose this answer

                            4/ Yes

                            24 countries chose this answer

                            81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                            Supporting Evidence

                            No evidence found.

                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Salome Svanidze

                                Hide
                                10.
                                Effect

                                In my country, there are incidents of media outlets censoring views critical of the PRC government.

                                No

                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                More

                                Skipped

                                4 countries chose this answer

                                0/ No

                                51 countries chose this answer

                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                11 countries chose this answer

                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                3 countries chose this answer

                                3/ Few, but significant

                                9 countries chose this answer

                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                4 countries chose this answer

                                78 countries answered this indicator; 4 countries skipped this indicator

                                Supporting Evidence

                                No evidence found.

                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Salome Svanidze

                                    Hide
                                    11.
                                    Effect

                                    In my country, there are media personalities (including reporters, journalists or commentators) or celebrities who deny the existence of human rights abuses in the PRC (e.g. a media personality that doubts there are re-education camps for Uyghurs in Xinjiang).

                                    Skip

                                    More

                                    Skipped

                                    2 countries chose this answer

                                    0/ No

                                    44 countries chose this answer

                                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                                    18 countries chose this answer

                                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                    4 countries chose this answer

                                    3/ Few, but significant

                                    9 countries chose this answer

                                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                                    5 countries chose this answer

                                    80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                    Supporting Evidence

                                    Not Found

                                      Supplementary Notes

                                      According to expert's knowledge, such accidents have taken place (few but insignificant), but the public information is not available.

                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Salome Svanidze

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                                        Academia

                                        The Academia Domain measures how the PRC state attempts to restrict academic freedom by influencing or interfering with the Index country’s academic and educational activities.

                                        1.
                                        Exposure

                                        In my country, universities have established research partnerships with PRC-connected entities. (e.g. Huawei, Tencent or Alibaba)

                                        Yes

                                        Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                        More

                                        0/ No

                                        9 countries chose this answer

                                        1/ Few, but insignificant

                                        11 countries chose this answer

                                        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                        6 countries chose this answer

                                        3/ Few, but significant

                                        31 countries chose this answer

                                        4/ More than a few, and significant

                                        25 countries chose this answer

                                        82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                        Supporting Evidence

                                        MINSK, 15 May (BelTA) – Belarus counts on further effective cooperation with Huawei Company. Prime Minister of Belarus Andrei Kobyakov made the statement as he met with Huawei Chairman of the Board of Directors Guo Ping on 15 May, BelTA has learned. Andrei Kobyakov remarked that in addition to selling equipment to Belarus Huawei Company also implements its projects, carries out scientific research projects in Belarus, and trains Belarusian students in the People's Republic of China. (see below URL 1) In September 2016, Huawei signed a “Seeds for the Future” tripartite cooperation agreement with Belarusian Ministry of Communications and Informatization, Ministry of Education of Belarus, and 10 students from the Belarusian State University, Belarusian State University of Informatics and Radioelectronics and the Belarusian State Academy of Telecommunications participated in the program. (see below URL 2) MINSK, 2 May (BelTA) - Huawei and the Belarusian State Academy of Communications will set up a joint training center, Director General of OOO Bel Huawei Technologies Pan Yong told BelTA (see below URL 3)

                                        1. https://eng.belta.by/economics/view/belarus-counts-on-lasting-effective-cooperation-with-huawei-111699-2018
                                        2. https://archive.ph/Zbmkc#selection-2691.0-2691.390
                                        3. https://eng.belta.by/society/view/huawei-belarusian-state-academy-of-communications-to-set-up-joint-training-center-111365-2018/

                                        Supplementary Notes

                                        Belarus' Education Ministry, Huawei seek cooperation in digital..... plan for the development of the information and communication technology (ICT) sector in. Source: Link (we could not open the link, but it seems it contains relevant information, hope it can be available for you).

                                        1. https://www.belarus.by/en/business/business-news/belarus-education-ministry-huawei-seek-cooperation-in-digital-transformation_i_0000061971.html

                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Salome Svanidze

                                        Hide
                                        2.
                                        Exposure

                                        In my country, there are Confucius Institutes/Classrooms.

                                        Yes

                                        Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                        More

                                        0/ No

                                        5 countries chose this answer

                                        1/ Few, but insignificant

                                        14 countries chose this answer

                                        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                        5 countries chose this answer

                                        3/ Few, but significant

                                        31 countries chose this answer

                                        4/ More than a few, and significant

                                        27 countries chose this answer

                                        82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                        Supporting Evidence

                                        The Confucius Classroom at the Belarusian State Economic University was officially established in 2013 by the decision of the Office of Chinese Language Council International / Confucius Institute Headquarters (Hanban). The plaque with the appropriate name was solemnly presented at the European Forum of Confucius Institutes, held in Minsk on the basis of Belarusian State University on September 11-13, 2013. The Confucius Classroom of BSU RISC at BSEU operates based on the agreement signed in November 2012 between the BSU Republican Institute of Sinology named after Confucius and the Belarusian State Economic University, as well as on the approved Regulations on the Confucius Classroom at BSEU. ( Available at: Link) “In May 2019, we signed an agreement with Anhui University and the Confucius Institute Headquarters to establish such an institute in our university,” she informed. A Chinese co-director of the Confucius Institute, a teacher from China and two volunteers came to Brest in December. Back then, the first groups of learners were enrolled from among students. This week they are to take their final exam in the elementary spoken Chinese language. The project is financed equally by Pushkin Brest State University and Anhui University, Anzhela Saidi informed. (Link) Republican Confucius Institute of Sinology (RCIS)is the largest Belarusian centre for the study of the Chinese language and culture- Link Republican Confucius Institute of Sinology at Belarusian Statе University Confucius Institute at Minsk State Linguistic University Science and Technology Confucius Institute at Belarusian National Technical University Confucius Institute at Francisk Skorina Gomel State University Confucius Institute at Brest State named after A.S. Pushkin University Confucius Institute at Belarusian State University of Physical Culture (established confucius intitutions in Belarus, available at: Link)

                                        1. http://confucius.bseu.by/eng/about-us/
                                        2. http://confucius.bseu.by/Eng/
                                        3. https://eng.belta.by/society/view/confucius-institute-opens-in-brest-134748-2020/
                                        4. https://bsu.by/en/structure/faculties/respublikanskiy-institut-kitaevedeniya-imeni-konfutsiya-d/about
                                        5. https://www.digmandarin.com/confucius-institutes-around-the-world.html

                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Salome Svanidze

                                          Hide
                                          3.
                                          Exposure

                                          My country plans to include, or does include, Chinese as a foreign language in K12 or primary education, and receives free or subsidized (e.g. offered below market price) educational books and teachers from PRC.

                                          No

                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                          More

                                          Skipped

                                          1 countries chose this answer

                                          0/ No

                                          46 countries chose this answer

                                          4/ Yes

                                          35 countries chose this answer

                                          81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                          Supporting Evidence

                                          No evidence found.

                                            Supplementary Notes

                                            No public data available.

                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Salome Svanidze

                                              Hide
                                              4.
                                              Exposure

                                              In my country, one or more think tanks and academic research centers belong to PRC-affiliated networks/associations (such as: the Silk Road Think Tank Association, Silk Road Think Tank Network [SiLKS], Belt and Road Studies Network, University Alliance of the Silk Road, University Consortium of the 21st Century Maritime Silk Road).

                                              No

                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                              More

                                              Skipped

                                              2 countries chose this answer

                                              0/ No

                                              40 countries chose this answer

                                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                                              17 countries chose this answer

                                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                              7 countries chose this answer

                                              3/ Few, but significant

                                              14 countries chose this answer

                                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                                              2 countries chose this answer

                                              80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                              Supporting Evidence

                                              Not Found

                                                Supplementary Notes

                                                No evidence found.

                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Salome Svanidze

                                                  Hide
                                                  5.
                                                  Exposure

                                                  In my country, think tanks and academic research centers have received financial support from PRC-connected individuals or entities.

                                                  Skip

                                                  More

                                                  Skipped

                                                  10 countries chose this answer

                                                  0/ No

                                                  21 countries chose this answer

                                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                  11 countries chose this answer

                                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                  11 countries chose this answer

                                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                                  19 countries chose this answer

                                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                  10 countries chose this answer

                                                  72 countries answered this indicator; 10 countries skipped this indicator

                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                  According to the expert's knowledge the some funding has been provided from the PRC, but the public record or an other relevant information is not available in that regard.

                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Salome Svanidze

                                                      Hide
                                                      6.
                                                      Exposure

                                                      In my country, experts participate in PRC talent recruitment programs such as the Thousand Talents Program or Changjiang Scholars program.

                                                      Yes

                                                      Answer ( 2 / 4 )

                                                      More

                                                      Skipped

                                                      3 countries chose this answer

                                                      0/ No

                                                      47 countries chose this answer

                                                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                      11 countries chose this answer

                                                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                      6 countries chose this answer

                                                      3/ Few, but significant

                                                      10 countries chose this answer

                                                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                      5 countries chose this answer

                                                      79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                      Two NNU faculty elected to 2016 Chang Jiang Scholars Program ... Maryia Uporava, the Republic of Belarus “You just need to enjoy the process of studying." (see below URL)

                                                      1. https://en.njnu.edu.cn/news/welcome-members-of-the-class-of-2024?page=37

                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Salome Svanidze

                                                        Hide
                                                        7.
                                                        Exposure

                                                        In my country, scholars have taken trips to the PRC paid for by PRC-connected individuals or entities.

                                                        No

                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                        More

                                                        Skipped

                                                        13 countries chose this answer

                                                        0/ No

                                                        17 countries chose this answer

                                                        1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                        15 countries chose this answer

                                                        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                        11 countries chose this answer

                                                        3/ Few, but significant

                                                        12 countries chose this answer

                                                        4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                        14 countries chose this answer

                                                        69 countries answered this indicator; 13 countries skipped this indicator

                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                        No evidence found.

                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Salome Svanidze

                                                            Hide
                                                            8.
                                                            Pressure

                                                            In my country, organized PRC-connected student groups, such as Chinese Students and Scholars Associations (CSSAs), are involved in attempts to censor staff or students (e.g. by harassing students protesting human rights abuses in the PRC, or formally complaining about the identification of Taiwan as a country in lecture slides).

                                                            No

                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                            More

                                                            Skipped

                                                            1 countries chose this answer

                                                            0/ No

                                                            64 countries chose this answer

                                                            1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                            6 countries chose this answer

                                                            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                            3 countries chose this answer

                                                            3/ Few, but significant

                                                            5 countries chose this answer

                                                            4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                            3 countries chose this answer

                                                            81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                            Not Found

                                                              Supplementary Notes

                                                              No public information available, cases have not been identified.

                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Salome Svanidze

                                                                Hide
                                                                9.
                                                                Pressure

                                                                In my country, scholars or academics have been denied visas to travel to the PRC after expressing opinions or producing scholarship that is critical of the PRC.

                                                                No

                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                More

                                                                Skipped

                                                                7 countries chose this answer

                                                                0/ No

                                                                64 countries chose this answer

                                                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                1 countries chose this answer

                                                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                0 countries chose this answer

                                                                3/ Few, but significant

                                                                6 countries chose this answer

                                                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                4 countries chose this answer

                                                                75 countries answered this indicator; 7 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                No evidence found.

                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Salome Svanidze

                                                                    Hide
                                                                    10.
                                                                    Effect

                                                                    In my country, PRC-connected entities have been involved in school or university curriculum design, such as courses about East Asian history, modern politics, etc.

                                                                    No

                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                    More

                                                                    Skipped

                                                                    2 countries chose this answer

                                                                    0/ No

                                                                    64 countries chose this answer

                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                    16 countries chose this answer

                                                                    80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                    No evidence found.

                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Salome Svanidze

                                                                        Hide
                                                                        11.
                                                                        Effect

                                                                        In my country, there are confirmed reports of teachers or professors avoiding the discussion of sensitive political issues (e.g. Uyghur re-education camps, Taiwan independence, Tiananmen Square Massacre).

                                                                        No

                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                        More

                                                                        Skipped

                                                                        5 countries chose this answer

                                                                        0/ No

                                                                        65 countries chose this answer

                                                                        1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                        1 countries chose this answer

                                                                        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                        1 countries chose this answer

                                                                        3/ Few, but significant

                                                                        6 countries chose this answer

                                                                        4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                        4 countries chose this answer

                                                                        77 countries answered this indicator; 5 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                        No evidence found, such cases have not been identified.

                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Salome Svanidze

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                                                                            Economy

                                                                            The Economy Domain measures the PRC’s economic leverage in the Index country, and how this is used to influence economic policy or corporate behavior in ways that favor the PRC.

                                                                            1.
                                                                            Exposure

                                                                            The PRC is my country's number one trading partner (for trade in goods only).

                                                                            No

                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                            More

                                                                            0/ No

                                                                            51 countries chose this answer

                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                            31 countries chose this answer

                                                                            82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                            China’s economic presence in the region has been steadily growing since the late 2000s, with Belarus clearly becoming China’s primary partner. China provided Belarus with an extensive set of economic cooperation tools, including the flagship project of the “Great Stone” Chinese-Belarusian Industrial Park near Minsk, as well as credit lines aimed at developing infrastructure and industry. Belarus has also become a key transit country for rapidly increasing Eurasian railway connections, facilitating 90% of EU-China railway freight trade. (see below URL)

                                                                            1. https://cepa.org/the-belarus-china-iron-brotherhood-begins-to-rust/

                                                                            Supplementary Notes

                                                                            Although Beijing reportedly aims to increase its economic presence in Belarus, lack of structural reforms, as well as some sort of Soviet-style economy, seem to prevent greater influx of Chinese investment. In other words, China, as well as certain powerful Russian oligarchic structures, see the current economic model in Belarus as an obstacle to more advanced cooperation. Available at: Link Regionally, 44.2% of Belarusian commodity exports accrue to the EAEU countries. The European Union is the second largest market for Belarusian products (25.5%). Link. Link

                                                                            1. https://globalcomment.com/what-is-chinas-agenda-in-belarus/
                                                                            2. https://president.gov.by/en/belarus/economics/foreign-trade/key-trade-partners
                                                                            3. https://www.google.com/search?q=eaeu+countries&oq=EAEU+countries&aqs=chrome.0.0i512l2j0i22i30l2j0i390l2j69i60.5112j0j7&sourceid=chrome&ie=UTF-8

                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Salome Svanidze

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                                                                            2.
                                                                            Exposure

                                                                            PRC-connected entities own more than 50% of my country’s sovereign debt.

                                                                            No

                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                            More

                                                                            Skipped

                                                                            1 countries chose this answer

                                                                            0/ No

                                                                            77 countries chose this answer

                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                            4 countries chose this answer

                                                                            81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                            In order to overcome the phobia of Chinese “debt trap” the Government of Belarus recently decreased the number and amount of Chinese loans tied to infrastructure projects, improved credit terms, increased FDI from China, and created joint industrial park ‘Great Stone’. As a result, the case of Belarus and China outlines how to avoid “debt trap” in ‘Belt and Road’ initiative by focusing on FDI from China. (see below URL 1) At present trade in goods with China does not exceed 6% of total Belarusian trade. Meanwhile, debts owed to Chinese banks have reached approximately US$3.3 billion, which accounts for approximately 20% of foreign public debt, and exacerbates the macroeconomic problems. In December 2019, Beijing granted the Belarusian government a direct loan of US$500 million. (see below URL 2) Chinese loans and economic activities in the Eastern European nation still remain overshadowed by Russian actions on the ground. For comparison, at the end of March 2020, the volume of loans granted to Minsk by Moscow reached almost $8 billion, according to the prospectus of the issue of Belarusian Eurobonds, while Belarus’ outstanding debt to China is about $3 billion. (see below URL 3)

                                                                            1. https://www.intechopen.com/chapters/75896
                                                                            2. https://www.osw.waw.pl/sites/default/files/OSW-Studies_The-non-strategic-partnership_net-1.pdf
                                                                            3. https://globalcomment.com/what-is-chinas-agenda-in-belarus/

                                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Salome Svanidze

                                                                              Hide
                                                                              3.
                                                                              Exposure

                                                                              The PRC is the top customer for my country’s extractive industries.

                                                                              No

                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                              More

                                                                              0/ No

                                                                              62 countries chose this answer

                                                                              4/ Yes

                                                                              20 countries chose this answer

                                                                              82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                              No evidence found.

                                                                                  Answered by Salome Svanidze, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                  4.
                                                                                  Exposure

                                                                                  In my country, PRC-related entities own, operate or substantially control critical infrastructure (e.g. ports, power plants, digital data centers, etc) or sensitive sectors (biotech, raw materials, etc.)

                                                                                  No

                                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                  More

                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                  36 countries chose this answer

                                                                                  4/ Yes

                                                                                  46 countries chose this answer

                                                                                  82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                  No evidence found.

                                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Salome Svanidze

                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                      5.
                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                      My country joined (or applied to join) the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB).

                                                                                      Yes

                                                                                      Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                      More

                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                      27 countries chose this answer

                                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                                      55 countries chose this answer

                                                                                      82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                      MINSK, 18 January (BelTA) – Belarus has joined the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB), meeting all the conditions of the resolution of the AIIB Board of Governors, BelTA learned from the Belarusian Finance Ministry. (see below URL 1) Members and Prospective Members of the Bank: see below URL 2

                                                                                      1. https://eng.belta.by/economics/view/belarus-joins-asian-infrastructure-investment-bank-118079-2019/
                                                                                      2. https://www.aiib.org/en/about-aiib/governance/members-of-bank/index.html

                                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Salome Svanidze

                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                        6.
                                                                                        Exposure

                                                                                        In my country, major businesses are members of the Silk Road Chamber of International Commerce, or of the Belt and Road Industrial and Commercial Alliance, or of the Belt and Road General Chamber of Commerce.

                                                                                        Yes

                                                                                        Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                        More

                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                        41 countries chose this answer

                                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                                        41 countries chose this answer

                                                                                        82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                        Republican Confederation of Entrepreneurship of Belarus (RCEB) Belarus is the member of BRICA. (see below URL)

                                                                                        1. https://www.bricaistanbul.com/overview/brica-members/

                                                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Salome Svanidze

                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                          7.
                                                                                          Pressure

                                                                                          My country has been the target of PRC economic coercion (e.g. trade or investment sanctions) that was specifically tailored at products or services that are highly dependent on the PRC market.

                                                                                          No

                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                          More

                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                          64 countries chose this answer

                                                                                          4/ Yes

                                                                                          18 countries chose this answer

                                                                                          82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                          No evidence vound.

                                                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Salome Svanidze

                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                              8.
                                                                                              Pressure

                                                                                              In my country, local businesses have been harassed, threatened, or boycotted, due to their activities or statements in support of causes deemed unacceptable by the PRC government (e.g. Taiwanese independence, Hong Kong democracy, Tibet or Xinjiang issues, etc).

                                                                                              No

                                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                              More

                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                              2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                              65 countries chose this answer

                                                                                              4/ Yes

                                                                                              15 countries chose this answer

                                                                                              80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                              No evidence found.

                                                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Salome Svanidze

                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                  9.
                                                                                                  Effect

                                                                                                  My country has free-trade agreement(s) with the PRC (either bilateral or as part of regional agreement(s)) that primarily deals with trade in goods or services, including digital goods or services.

                                                                                                  Yes

                                                                                                  Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                  51 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                  4/ Yes

                                                                                                  31 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                  82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                  MINSK, 8 April (BelTA) – The first round of negotiations over the agreement on investments and trade in services between Belarus and China was held online on 7 April, BelTA learned from the press service of the Belarusian Economy Ministry. (see below URL 1)

                                                                                                  1. https://eng.belta.by/economics/view/belarus-china-in-talks-over-agreement-on-investments-trade-in-services-138900-2021/

                                                                                                  Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                  On October 25, 2019, the Agreement on Trade and Economic Cooperation with China dated May 17, 2018 entered into force. The agreement does not provide for the creation of a free trade regime, at the same time it is aimed at eliminating sanitary and technical barriers to trade, developing sectoral cooperation with China in the areas of advanced technologies, innovations, transport and logistics infrastructure.It provides for the rules on ensuring freedom of transit, which creates favorable conditions for Belarusian enterprises’ participation in production and transport chains as part of the Chinese leadership's "One Belt, One Road" initiative. Link (but the information does not specify, that the agreement covers the good, services or digital goods).

                                                                                                  1. https://economy.gov.by/en/aftingoods-en/

                                                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Salome Svanidze

                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                  10.
                                                                                                  Effect

                                                                                                  In my country, central or local governments have relaxed or removed regulatory restrictions, or have established special economic zones (or free trade zones, industrial parks, etc.) to attract investments or economic participation from the PRC.

                                                                                                  Yes

                                                                                                  Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                  47 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                  4/ Yes

                                                                                                  35 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                  82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                  Belarus-Chinese Special Economic Zone To Open In Vitebsk Belarussia’s Bremino Group and China’s Shaanxi Zhongqiao Silk Road Technology Development Company are to jointly develop an “International Silk Road Trade Center” in Bolbasovo, Orsha District, Vitebsk Oblast in Belarus. (see below URL 1) On 5 June 2012, the President of Belarus signed Decree No.253 “On China-Belarus industrial park”. The document establishes a special economic zone in the Minsk region for a period of 50 years with a view to developing priority industries such as electronics, biomedicine, chemical industry and mechanical engineering. (see below URL 2)

                                                                                                  1. https://www.russia-briefing.com/news/belarus-chinese-special-economic-zone-open-vitebsk.html/#:~:text=Bolbasovo%2C%20Orsha%20District%2C%20Vitebsk%20Oblast,retail%20trade%20in%20consumer%20goods.
                                                                                                  2. https://investmentpolicy.unctad.org/investment-policy-monitor/measures/414/new-china-belarus-industrial-park-

                                                                                                  Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                  China provided Belarus with an extensive set of economic cooperation tools, including the flagship project of the “Great Stone” Chinese-Belarusian Industrial Park near Minsk, as well as credit lines aimed at developing infrastructure and industry. Belarus has also become a key transit country for rapidly increasing Eurasian railway connections, facilitating 90% of EU-China railway freight trade- Link

                                                                                                  1. https://cepa.org/the-belarus-china-iron-brotherhood-begins-to-rust/

                                                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Salome Svanidze

                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                  11.
                                                                                                  Effect

                                                                                                  In my country, PRC-connected entities requisitioned infrastructure or land for failure to repay debts in a timely manner.

                                                                                                  No

                                                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                  2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                  76 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                  4/ Yes

                                                                                                  4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                  80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                  No evidence found.

                                                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Salome Svanidze

                                                                                                      Hide

                                                                                                      Society

                                                                                                      The Society Domain measures the extent and effectiveness of the PRC’s efforts to advance its soft power in the Index country, including its influence over the actions and views of local organizations and citizens.

                                                                                                      1.
                                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                                      In my country, there are local groups or organizations with words like “Promotion of Peaceful Reunification” in their name, and they regularly publicize their views on Taiwan, Hong Kong, Tibet and Xinjiang issues.

                                                                                                      No

                                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                      1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                      49 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                      12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                      7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                      3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                      9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                      4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                      81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                      No evidence found.

                                                                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Salome Svanidze

                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                          2.
                                                                                                          Exposure

                                                                                                          In my country, there are members and member organizations of United World Chinese Association (世界华人协会).

                                                                                                          No

                                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                          1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                          62 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                          4/ Yes

                                                                                                          19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                          81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                          According to their official website, Belarusian organizations do not cooperate with UWCA. (see below URL)

                                                                                                          1. http://www.uwca.net/member.html

                                                                                                          Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                          No evidence found.

                                                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Salome Svanidze

                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                            3.
                                                                                                            Exposure

                                                                                                            In my country, labor unions cooperate on exchanges or official visits to the All-China Federation of Trade Unions (ACFTU) in the PRC.

                                                                                                            No

                                                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                            1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                            68 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                                                            13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                            81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                            No evidence found.

                                                                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Salome Svanidze

                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                4.
                                                                                                                Exposure

                                                                                                                In my country, there are local reports of personnel linked to the UFWD who make appearances at Chinese diaspora community events and activities (e.g. Lunar New Year events, Dragon Boat festival tournaments, etc).

                                                                                                                No

                                                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                50 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                No evidence found.

                                                                                                                  Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                  Minsk to celebrate Chinese New Year on 2 February- Link (links to UFWD is not identified)

                                                                                                                  1. https://eng.belta.by/society/view/minsk-to-celebrate-chinese-new-year-on-2-february-108968-2018

                                                                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Salome Svanidze

                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                  5.
                                                                                                                  Exposure

                                                                                                                  In my country, there are PRC-connected professional associations that are closely engaged with their counterparts locally, such as All-China Journalists Association (中华全国新闻工作者协会), China Artists Association (中国艺术家协会), China Writers Association (中国作家协会) or All-China Women Federation (全国妇联).

                                                                                                                  Yes

                                                                                                                  Answer ( 2 / 4 )

                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                  2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                  33 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                  25 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                  8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                  8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                  6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                  80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                  The official ceremony of concluding the Agreement "On the exchange of delegations and cooperation in the field of journalism" was held on April 26 simultaneously in Minsk and Beijing. The document was signed between the Belarusian Union of Journalists (BUJ) and the All-China Association of Journalists (VJA). (see below URL)

                                                                                                                  1. http://www.dompressy.by/2022/04/26/belorusskie-i-kitajskie-zhurnalisty-podpisali-soglashenie-o-sotrudnichestve/

                                                                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Salome Svanidze

                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                    6.
                                                                                                                    Exposure

                                                                                                                    In my country, PRC-connected individuals or entities donate money or provide other types of support to religious communities and charities.

                                                                                                                    No

                                                                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                    1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                    46 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                                                                    35 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                    81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                    No evidence found.

                                                                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Salome Svanidze

                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                        7.
                                                                                                                        Exposure

                                                                                                                        In my country, the PRC government or PRC-connected entities distribute entertainment products (including: drama and TV shows) or related hardwares (e.g. OTT streaming players hosting PRC media channels) freely or at a cheap price.

                                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                        2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                        38 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                        1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                        21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                        4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                        3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                        11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                        4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                        6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                        80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                        No evidence found.

                                                                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Salome Svanidze

                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                            8.
                                                                                                                            Effect

                                                                                                                            Cultural products (such as films and TV shows) produced by my country’s production studios typically portray the PRC in a positive light.

                                                                                                                            Skip

                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                            7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                            60 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                                                                            15 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                            75 countries answered this indicator; 7 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                            Not Found

                                                                                                                              Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                              According to the expert's knowledge, PRC generally, is portrayed positively with the country, but the direct evidence can not be found. Interestingly, pro-Chinese propaganda was promoted extensively by state actors as diplomats and state television rather than the expected proponents of Russian propaganda. The same narrative has been spread in Belarus as in the other countries of the EaP, namely, the humanitarian aid of China to countries facing COVID-19 outbreaks. Link

                                                                                                                              1. https://crpe.ro/eapfakes/countries/belarus/the-path-of-the-dragon-in-belarus-unfolding-pro-chinese-propaganda-in-belarus/

                                                                                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Salome Svanidze

                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                              9.
                                                                                                                              Effect

                                                                                                                              In my country, celebrities regularly publish or share propaganda narratives from the PRC.

                                                                                                                              No

                                                                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                              67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                              10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                              0 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                              3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                              3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                              2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                              82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                              No evidence found.

                                                                                                                                Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                Meet Alla: A Belarusian Social-Media Influencer In China | ASIAN BOSS- Link

                                                                                                                                1. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=P0wWssMrPIE

                                                                                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Salome Svanidze

                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                10.
                                                                                                                                Effect

                                                                                                                                In my country, the national or local governments regularly publish or share propaganda narratives from the PRC (e.g. statements from the PRC government or embassies).

                                                                                                                                Yes

                                                                                                                                Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                54 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                We really would like to use China's reform experience: Russian, Belarusian officials. (see below URL1, 2)

                                                                                                                                1. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=V7HMxt9WWw4
                                                                                                                                2. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Sb7iJdm9T54

                                                                                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Salome Svanidze

                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                  11.
                                                                                                                                  Effect

                                                                                                                                  In my country, a majority of citizens have positive views of the PRC government.

                                                                                                                                  No

                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                                  7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                  50 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                  4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                  25 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                  75 countries answered this indicator; 7 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                  "We share a common Soviet background and we came out of communism. Their parents and my parents lived in approximately the same conditions, so they are understandable to me as a nation. It seems to me that we share something in common in mentality. We, Belarusians, are hardworking, and the Chinese are also so hardworking, ready to endure for the sake of some idea, a brighter future". " I would say that it is easier for Belarusians to find a common language with the Chinese than for Russians. Belarusians do not impose their point of view, and they communicate well with other people. Therefore, the Chinese see us as friendly and pleasant people. But in general, Belarusians are closer to the European way, the European mentality. We are, after all, a European country." (see below URL)

                                                                                                                                  1. https://belsat.eu/ru/news/07-04-2022-chto-obshhego-u-belarusi-i-kitaya-i-mozhno-li-nazvat-podnebesnuyu-drugom-belarusi-opyt-belorusov-zhivushhih-v-kitae/

                                                                                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Salome Svanidze

                                                                                                                                    Hide

                                                                                                                                    Military

                                                                                                                                    The Military Domain gauges the bilateral military relationship between the PRC and the Index country, including PRC efforts to influence local military personnel.

                                                                                                                                    1.
                                                                                                                                    Exposure

                                                                                                                                    My country currently imports (or receives in-kind donation of) military or law-enforcement equipment or components of equipment from the PRC.

                                                                                                                                    Yes

                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                    36 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                    46 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                    82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                    On June 21, the Belarussian Defense Ministry announced that China would be providing Belarus with new armored vehicles. The move is just the latest sign of a growing partnership between Minsk and Beijing, including in the security realm. Though China and Belarus established relations 25 years ago, ties have been strengthening in recent years. Last year, Chinese President Xi Jinping and Belarussian President Alexander Lukashenko upgraded relations to the level of a comprehensive strategic partnership, an endeavor first announced in 2013. (see below URL 1) On July 3 Belarus marked 73 years since Minsk was liberated from the Nazis by Soviet forces. The public holiday was accompanied by a requisite military parade. The event served as a reminder of a growing reliance on China as a would-be ally. Another Chinese 4×4 spotted in the July 3 parade is the VN3/VN4. Deliveries of this particular armored car only began in mid-2017 and it’s further proof that internal security is a serious preoccupation for the Lukashenko regime. The VN3/VN4 is designed to carry at least eight passengers behind its cab. A roof hatch supports a turret and in Belarusian service it’s armed with a manually operated 12.7mm NSV machine gun in a cupola. (see below URL 2)

                                                                                                                                    1. https://thediplomat.com/2017/06/china-gives-belarus-new-armored-vehicles/
                                                                                                                                    2. https://21stcenturyasianarmsrace.com/2017/07/09/the-belarusian-army-is-using-a-lot-of-chinese-hardware/
                                                                                                                                    3. https://thediplomat.com/tag/china-belarus-military/

                                                                                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Salome Svanidze

                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                      2.
                                                                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                                                                      My country currently exports military or law-enforcement equipment or components of equipment to the PRC.

                                                                                                                                      No

                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                                      1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                      74 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                      7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                      81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                      No, according to The Observatory of Economic Complexity (OEC). (see below URL)

                                                                                                                                      1. https://oec.world/en/profile/bilateral-country/chn/partner/blr

                                                                                                                                      Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                      No evidence found.

                                                                                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Salome Svanidze

                                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                                        3.
                                                                                                                                        Exposure

                                                                                                                                        My country co-develops or co-produces military or law-enforcement equipment with the PRC.

                                                                                                                                        Yes

                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                                        1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                        66 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                        15 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                        81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                        The sides discussed the next year's Belarusian-Chinese planned military cooperation events. A memorandum on establishing twinning relations between the defense ministries of Belarus and China in the area of international military cooperation was signed.Oleg Voinov and Ci Guowei underlined the presence of good prospects for Belarus-China military cooperation and the importance of further enhancement and development of these prospects. Belarus-China relations of trustful comprehensive strategic partnership and mutually beneficial cooperation were emphasized. (see below URL 1) A big Belarusian military delegation visited China back in April this year. They negotiated with representatives of the air forces and 11 companies. Increase of military and technical cooperation was the subject of these negotiations. They spoke about modernization of system of operation and control over the air forces, as well as about manufacturing of heavy chassis for launchers of rockets of different types. (see below URL 2)

                                                                                                                                        1. https://eng.belta.by/society/view/belarusian-chinese-defense-ministries-sign-military-technical-cooperation-memorandum-145668-2021/
                                                                                                                                        2. https://euroradio.fm/en/belarus-and-china-increase-military-cooperation
                                                                                                                                        3. https://belarusinfocus.info/the-ruling-elite/ideologists-lobby-internet-restrictions-law-enforcement-relaxed-pressure-opposition/

                                                                                                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Salome Svanidze

                                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                                          4.
                                                                                                                                          Exposure

                                                                                                                                          In my country, there are reports that the PRC has expressed intentions or has taken actions to establish basing.

                                                                                                                                          No

                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                                                          2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                          67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                          4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                          13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                          80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                          No evidence found.

                                                                                                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Salome Svanidze

                                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                                              5.
                                                                                                                                              Exposure

                                                                                                                                              In my country, the People’s Liberation Army (PLA) has participated in a humanitarian relief/disaster assistance (HADR) effort.

                                                                                                                                              No

                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                                              2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                              61 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                              4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                              19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                              80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                              No evidence found.

                                                                                                                                                Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                No evidence found.

                                                                                                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Salome Svanidze

                                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                                  6.
                                                                                                                                                  Exposure

                                                                                                                                                  In my country, People’s Liberation Army (PLA) military personnel are permanently or rotationally deployed (excluding defense attaches and peacekeepers).

                                                                                                                                                  No

                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                                  77 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                  4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                  5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                  82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                  No evidence found.

                                                                                                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Salome Svanidze

                                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                                      7.
                                                                                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                                                                                      In my country, members of the military have received professional military education from the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                      Yes

                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                      48 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                      34 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                      82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                      around 77 servicemen of the Armed Forces of Belarus received education in the institutions of the Chinese People’s Liberation Army. The two countries also hold regular joint army training exercises. For example, “Hunting Falcon” is a regular exercise designed to strengthen the partnership between the two armies in counteracting terrorist threats. This commitment to military cooperation is further evidenced by the amount of high level exchanges between the two countries. From 2013 to 2017 representatives of the Belarusian Defense Ministry visited China seven times while delegations of the Chinese Defense Ministry paid eleven visits to Belarus. (see below URL 1) JINAN, Aug. 7 (ChinaMil) -- Chinese and Belarusian special operations forces commenced the joint training entitled “Eagle Assault 2018” at a comprehensive training base attached to the Northern Theater Command of the Chinese People’s Liberation Army (PLA) in Jinan City of east China's Shandong Province on the morning of August 5, 2018. (see below URL 2)

                                                                                                                                                      1. http://minskdialogue.by/en/research/memorable-notes/belarus-china-relations
                                                                                                                                                      2. http://eng.chinamil.com.cn/view/2018-08/07/content_9244657.htm

                                                                                                                                                      Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                      The prospects of developing Belarus-China relations in military education and staff training will be discussed during the visit of the Belarusian military delegation to Beijing. The Belarusian delegation includes deputy Defence Minister Major General Yuri Merentsov and aide to Defence Minister for moral and psychological support Colonel Alexander Gura.The Belarusian delegation is planning to meet with Chinese Defence Minister Cao Gangchuan and a number of other military officials. They are also expected to attend the 3rd mechanized division of the Chinese Army and the National Defence Academy- Link MINSK, (UrduPoint / Pakistan Point News, app - 15th Aug, 2018 ): Head of the General Staff of the Armed Forces, First Deputy Defense Minister of Belarus Oleg Belokonev is expected to discuss the development of cooperation in joint military training during his official visit to China, BelTA learned from the Belarusian Defense Ministry- Link

                                                                                                                                                      1. https://mfa.gov.by/print/en/press/news_mfa/cfaaf39c61a2ce5d.html
                                                                                                                                                      2. http://eng.chinamil.com.cn/view/2018-08/16/content_9254561.htm

                                                                                                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Salome Svanidze

                                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                                      8.
                                                                                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                                                                                      In my country, members of the military have received peacekeeping training from the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                      No

                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                                                      2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                      67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                      13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                      80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                      No evidence found.

                                                                                                                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Salome Svanidze

                                                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                                                          9.
                                                                                                                                                          Exposure

                                                                                                                                                          In my country, high-ranking retired or current military and/or intelligence officers have received direct or deferred benefits from PRC-connected individuals or entities openly or covertly (e.g. have been appointed to lucrative positions as board members or consultants with PRC-invested firms, casinos, energy companies, etc.) during or in retirement from public service.

                                                                                                                                                          No

                                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                                                                          4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                                          67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                          4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                          11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                          78 countries answered this indicator; 4 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                          No evidence found.

                                                                                                                                                            Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                            On May 11 local time, President Xi Jinping and President Alexander Lukashenko of Belarus met with 15 representatives of Belarusian veterans of the World War II at the Belarusian Great Patriotic War Museum in Minsk- Link (However, if any kinds of benefits have been granted, is not identified)

                                                                                                                                                            1. https://www.mfa.gov.cn/ce/cegv//eng/wjyw/t1263528.htm

                                                                                                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Salome Svanidze

                                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                                            10.
                                                                                                                                                            Effect

                                                                                                                                                            In my country, high-ranking retired or current military and/or intelligence officials advocate for more coordination with the People’s Liberation Army (PLA).

                                                                                                                                                            No

                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                                                            1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                            68 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                            13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                            81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                            No evidence found.

                                                                                                                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Salome Svanidze

                                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                                11.
                                                                                                                                                                Effect

                                                                                                                                                                My country cooperates with the People’s Liberation Army (PLA) on military exchange exercises, including drills and war games.

                                                                                                                                                                No

                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                51 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                31 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                No evidence found.

                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Salome Svanidze

                                                                                                                                                                    Hide

                                                                                                                                                                    Law Enforcement

                                                                                                                                                                    The Law Enforcement Domain measures law enforcement cooperation between the PRC and the Index country, as well as the nature and extent of PRC-related criminal activity in the Index country.

                                                                                                                                                                    1.
                                                                                                                                                                    Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                    My country currently maintains an extradition treaty, legal mutual assistance or other similar arrangements with the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                    No

                                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                    32 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                    50 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                    82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                    No evidence found.

                                                                                                                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Salome Svanidze

                                                                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                                                                        2.
                                                                                                                                                                        Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                        In my country, law enforcement authorities have signed cooperation agreements with the PRC on combatting terrorism.

                                                                                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                        1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                        55 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                        26 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                        81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                        No evidence found.

                                                                                                                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Salome Svanidze

                                                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                                                            3.
                                                                                                                                                                            Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                            In my country, PRC-connected gangs (such as Triad, 三合会) are known to be operating in my country.

                                                                                                                                                                            No

                                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                            1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                            52 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                            29 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                            81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                            No evidence found.

                                                                                                                                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Salome Svanidze

                                                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                4.
                                                                                                                                                                                Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                In my country, there are reports of economic espionage targeting the private sector that were suspected to benefit PRC-connected entities.

                                                                                                                                                                                No

                                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                49 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                No evidence found.

                                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Salome Svanidze

                                                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                    5.
                                                                                                                                                                                    Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                    In my country, there are reports of cyber attacks targeting government, critical infrastructure, or enterprises that were suspected to be initiated from the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                                    No

                                                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                    3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                    37 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                    9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                    4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                    3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                    14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                    15 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                    79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                    No evidence found.

                                                                                                                                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Salome Svanidze

                                                                                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                        6.
                                                                                                                                                                                        Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                        In my country, triads are known to have threatened or used violence to coerce, intimidate or punish Chinese dissidents.

                                                                                                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                        2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                        67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                        1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                        5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                        3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                        3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                        3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                        4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                        2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                        80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                        No evidence found.

                                                                                                                                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Salome Svanidze

                                                                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                            7.
                                                                                                                                                                                            Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                            My country has deployed video or internet surveillance systems from the PRC for law enforcement.

                                                                                                                                                                                            No

                                                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                            1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                            30 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                            51 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                            81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                            No evidence found.

                                                                                                                                                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Salome Svanidze

                                                                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                8.
                                                                                                                                                                                                Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                In my country, representatives of the PRC police force have had joint patrols with local law enforcement.

                                                                                                                                                                                                No

                                                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                71 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                No evidence found.

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Salome Svanidze

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                    9.
                                                                                                                                                                                                    Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                    My government has detained people at the request of the PRC for committing a crime involving engagements with social movements or resistance activities in Hong Kong, Xinjiang or for other human rights or civic rights issues.

                                                                                                                                                                                                    No

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                    1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                    68 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                    13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                    81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                      No evidence found.

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Salome Svanidze

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                        10.
                                                                                                                                                                                                        Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                        My country has deported Taiwan citizens to the PRC to face prosecution.

                                                                                                                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                        2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                        71 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                        9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                        80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                        No evidence found.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Salome Svanidze

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                            11.
                                                                                                                                                                                                            Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                            My country has extradited or has deported individuals to the PRC, although such decisions had attracted criticisms from politicians, government employees or from local or foreign NGOs.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            No

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                            61 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                            21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                            82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                            No evidence found.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Salome Svanidze

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Hide

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Technology

                                                                                                                                                                                                                The Technology Domain gauges the PRC’s influence over the technology sector in the Index country, including the activity and financial leverage of PRC companies, use of PRC hardware, and bilateral research partnerships.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                1.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                In my country, PRC-connected entities (such as China Mobile, China Unicom or China Telecom) or their subsidiaries provide telecom services.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                52 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                30 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                China Telecom Group will build a telecommunication node inside the China-Belarus industrial park Great Stone to provide communication services inside the park, BelTA learned from Kirill Koroteyev, First Deputy Director General of SZAO Industrial Park Development Company. (see below URL 1) China Telecom is a Chinese state-owned company and one of the world top telecommunication services providers. Upon concluding a cooperation agreement with SZAO Industrial Park Development Company at the end of 2017, China Telecom built a telecommunication node at the China-Belarus Great Stone Industrial Park to provide communication services inside the Industrial Park. (see below URL 2)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. https://www.ctamericas.com.cn/china-telecom-builds-telecommunication-node-china-belarus/
                                                                                                                                                                                                                2. https://www.sorainen.com/deals/china-telecom-builds-telecommunications-node-at-the-china-belarus-great-stone-industrial-park/

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Salome Svanidze

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  In my country, telecoms have signed agreements to adopt hardwares or technical specifications of 4G or 5G cellular networks that are produced or developed by Huawei, ZTE or other PRC enterprises.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 2 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  16 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  27 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  30 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  ZTE and A1 launched the first 5G SA test network in Belarus. (see below URL)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. https://www.zte.com.cn/global/about/news/20200525e1.html

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  No final decision has been made on when exactly the 5G rollout will begin. The official reminded that a 5G working group had been established under the Council of Ministers in order to take into account all the peculiarities the introduction of the new technology may entail. “We are going to prepare a final report in February in order to inform the head of state and approach the decision-making stage. There is also the frequency allocation procedure to consider. There may be tenders or some other options. We've worked them out,” Konstantin Shulgan explained- Link (the talks have been conducted between parties) The Huawei company is creating its own scientific and technological center in Belarus. We plan to participate in this project more widely, and not only for cooling systems- Link

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. https://eng.belta.by/society/view/nationwide-5g-coverage-within-five-years-deemed-possible-in-belarus-136553-2021/
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2. https://rci.bsu.by/docs/One%20Belt%20One%20Road%20Initiative:%20Opportunities%20for%20Belarus.pdf

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Salome Svanidze

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  3.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  In my country, telecoms have adopted hardware or technical specifications by PRC-connected entities in internet/wifi/telecommunication service infrastructure projects, in addition to 4G/5G cellular network.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Skip

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  24 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  23 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  74 countries answered this indicator; 8 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  ZTE has partnered up with Mobile Digital Communications in 2017 but then, whether the partnership has been prolonged or not, can not be identified. Thus, we skip the question. (see below URL)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. https://www.commsupdate.com/articles/2017/01/19/velcom-zte-claim-world-first-with-commercial-fully-virtualised-core-network/

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Salome Svanidze

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    4.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    In my country, PRC-connected entities are authorized vendors to supply tech-related equipment or services to our government, military or security services.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    28 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    53 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    No evidence found.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Salome Svanidze

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        5.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        In my country, central or local governments have collaboration (such as data collection or exchange agreement, or adoption of related hardwares) with the PRC government or PRC-connected entities on facial, voice recognition or other applications involving biometrics achieved by AI.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        42 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          No public evidence available.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Salome Svanidze

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            6.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            In my country, one or more cities have procured, or have signed contracts with PRC-connected entities to establish “smart city” systems.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            35 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            25 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            No pdirect evidence found.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. https://eng.belta.by/society/view/belarus-china-to-cooperate-in-smart-grid-technology-112665-2018

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            In 2015, Minsk was hoping to attract Chinese investments to a “smart city” project in the Belarusian capital, but in 2021 it became obvious that the United Arab Emirates-based Emaar Properties company, rather than Chinese corporations, would build a €4 billion complex: Link

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. https://globalcomment.com/what-is-chinas-agenda-in-belarus/

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Salome Svanidze

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            7.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            In my country, financial institutions use the China Cross-Border Interbank Payment System (CIPS) clearing and settlement services system.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            63 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            18 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              No any information found in that regard.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Salome Svanidze

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                8.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                In my country, PRC-connected venture capital invests in technology start-ups.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                32 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                18 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                No direct evidence found.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Right now, there are more than 60 companies active in the park, including as many as 33 from China, and only 12 from Belarus (the rest are Western companies, mainly from Germany). China has invested more than USD2bn in the “Great Stone” industrial park, and according to the Chinese embassy in Minsk the total invested amount is ultimately expected to reach USD5.5bn. Initially, when China first entered Belarus with its investments, the elites in Minsk hoped that their value across the country could reach USD30bn. This was classic wishful thinking because that amount is equal to half of the country’s annual GDP. Even so, the cumulative value of Chinese loans, grants and investments is estimated by the renowned Chinese Academy of Social Sciences in Beijing at USD20bn. Link Technology is a prominent theme. In addition to Great Stone, Belarus and China have signed an agreement to establish a research and development centre with a focus on smart technologies, computer semantics and artificial intelligence systems. Chinese investment has also gone into Belarusian railways, infrastructure, construction and manufacturing. China is now Belarus’s third most significant trading partner after Russia and Ukraine, with trade expected to top $3.5 billion in 2018—just a drop in a very large bucket for China, but highly significant for Belarus- Link

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. https://www.obserwatorfinansowy.pl/in-english/business/what-is-china-doing-in-belarus/
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2. https://www.aspistrategist.org.au/china-belarus-and-the-bear-in-the-room/

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Salome Svanidze

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  9.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  In my country, companies have publicly announced that they had signed MOUs to collaborate on technological development (such as collaborations in A.I., Blockchain, Cloud Computing, Big Data) with PRC-connected entities.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  31 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  MINSK, 28 February (BelTA) – A new resident company has been registered in the China-Belarus industrial park Great Stone, BelTA has learned. International Technology Company Xinlian intends to set up a center to store and process large amounts of data. The project is supposed to be implemented in 2019-2020, with the total volume of investments close to $2.5 million. (see below URL)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. https://eng.belta.by/economics/view/new-company-to-set-up-big-data-processing-center-in-china-belarus-industrial-park-great-stone-119122-2019/

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Salome Svanidze

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    10.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    In my country, PRC-connected entities are shareholders or developers of the top five popular social media/messaging apps, based on usage.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    44 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    36 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    The popularity of TikTok has not bypassed users from Belarus. TikTok was already in the top five most popular social networks in Belarus in 2021, according to a study on social networks and instant messengers in Belarus. According to We Are Social and Kepios, almost 3.1 million Belarusians used TikTok at the beginning of 2022, making this social network the second most popular after Instagram. In the last quarter of 2021 alone, TikTok added about 440,000 users from Belarus. If current growth rate is maintained, TikTok has every chance of becoming the most popular social network in Belarus by the end of 2022. (see below URL 1)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. https://isans.org/columns-en/tiktok-in-belarus-audience-trends-and-new-opportunities.html
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2. https://www.similarweb.com/zh-tw/apps/top/google/store-rank/by/social/top-free/

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Salome Svanidze

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      11.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      In my country, the central or local government(s) has collaborated with the PRC on endorsing the use of BeiDou satellite navigation system.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      64 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      17 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      No evidence found.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Salome Svanidze

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Hide

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Domestic Politics

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          The Domestic Politics Domain evaluates PRC efforts to influence the political landscape in the Index country, and the footprint of PRC security companies.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          In my country, politicians or government employees at the sub-national level are signing agreements with the PRC government or state-owned enterprises.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          20 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          23 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          BEIJING, 29 September (BelTA) – Belarus and China have signed a package of agreements and memorandums on cooperation in various fields. These documents were signed in the presence of the two heads of state in Beijing on 29 September, BelTA has learned. (see below URL)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. https://eng.belta.by/politics/view/belarus-china-sign-package-of-cooperation-agreements-in-various-fields-94932-2016/

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Salome Svanidze

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            In my country, local municipalities have sister-city ties (友好城市) with municipalities in the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            23 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Minks is among the list (see below URL 1, 2)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_twin_towns_and_sister_cities_in_China
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_twin_towns_and_sister_cities_in_Belarus

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Salome Svanidze

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              3.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              In my country, politicians or government employees have taken trips to the PRC paid for by PRC-connected individuals or entities.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              22 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              16 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              16 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              73 countries answered this indicator; 9 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              No evidence found.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Salome Svanidze

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  4.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  In my country, politicians or government employees visit the PRC and have meetings with PRC officials and think tanks.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  25 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  32 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Li Zhanshu, chairman of the National People's Congress Standing Committee, holds talks with Natalia Kochanova, chairwoman of the Council of the Republic of the National Assembly of Belarus, and Vladimir Andreichenko, chairman of the House of Representatives of the National Assembly of Belarus, via video link at the Great Hall of the People in Beijing, capital of China, June 8, 2021. (see below URL)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. http://www.npc.gov.cn/englishnpc/c23934/202106/bc2aaa4931ed45e28d67c44dc71d23f3.shtml

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Salome Svanidze

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    5.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    In my country, law enforcement and judicial related training offered the PRC-connected individuals or entities has been accepted by national or subnational governments.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 2 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    46 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    16 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Meiya Pico, a Chinese cybersecurity company, was instructed by the Chinese Ministry of Public Security to train countries affiliated with the BRI in digital forensics. Meiya Pico may also be part of establishing a Safety Corridor from China to Europe, aiming to tie security and safety services and products to international development projects. (see below URL 2) (Belarus is also among the list countries)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. https://chinatechmap.aspi.org.au/#/map/marker-2207
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2. https://web.archive.org/web/20201228215655/https://public.opentech.fund/documents/English_Weber_WWW_of_Information_Controls_Final.pdf
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    3. https://archive.ph/10iVx/a62920c2c56335fe4a5e27fc85b31fef0470dfe3.jpg

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Salome Svanidze

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      6.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      In my country, there are reports of politicians or political parties receiving campaign donations that originate in the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      60 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      0 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      78 countries answered this indicator; 4 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      No evidence found.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Salome Svanidze

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          7.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          In my country, groups with reported links to the United Front Work Department (UFWD) have hosted fundraisings or have provided other forms of support for government employees, politicians or parties.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          64 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            No public evidence found.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Salome Svanidze

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              8.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              In my country, groups with reported links to the United Front Work Department (UFWD) have made public statements opposing the candidacy of a local political candidate or party, claiming them being “anti-China”.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              78 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              0 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              0 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                No evidence found.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Salome Svanidze

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  9.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  In my country, politicians or government employees have publicly expressed positive views of the PRC government.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  37 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Xi Jinping pointed out that China and Belarus are all-weather good friends, and the China-Belarus comprehensive strategic partnership featuring mutual trust and win-win cooperation has been at a high level in recent years. The two countries have made fruitful achievements in jointly building the Belt and Road Initiative, with the China-Belarus industrial park becoming a model project. Bilateral practical cooperation has been elevated to a new level. (see below URL 1) Xi Jinping stressed that the current international and regional situation is complex and changeable. China and Belarus have cooperated effectively on multilateral occasions including the United Nations, and firmly supported each other in safeguarding our core national interests, which has demonstrated the strategic value of China-Belarus cooperation. (see below URL 2) In 2005, Lukashenko told Xinhua, China’s official news agency, the reason for his newfound attraction to Beijing: “So long as we [Belarus] develop such relations with China, we cannot be isolated.” That same year, he paid a state visit to the PRC, returning with a stack of memoranda and a mountain of promises. (see below URL 5) In an interview with the New China News Agency in October 2010, Lukashenko stated that China was Belarus’ best friend. He explained his rationale: “China’s investment has never had any political strings attached, therefore, we are more than willing to see China speed up its investment in Belarus on a larger scale.” (see below URL 4) Belarusian authorities attach significant importance to relations with China as an opportunity for economic development and strengthening their state’s international position. (see below URL 3)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. https://www.mfa.gov.cn/ce/ceus//eng/zgyw/t1658999.htm
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2. https://www.fmprc.gov.cn/eng/zxxx_662805/202201/t20220111_10480930.html
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  3. https://pism.pl/publications/The_Importance_of_Cooperation_with_China_for_Belarus
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  4. https://harvardpolitics.com/china-and-belarus-a-special-relationship/
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  5. https://carnegiemoscow.org/commentary/82662

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Salome Svanidze

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    10.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    In my country, politicians or government employees have received direct or deferred benefits from PRC-connected individuals or entities openly or covertly (e.g. have been appointed to lucrative positions as board members or consultants with PRC-invested firms, casinos, energy companies, etc.) during or in retirement from public office.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Skip

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    40 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    0 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    18 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    73 countries answered this indicator; 9 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      According to the expert's knowldge, some trips have taken place ( few, but insignificant), however any public evidence could not be found.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Salome Svanidze

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        11.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        In my country, security services (安保/保安) offered by private PRC companies are contracted by national or subnational governments.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        No public evidence found.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Salome Svanidze

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Hide

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Foreign Policy

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            The Foreign Policy Domain gauges PRC efforts to achieve diplomatic objectives by influencing key actors in the Index country.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            My country’s legislature has a joint parliamentary friendship group, committee or other forms of sub-organizations with PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            25 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            57 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            First Meeting of the Commission on Customs and Quarantine Cooperation between Belarus-China (see below URL 1) First Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs of Belarus S.Aleinik participates in the session of Belarus-China Commission on trade and economic cooperation. (see below URL 2)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. https://rocb-europe.org/first-meeting-of-the-commission-on-customs-and-quarantine-cooperation-between-belarus-china
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2. https://www.mfa.gov.by/en/press/news_mfa/d427610dcc22ed91.html
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            3. http://www.npc.gov.cn/englishnpc/c23934/202106/bc2aaa4931ed45e28d67c44dc71d23f3.shtml

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Li Zhanshu, chairman of the National People's Congress Standing Committee, holds talks with Natalia Kochanova, chairwoman of the Council of the Republic of the National Assembly of Belarus, and Vladimir Andreichenko, chairman of the House of Representatives of the National Assembly of Belarus, via video link at the Great Hall of the People in Beijing, capital of China, June 8, 2021. (Xinhua/Huang Jingwen). (see URL 3)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Salome Svanidze

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Representatives of a political party in my country’s national legislature have met officially with representatives of the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              20 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              40 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. On December 22, 2021, Vice Foreign Minister Le Yucheng and Belarusian Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs Nikolai Borisevich held video consultations between Chinese and Belarusian Foreign Ministries. The two sides exchanged views on bilateral relations, high-level exchanges, practical cooperation, and international and regional issues of common concern. (see below URL 1) 2. On June 24, 2016 local time, President Xi Jinping met in Tashkent with President Alexander Lukashenko of Belarus. (see below URL 2) 3. On May 12, 2022 the First Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Belarus, Sergei Aleinik, met with the Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary of the People’s Republic of China, Xie Xiaoyun. (see below URL 3) 4. He Wei, vice-chairman of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference (CPPCC) National Committee, met with Valery Mitskevich, deputy chairman of the House of Representatives of Belarus, via video link on April 29 (see below URL 4) 5. Belarusian President Alexander Lukashenko visited China and was welcomed by Xi Jinping in September 2016 (see below URL 5)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. https://www.fmprc.gov.cn/eng/wjbxw/202112/t20211223_10474837.html
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2. https://www.mfa.gov.cn/ce/cegv/eng/wjyw/t1375781.htm
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              3. https://www.mfa.gov.by/en/press/news_mfa/f9bafda09d4d6219.html
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              4. http://en.cppcc.gov.cn/2021-05/01/c_624063.htm
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              5. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=j-2yfkt5lik

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Salome Svanidze

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                3.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                The PRC provides training to diplomats or civil servants on governance from my country (such as at 国家行政学院 or 中央党校).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                39 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                No evidence found.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Salome Svanidze

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    4.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    In my country, politicians or government employees have been pressured by PRC diplomats to change their political or diplomatic stances.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    41 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    No evidence found.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Salome Svanidze

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        5.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Citizens of my country have been detained in PRC or denied exit visas, and believed to be suffering from unfair legal treatments for political reasons, a.k.a. “hostage diplomacy”.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        61 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        No evidence found.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Salome Svanidze

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            6.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            The head of state, head of government or foreign minister of my country has denied Taiwan’s right to participate as a member, observer or guest in WHO.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            65 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            No evidence found.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Salome Svanidze

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                7.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                My country publicly supported the appointment of a PRC official to be the head of a United Nations agency (such as the FAO or ICAO) or other intergovernmental organizations (such as INTERPOL).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                62 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                73 countries answered this indicator; 9 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                No evidence found.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  The public information is not found.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Salome Svanidze

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    8.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    My government has shown support of PRC's territorial claims (such as on the South China Sea arbitration ruling issued by the UNCLOS Arbitral Tribunal in July 2016; except claims over Taiwan, which are indirectly covered in indicator 6.)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Silence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    0/ My country has rejected PRC’s claim

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    24 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2/ My country has remained silent

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    36 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    4/ My country has adhered to PRC’s claim

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Belarus has not expressed any public opinion, thus it remained silent.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Salome Svanidze

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        9.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        My country has shown one of the following stances on PRC’s treatment of its Uyghur population.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Support

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        0/ My country has denounced PRC

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        31 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2/ My country has remained silent

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        32 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        4/ My country has voiced support to PRC’s stance

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        17 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Press Secretary Andrei Popov responds to a media question over the events in Urumqi in Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region of the People’s Republic of China: "We carefully watch the events in this region. We took with regret the reports about riots there that entailed human losses and considerable damage. We note that the Chinese authorities undertake needed measures to contain and discontinue this conflict. We express condolences to relatives and next of kin to those perished, as well as our sympathy with those who suffered due to the unrest. We confirm that the Republic of Belarus considers the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region as an integral part of China and believe that events happening there are China’s internal affair. We hope that the legal measures taken by the Chinese authorities to break off the conflict will allow to normalize situation in the region in the near future" (see below URL)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. https://www.mfa.gov.by/en/press/news_mfa/df0d82eacc0bde9b.html

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Salome Svanidze

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          10.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          My country has shown one of the following stances on PRC’s treatment of its Tibet population.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Silence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          0/ My country has denounced PRC

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2/ My country has remained silent

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          46 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          4/ My country has voiced support to PRC’s stance

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          No evidence found.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            No public evidence available demonstrating the position of Belarus.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Salome Svanidze

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              11.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              My government has not publicly criticized the PRC’s imposition of the National Security Law on Hong Kong.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Support

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              0/ My country has denounced PRC

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              24 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2/ My country has remained silent

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              36 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              4/ My country has voiced support to PRC’s stance

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              During the ongoing 46th session of the UN Human Rights Council, a Belarusian representative delivered a joint speech on Friday on behalf of 70 countries, emphasizing that Hong Kong affairs are China's internal affairs and should not be interfered in by external forces. The Geneva-based senior diplomats also spoke positively of the national security law in Hong Kong. "Belarus is deeply convinced that sustainable and effective development is impossible without political stability and national unity and integrity; this is why any separatist activity is totally incompatible with achieving prosperity and stability of the nation, and this is why we welcome the new law," Ambrazevich said. Khitchadeth said the enforcement of the national security law in Hong Kong "is very necessary in order to better protect the rights and freedom of Hong Kong residents in a safe environment". Andrabi recalled that during the previous session of the UN Human Rights Council, many countries, including Pakistan, also issued a joint statement in support of China on Hong Kong-related issues. "That statement was quite an emphatic expression to reject the approach of targeting China based on political considerations," he said. Available at the URL below.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. https://global.chinadaily.com.cn/a/202103/07/WS60448086a31024ad0baad5cb.html

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Salome Svanidze

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Hide
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