Austria

$53,267.9
8.95M
Ranking
62/ 82
Original Score

* As some Indicators can be skipped where data is unavailable, the maximum overall and Domain scores are not identical for each country. Country rankings are generated from ratios of the maximum scores and the achieved scores.

83/ 388
Executive partner
Central European Institute of Asian Studies
Index Year
2022
Layer Scores

The Indicators have been classified by the stage of the influence process at which they occur. Some Indicators correspond to exposure to PRC influence, e.g. the presence of Confucius Institutes. Others test for pressure – such as visa denials to academics or journalists. Finally, some Indicators capture the effect of PRC influence, such as national policy changes in favor of PRC interests.
The individual Layer scores for each country are tallied and displayed via rankings.

Exposure

28%

Exposure assesses the conditions that make the target country vulnerable to PRC's influence, e.g. in terms of economic dependence, or the receiving of some form of benefit.

Pressure

17%

Pressure measures the actions that the PRC directly or indirectly exerts over the target country in order to change the behavior of people in the target country, e.g. in terms of threatening economic punishment to provoke/prevent a political decision.

Effect

8%

Effect evaluates the degree of accommodations the target country makes to the PRC, and the actual effects and impacts on the target country.

In 2021, Austria had a GDP per capita of US$53,268 and a total population of 8.95 million people.

Austria established diplomatic relations with the People's Republic of China in 1971. Austria was ranked 31st in Reporters Without Borders' 2022 World Press Freedom Index, and Free in Freedom House's 2022 Global Freedom Status, with a score of 93/100.

Domain Scores
Country Percentage
Index Average

Percentage scores do not suggest some degree out of a “completely influenced” level of 100%. The percentages express the country’s score out of the total achievable amount based on the Indicators for each Domain.

  • Media
    13.6% / 30.1%
  • Academia
    13.6% / 34%
  • Economy
    27.3% / 33.6%
  • Society
    27.3% / 23.6%
  • Military
    9.1% / 23.4%
  • Law Enforcement
    15.0% / 30.2%
  • Technology
    25.0% / 40.8%
  • Domestic Politics
    31.8% / 37.2%
  • Foreign Policy
    29.5% / 41%

Media

The Media Domain evaluates how PRC entities influence public debate and media coverage about the PRC in the Index country.

1.
Exposure

In my country, there are media organizations that belong to the World Chinese Media (世界华文媒体) network.

Yes

Answer ( 1 / 4 )

More

Skipped

2 countries chose this answer

0/ No

42 countries chose this answer

1/ Few, but insignificant

19 countries chose this answer

2/ More than a few, but insignificant

4 countries chose this answer

3/ Few, but significant

13 countries chose this answer

4/ More than a few, and significant

2 countries chose this answer

80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

Supporting Evidence

According to the World Chinese Media’s list, published in 2015, there is one Austrian media that currently belongs to the network.

  1. https://www.worldchinesemedia.com/benkanjieshao/

    Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Alfred Gerstl

    Hide
    2.
    Exposure

    In my country, there are journalists or media organizations which are members of the Belt and Road Media Cooperation Alliance/Union, the Belt and Road News Alliance, or other Belt and Road media networks that connected to PRC (e.g. Belt and Road Media Community, Belt and Road Journalists Network, Belt and Road News Network, or B&R TV Networks).

    Yes

    Answer ( 1 / 4 )

    More

    Skipped

    1 countries chose this answer

    0/ No

    39 countries chose this answer

    1/ Few, but insignificant

    23 countries chose this answer

    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

    4 countries chose this answer

    3/ Few, but significant

    14 countries chose this answer

    4/ More than a few, and significant

    1 countries chose this answer

    81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

    Supporting Evidence

    As of May 2022 there is only one Austrian media organization part of such a BRI linked media network: PreTV production company is part of the Belt and Road Media Community Summit Forum‘s 丝绸之路电视共同体高峰论坛 board of directors.

    1. http://news.cctv.com/2019/09/10/ARTID88xbkmptNhkBc5RJfPt190910.shtml

      Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Alfred Gerstl

      Hide
      3.
      Exposure

      In my country, there are journalists, media organizations or online influencers who have attended all-expenses paid media tours in PRC.

      No

      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

      More

      Skipped

      11 countries chose this answer

      0/ No

      15 countries chose this answer

      1/ Few, but insignificant

      15 countries chose this answer

      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

      5 countries chose this answer

      3/ Few, but significant

      23 countries chose this answer

      4/ More than a few, and significant

      13 countries chose this answer

      71 countries answered this indicator; 11 countries skipped this indicator

      Supporting Evidence

      There is no public report of such a phenomenon in recent years. However, it should be mentioned that in 2013 Fred Turnheim, the president of the Austrian Journalists Club (ÖJC), participated in a visit to China, which was “organized” by Radio China International (CRI) and the press office of Guangdong provincial government.

      1. https://german.cri.cn/specials/50_Jahre_diplomatische_Beziehungen/journalist/4506/20131111/604579.html

        Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Alfred Gerstl

        Hide
        4.
        Exposure

        In my country, there are journalists, media organizations or online influencers who have received trainings from PRC state-owned media or PRC-connected entities.

        Yes

        Answer ( 1 / 4 )

        More

        Skipped

        3 countries chose this answer

        0/ No

        37 countries chose this answer

        1/ Few, but insignificant

        16 countries chose this answer

        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

        2 countries chose this answer

        3/ Few, but significant

        14 countries chose this answer

        4/ More than a few, and significant

        10 countries chose this answer

        79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

        Supporting Evidence

        The offical cooperation between the Austrian Journalists Club (AJC) and Radio China International CMG (CRI) includes a small scale training of Austrian journalists in China and Chinese journalists in Austria (during a "college") and organized journeys to the two countries as well as conferences. Tandem is, however, only watched by a few 1000 viewers, as it is broadcasted by a small TV station financially supported by the city of Vienna. CI Vienna is a cooperation partner of Tandem (see below URL1) since 2008(see below URL2). The cooperation between the Austrian Journalist Club (ÖJC) and China Radio International (CRI), which was renewed in 2018 with the signing of a Memorandum for strategic cooperation, notably encompasses a program for young Austrian journalist to work one year in the German editorial office of CRI in Beijing.

        1. https://www.oejc.at/home/medien/tandem
        2. https://www.ots.at/presseaussendung/OTS_20181112_OTS0055/kooperationsabkommen-zwischen-oejc-und-cri-in-peking-verlaengert-bild

          Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Alfred Gerstl

          Hide
          5.
          Exposure

          In my country, PRC state-media (including print, radio, and video) is broadcasted or distributed in a local language.

          Yes

          Answer ( 1 / 4 )

          More

          Skipped

          1 countries chose this answer

          0/ No

          24 countries chose this answer

          1/ Few, but insignificant

          22 countries chose this answer

          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

          7 countries chose this answer

          3/ Few, but significant

          18 countries chose this answer

          4/ More than a few, and significant

          10 countries chose this answer

          81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

          Supporting Evidence

          There are several Chinese state-medias, which produce German language content. These include China Radio International (CRI), Xinhua and the Beijing Rundschau. Moreover, the Austrian Journalist Club (ÖJC) and China Radio International (CRI) jointly produce a German TV program “Tandem - China und Österreich “, which is broadcasted on the public community channel OKTO. However, with only a limited audience the impact of these media on the Austrian public remains minor.

          1. https://www.okto.tv/de/sendung/tandem

            Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Alfred Gerstl

            Hide
            6.
            Exposure

            In my country, there are local media outlets wholly or partly owned by PRC citizens or corporations.

            Yes

            Answer ( 1 / 4 )

            More

            Skipped

            2 countries chose this answer

            0/ No

            44 countries chose this answer

            1/ Few, but insignificant

            19 countries chose this answer

            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

            3 countries chose this answer

            3/ Few, but significant

            14 countries chose this answer

            4/ More than a few, and significant

            0 countries chose this answer

            80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

            Supporting Evidence

            An ownership analysis using the Orbis Europe Database has shown that within the two-hundred-thirty-five media companies (NACE Code 5813) based in Austria only one lists a Chinese entity as an ultimate owner: the Guang Hua Media (Austria) Gmbh, a subsidiary of the french based Guang Hua Cultures et Media Group, is ultimately jointly owned by two PRC citizens, Mr Zhang Xiaobei and Chen Zhong. The Austrian subsidiary of Guang Hua Media is responsible for the group’s media activity in Austria, as well as large number of Central-and-eastern countries, including notably Hungary, Poland, Ukraine and Lithuania. While the group also produces German language news content, in particular through the monthly magazine China Rundschau or the news site(see below URL1), it influence in Austria appears to be mainly limited to Chinese diaspora and expat communities. Markedly, the official Wechat account Weicheng 维城, which provides news on Austria in Chinese, has gained during the last years in notoriety. - Their influence is very limited! The Orbis Europe Database (Bureau Van Dijk) holds data on more than 1.3 million Austria-based companies. The website of Guang Hua Cultures et Media Group is in below URL2.

            1. http://de.china-info24.com/
            2. http://www.oushinet.com/resource/other_page/about.html

              Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Alfred Gerstl

              Hide
              7.
              Exposure

              In my country, there are media outlets that have delivered cheap or free contents provided by PRC state-fund media.

              No

              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

              More

              Skipped

              3 countries chose this answer

              0/ No

              22 countries chose this answer

              1/ Few, but insignificant

              21 countries chose this answer

              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

              6 countries chose this answer

              3/ Few, but significant

              23 countries chose this answer

              4/ More than a few, and significant

              7 countries chose this answer

              79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

              Supporting Evidence

              Not Found

                Supplementary Notes

                No evidence to suggest otherwise

                  Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Alfred Gerstl

                  Hide
                  8.
                  Exposure

                  In my country, there are regular PRC state-media or government advertisements inserted within local newspapers, online news websites or social media.

                  No

                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                  More

                  Skipped

                  1 countries chose this answer

                  0/ No

                  38 countries chose this answer

                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                  13 countries chose this answer

                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                  7 countries chose this answer

                  3/ Few, but significant

                  15 countries chose this answer

                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                  8 countries chose this answer

                  81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                  Supporting Evidence

                  In the context of an analysis of Austria’s main newspapers, as well as websites of Austrian associations focused on improving relations with China, no instance of advertisement placement by PRC state-media or government could be found. Moreover, there has been up until now no report of such phenomenon in Austria. This could be in part explained by the predominant role played by public advertisement in the Austria media landscape.

                      Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Alfred Gerstl

                      Hide
                      9.
                      Pressure

                      In my country, there are journalists who have had pressure exerted on them by the PRC, including (but not limited to) public denouncement, revocation of journalist ID, denial of visa.

                      No

                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                      More

                      Skipped

                      1 countries chose this answer

                      0/ No

                      57 countries chose this answer

                      4/ Yes

                      24 countries chose this answer

                      81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                      Supporting Evidence

                      There has up until now been no public report of such an incident. It should be noted that Chinese diplomats in Austria have until now refrained from directly criticizing or openly denouncing Austrian newspapers or journalists. For example, the Chinese Embassy has published a statement criticizing a Taiwanese official’s remarks made during an interview, which was published in an Austrian newspaper. The name of Austrian newspaper, as well as of the journalist was, however, not directly mentioned(see below URL1).

                      1. http://at.china-embassy.gov.cn/det/xwdt/202012/t20201230_2310209.htm

                        Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Alfred Gerstl

                        Hide
                        10.
                        Effect

                        In my country, there are incidents of media outlets censoring views critical of the PRC government.

                        No

                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                        More

                        Skipped

                        4 countries chose this answer

                        0/ No

                        51 countries chose this answer

                        1/ Few, but insignificant

                        11 countries chose this answer

                        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                        3 countries chose this answer

                        3/ Few, but significant

                        9 countries chose this answer

                        4/ More than a few, and significant

                        4 countries chose this answer

                        78 countries answered this indicator; 4 countries skipped this indicator

                        Supporting Evidence

                        Not Found

                          Supplementary Notes

                          No evidence to suggest otherwise.

                            Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Alfred Gerstl

                            Hide
                            11.
                            Effect

                            In my country, there are media personalities (including reporters, journalists or commentators) or celebrities who deny the existence of human rights abuses in the PRC (e.g. a media personality that doubts there are re-education camps for Uyghurs in Xinjiang).

                            Yes

                            Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                            More

                            Skipped

                            2 countries chose this answer

                            0/ No

                            44 countries chose this answer

                            1/ Few, but insignificant

                            18 countries chose this answer

                            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                            4 countries chose this answer

                            3/ Few, but significant

                            9 countries chose this answer

                            4/ More than a few, and significant

                            5 countries chose this answer

                            80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                            Supporting Evidence

                            While there have been a few occasions where Austrian personalities have downplayed human rights abuses in Xinjiang, these seem not have had a significant impact on the Austrian public debate. A notable example is the President of the Austrian Chinese Business Association, Prof. Dr. Georg Zanger, who in a series of tweets entitled “Xinjiang reacts: Form your own opinion!” (translated from German) re-published statements by Chinese embassies and consulates, as well as a questioned the coercive nature of the re-education camps.

                            1. https://twitter.com/georgzanger/status/1429387448228925441

                              Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Alfred Gerstl

                              Hide

                              Academia

                              The Academia Domain measures how the PRC state attempts to restrict academic freedom by influencing or interfering with the Index country’s academic and educational activities.

                              1.
                              Exposure

                              In my country, universities have established research partnerships with PRC-connected entities. (e.g. Huawei, Tencent or Alibaba)

                              Yes

                              Answer ( 2 / 4 )

                              More

                              0/ No

                              9 countries chose this answer

                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                              11 countries chose this answer

                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                              6 countries chose this answer

                              3/ Few, but significant

                              31 countries chose this answer

                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                              25 countries chose this answer

                              82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                              Supporting Evidence

                              See CEIAS' China-Europe Academic Engagement Tracker ("Austria"). Throughout the last decade there has been an increasing amount of research partnerships between Austrian universities and PRC-connected entities (PRC corporations, enterprises, and state-owned enterprises). This has notably been driven by the establishment of R&D centers, most notably in Vienna and Graz, through Chinese companies (see list below). Research cooperation between Austrian Universities and Chinese companies include notably 1. Huawei Vienna Research Institute established in 2019 as Huawei’s R&D center in Central-and-Eastern Europe focused on Magnetic Innovation Technology. In this context, Huawei notably collaborated with the Technical University of Vienna and the University of Applied Sciences in Graz and Hagenberg. 2. ZTE 中兴通讯 is cooperation partner of the Institute of Telecommunications at the Technical University of Vienna (TU Wien). In 2018, it participated together with Hutchison Drei Austria GmbH (owned by the HK group Hutchison长江和记实业) in the research project ‘Road to 5G’. 3. Sino-Austrian Electronic Technology Innovation Center (SAETIC): established in 2015 as a research cooperation between the China Electronics Technology Group Corporation 中国电子科技集团有限公司 (central SOE) and TU Graz in the area of smart water management. 4. Prior to the establishment of the CRRC ZELC Austria Joint R&D Center in 2019 CRRC ZELC signed a Letter of Intent with Graz University of Technology (TU Graz).

                              1. https://academytracker.ceias.eu/map/eu/Austria
                              2. https://academytracker.ceias.eu/articles/1EfzWtGo2OTvNaOTauu115
                              3. https://www.ots.at/presseaussendung/OTS_20201111_OTS0106/huawei-sichert-ueber-220000-arbeitsplaetze-in-europa
                              4. https://resources.oxfordeconomics.com/hubfs/Huawei_Austria_2020_V1.pdf
                              5. https://www.newbusiness.at/unternehmen/huawei-technologies-austria-richtige-zeit-richtiger-ort
                              6. https://www.nt.tuwien.ac.at/wp-content/uploads/2019/09/Doku2018.pdf
                              7. https://www.kleinezeitung.at/lebensart/4874665/FORSCHUNG_TU-geht-Kooperation-mit-ChinaTechnologieriesen-ein?showNew=1

                                Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Alfred Gerstl

                                Hide
                                2.
                                Exposure

                                In my country, there are Confucius Institutes/Classrooms.

                                Yes

                                Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                                More

                                0/ No

                                5 countries chose this answer

                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                14 countries chose this answer

                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                5 countries chose this answer

                                3/ Few, but significant

                                31 countries chose this answer

                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                27 countries chose this answer

                                82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                Supporting Evidence

                                There a currently two Confucius Institutes in Austria – one at the University of Vienna and one the University of Graz (State of styria). In October 2020, Austria’s first Confucius Classroom was established in Weiz (State of styria) in cooperation with the Confucius Institute at the University of Graz. One year prior to that the Confucius Institute in Graz and the Vienna Business School had already signed a cooperation agreement.

                                1. https://academytracker.ceias.eu/map/eu/Austria
                                2. https://academytracker.ceias.eu/articles/1EfzWtGo2OTvNaOTauu115
                                3. https://www.meinbezirk.at/weiz/c-lokales/confucius-classroom-verbindet-weiz-und-china_a4311361
                                4. https://www.vbs.ac.at/presse/chinesisch-lernen-an-der-vienna-business-school-start-einer-kooperation-mit-der-universitaet-graz/

                                  Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Alfred Gerstl

                                  Hide
                                  3.
                                  Exposure

                                  My country plans to include, or does include, Chinese as a foreign language in K12 or primary education, and receives free or subsidized (e.g. offered below market price) educational books and teachers from PRC.

                                  No

                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                  More

                                  Skipped

                                  1 countries chose this answer

                                  0/ No

                                  46 countries chose this answer

                                  4/ Yes

                                  35 countries chose this answer

                                  81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                  Supporting Evidence

                                  There has up until now been no concrete initiative by Austrian policy makers to develop Chinese language courses in schools. As emerges from a statement by the Austrian Federal Ministry of Education, as of 2019 fifteen Austrian schools offer Chinese as foreign language.

                                  1. https://kurier.at/kiku/dong-bu-dong-verstehst-du/400426226

                                    Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Alfred Gerstl

                                    Hide
                                    4.
                                    Exposure

                                    In my country, one or more think tanks and academic research centers belong to PRC-affiliated networks/associations (such as: the Silk Road Think Tank Association, Silk Road Think Tank Network [SiLKS], Belt and Road Studies Network, University Alliance of the Silk Road, University Consortium of the 21st Century Maritime Silk Road).

                                    No

                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                    More

                                    Skipped

                                    2 countries chose this answer

                                    0/ No

                                    40 countries chose this answer

                                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                                    17 countries chose this answer

                                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                    7 countries chose this answer

                                    3/ Few, but significant

                                    14 countries chose this answer

                                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                                    2 countries chose this answer

                                    80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                    Supporting Evidence

                                    No Austrian institution is member of these networks.

                                        Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Alfred Gerstl

                                        Hide
                                        5.
                                        Exposure

                                        In my country, think tanks and academic research centers have received financial support from PRC-connected individuals or entities.

                                        No

                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                        More

                                        Skipped

                                        10 countries chose this answer

                                        0/ No

                                        21 countries chose this answer

                                        1/ Few, but insignificant

                                        11 countries chose this answer

                                        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                        11 countries chose this answer

                                        3/ Few, but significant

                                        19 countries chose this answer

                                        4/ More than a few, and significant

                                        10 countries chose this answer

                                        72 countries answered this indicator; 10 countries skipped this indicator

                                        Supporting Evidence

                                        Not Found

                                          Supplementary Notes

                                          There is no evidence available in that regard.

                                            Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Alfred Gerstl

                                            Hide
                                            6.
                                            Exposure

                                            In my country, experts participate in PRC talent recruitment programs such as the Thousand Talents Program or Changjiang Scholars program.

                                            Yes

                                            Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                            More

                                            Skipped

                                            3 countries chose this answer

                                            0/ No

                                            47 countries chose this answer

                                            1/ Few, but insignificant

                                            11 countries chose this answer

                                            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                            6 countries chose this answer

                                            3/ Few, but significant

                                            10 countries chose this answer

                                            4/ More than a few, and significant

                                            5 countries chose this answer

                                            79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                                            Supporting Evidence

                                            While there have few cases of Austrian or Austria-based experts participating in talent recruitment programs, these have had a rather significant impact. Most prominently, Pan Jianwei 潘建伟, who earned his doctorate in quantum at the University of Vienna under the supervision of the well-known physicist Anton Zeilinger, joined the University of Science and Technology of China as an expert of the Thousand Talents Program. Following his return to China Pan Jianwei played a key role in developing the country’s quantum research program. In 2016 Anton Zeilinger joined the University of Science and Technology of China as the Einstein Chair Professor and was later in 2020 awarded the Chinese Government Friendship Award.

                                            1. https://www.global-sci.org/intro/article_detail/cam/16350.html
                                            2. https://academytracker.ceias.eu/articles/1EfzWtGo2OTvNaOTauu115

                                              Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Alfred Gerstl

                                              Hide
                                              7.
                                              Exposure

                                              In my country, scholars have taken trips to the PRC paid for by PRC-connected individuals or entities.

                                              No

                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                              More

                                              Skipped

                                              13 countries chose this answer

                                              0/ No

                                              17 countries chose this answer

                                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                                              15 countries chose this answer

                                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                              11 countries chose this answer

                                              3/ Few, but significant

                                              12 countries chose this answer

                                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                                              14 countries chose this answer

                                              69 countries answered this indicator; 13 countries skipped this indicator

                                              Supporting Evidence

                                              There has up until now been no public report of scholars having participated in sponsored trips to the People’s Republic of China.

                                                  Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Alfred Gerstl

                                                  Hide
                                                  8.
                                                  Pressure

                                                  In my country, organized PRC-connected student groups, such as Chinese Students and Scholars Associations (CSSAs), are involved in attempts to censor staff or students (e.g. by harassing students protesting human rights abuses in the PRC, or formally complaining about the identification of Taiwan as a country in lecture slides).

                                                  No

                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                  More

                                                  Skipped

                                                  1 countries chose this answer

                                                  0/ No

                                                  64 countries chose this answer

                                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                  6 countries chose this answer

                                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                  3 countries chose this answer

                                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                                  5 countries chose this answer

                                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                  3 countries chose this answer

                                                  81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                  There has up until now been no public report of such an incident.

                                                      Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Alfred Gerstl

                                                      Hide
                                                      9.
                                                      Pressure

                                                      In my country, scholars or academics have been denied visas to travel to the PRC after expressing opinions or producing scholarship that is critical of the PRC.

                                                      No

                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                      More

                                                      Skipped

                                                      7 countries chose this answer

                                                      0/ No

                                                      64 countries chose this answer

                                                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                      1 countries chose this answer

                                                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                      0 countries chose this answer

                                                      3/ Few, but significant

                                                      6 countries chose this answer

                                                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                      4 countries chose this answer

                                                      75 countries answered this indicator; 7 countries skipped this indicator

                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                      There has up until now been no public report of such an incident.

                                                          Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Alfred Gerstl

                                                          Hide
                                                          10.
                                                          Effect

                                                          In my country, PRC-connected entities have been involved in school or university curriculum design, such as courses about East Asian history, modern politics, etc.

                                                          No

                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                          More

                                                          Skipped

                                                          2 countries chose this answer

                                                          0/ No

                                                          64 countries chose this answer

                                                          4/ Yes

                                                          16 countries chose this answer

                                                          80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                          There has up until now been no public report of such an incident.

                                                              Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Alfred Gerstl

                                                              Hide
                                                              11.
                                                              Effect

                                                              In my country, there are confirmed reports of teachers or professors avoiding the discussion of sensitive political issues (e.g. Uyghur re-education camps, Taiwan independence, Tiananmen Square Massacre).

                                                              No

                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                              More

                                                              Skipped

                                                              5 countries chose this answer

                                                              0/ No

                                                              65 countries chose this answer

                                                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                              1 countries chose this answer

                                                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                              1 countries chose this answer

                                                              3/ Few, but significant

                                                              6 countries chose this answer

                                                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                              4 countries chose this answer

                                                              77 countries answered this indicator; 5 countries skipped this indicator

                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                              There has up until now been no public report of such an incident.

                                                                  Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Alfred Gerstl

                                                                  Hide

                                                                  Economy

                                                                  The Economy Domain measures the PRC’s economic leverage in the Index country, and how this is used to influence economic policy or corporate behavior in ways that favor the PRC.

                                                                  1.
                                                                  Exposure

                                                                  The PRC is my country's number one trading partner (for trade in goods only).

                                                                  No

                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                  More

                                                                  0/ No

                                                                  51 countries chose this answer

                                                                  4/ Yes

                                                                  31 countries chose this answer

                                                                  82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                  Not Found

                                                                  1. https://www.wko.at/service/zahlen-daten-fakten/oesterreichs-aussenhandel.html

                                                                    Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Alfred Gerstl

                                                                    Hide
                                                                    2.
                                                                    Exposure

                                                                    PRC-connected entities own more than 50% of my country’s sovereign debt.

                                                                    No

                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                    More

                                                                    Skipped

                                                                    1 countries chose this answer

                                                                    0/ No

                                                                    77 countries chose this answer

                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                    4 countries chose this answer

                                                                    81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                    While the majority (in 2020 66,7%) of Austria’s sovereign debt is owned by foreign entities, the vast majority of this foreign owned debt is owned by Eurozone entities.

                                                                    1. https://www.parlament.gv.at/PAKT/VHG/XXVII/III/III_00226/index.shtml
                                                                    2. https://kurier.at/wirtschaft/wem-der-staat-oesterreich-geld-schuldet/261.988.407

                                                                      Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Alfred Gerstl

                                                                      Hide
                                                                      3.
                                                                      Exposure

                                                                      The PRC is the top customer for my country’s extractive industries.

                                                                      No

                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                      More

                                                                      0/ No

                                                                      62 countries chose this answer

                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                      20 countries chose this answer

                                                                      82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                      IN 2019 HS Code (25-27) Hungary is the biggest export destination followed by Germany, Slovenia and Switzerland. Statistics computed using based on the BACI database by the Centre d’études prospectives et d’informations internationales (CEPII), which comprises bilateral export and import data on a HS6 product level.

                                                                          Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Alfred Gerstl

                                                                          Hide
                                                                          4.
                                                                          Exposure

                                                                          In my country, PRC-related entities own, operate or substantially control critical infrastructure (e.g. ports, power plants, digital data centers, etc) or sensitive sectors (biotech, raw materials, etc.)

                                                                          Yes

                                                                          Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                          More

                                                                          0/ No

                                                                          36 countries chose this answer

                                                                          4/ Yes

                                                                          46 countries chose this answer

                                                                          82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                          An ownership analysis using the Orbis Europe Database seems to indicate of Austrian companies with controlling Chinese shareholders seems to indicate that in recent years there have been a few investment by PRC companies in Austria’s critical infrastructure or sensitive sectors. The definition of critical infrastructure used in this analysis was based upon the European Proposal for a directive on the resilience of critical entities. For example, in 2017 the Austrian aircraft producer Diamond Aircraft was taken over by Wanfeng Auto Holding Group 万丰奥特控股集团有限公司. Prior to that Diamon Aircraft entered a comprehensive technical cooperation with CETC Wuhu Diamond Aircraft Manufacturing Co., Ltd. (referred to below as CETC Wuhu) 中电科芜湖钻石飞机制造有限公司. In 2019 CETC Wuhu announced the completion of the first flight of its TA-20 basic military trainer aircraft – “[…] a joint venture between CETC and the Wuhu Municipal Government, which builds aircraft under licence from Austria’s Diamond Aircraft Industries.” - Nevertheless, the influence is LIMITED, and Diamond Aircraft is a Chinese company. Moreover, in 2018 SIPWISE GMBH - Unified Communications-Plattform provider - was aquired by Alcatel Lucent Enterprises China Co., Ltd, which is itself owned by China Huaxin Post and Telecom Technologies Co., Ltd. 中国华信邮电科技有限公司. On ist side, China Huaxin is owned by the China Poly Group 中国保利集团有限公司, which under the control of the State-owned Assets Supervision and Administration Commission of the State Council.

                                                                          1. https://www.presseportal.de/pm/155575/5040905
                                                                          2. https://www.keymilitary.com/article/diamond-dart-450-reborn-chinas-ta-20
                                                                          3. http://www.cetcd.com/en/index.php/about/intro.html
                                                                          4. https://www.consilium.europa.eu/en/press/press-releases/2021/12/20/strengthening-eu-resilience-council-adopts-negotiating-mandate-on-the-resilience-of-critical-entities/

                                                                            Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Alfred Gerstl

                                                                            Hide
                                                                            5.
                                                                            Exposure

                                                                            My country joined (or applied to join) the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB).

                                                                            Yes

                                                                            Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                            More

                                                                            0/ No

                                                                            27 countries chose this answer

                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                            55 countries chose this answer

                                                                            82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                            Austria has joined the AIIB in 2015 as a non-regional and founding member.

                                                                            1. https://www.aiib.org/en/about-aiib/governance/members-of-bank/index.html

                                                                              Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Alfred Gerstl

                                                                              Hide
                                                                              6.
                                                                              Exposure

                                                                              In my country, major businesses are members of the Silk Road Chamber of International Commerce, or of the Belt and Road Industrial and Commercial Alliance, or of the Belt and Road General Chamber of Commerce.

                                                                              No

                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                              More

                                                                              0/ No

                                                                              41 countries chose this answer

                                                                              4/ Yes

                                                                              41 countries chose this answer

                                                                              82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                              Not Found

                                                                                Supplementary Notes

                                                                                No evidence to suggest otherwise.

                                                                                  Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Alfred Gerstl

                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                  7.
                                                                                  Pressure

                                                                                  My country has been the target of PRC economic coercion (e.g. trade or investment sanctions) that was specifically tailored at products or services that are highly dependent on the PRC market.

                                                                                  No

                                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                  More

                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                  64 countries chose this answer

                                                                                  4/ Yes

                                                                                  18 countries chose this answer

                                                                                  82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                  Up until now no acts of economic coercion have been registered.

                                                                                      Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Alfred Gerstl

                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                      8.
                                                                                      Pressure

                                                                                      In my country, local businesses have been harassed, threatened, or boycotted, due to their activities or statements in support of causes deemed unacceptable by the PRC government (e.g. Taiwanese independence, Hong Kong democracy, Tibet or Xinjiang issues, etc).

                                                                                      Yes

                                                                                      Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                      More

                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                      2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                      65 countries chose this answer

                                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                                      15 countries chose this answer

                                                                                      80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                      The Austrian jewelry brand Swarovski issued a statement on Facebook in 2016 publicly apologizing “for erroneously describing Hong Kong as a country on its website.”

                                                                                      1. https://www.bbc.com/news/business-49328160

                                                                                        Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Alfred Gerstl

                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                        9.
                                                                                        Effect

                                                                                        My country has free-trade agreement(s) with the PRC (either bilateral or as part of regional agreement(s)) that primarily deals with trade in goods or services, including digital goods or services.

                                                                                        No

                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                        More

                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                        51 countries chose this answer

                                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                                        31 countries chose this answer

                                                                                        82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                        The European Union and by extension the European single market has up until this point not signed a free-trade agreement with the PRC.

                                                                                            Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Alfred Gerstl

                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                            10.
                                                                                            Effect

                                                                                            In my country, central or local governments have relaxed or removed regulatory restrictions, or have established special economic zones (or free trade zones, industrial parks, etc.) to attract investments or economic participation from the PRC.

                                                                                            No

                                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                            More

                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                            47 countries chose this answer

                                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                                            35 countries chose this answer

                                                                                            82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                            Not Found

                                                                                              Supplementary Notes

                                                                                              There has up until now been no public report of such a phenomenon.

                                                                                                Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Alfred Gerstl

                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                11.
                                                                                                Effect

                                                                                                In my country, PRC-connected entities requisitioned infrastructure or land for failure to repay debts in a timely manner.

                                                                                                No

                                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                More

                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                76 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                4/ Yes

                                                                                                4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                Not Found

                                                                                                  Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                  There has up until now been no public report of such a phenomenon.

                                                                                                    Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Alfred Gerstl

                                                                                                    Hide

                                                                                                    Society

                                                                                                    The Society Domain measures the extent and effectiveness of the PRC’s efforts to advance its soft power in the Index country, including its influence over the actions and views of local organizations and citizens.

                                                                                                    1.
                                                                                                    Exposure

                                                                                                    In my country, there are local groups or organizations with words like “Promotion of Peaceful Reunification” in their name, and they regularly publicize their views on Taiwan, Hong Kong, Tibet and Xinjiang issues.

                                                                                                    Yes

                                                                                                    Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                    1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                    49 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                    12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                    7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                    3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                    9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                    4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                    81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                    Gerd Kaminski, the Director of the Austrian Institute for China and South-east Asia Research (ICSOA), and Fang Fangxu note that the ‘Society for the Promotion of Peaceful National Reunification in Austria’ (in German: Gesellschaft zur Förderung der Friedlichen Wiedervereinigung Chinas in Österreich; In Chinese: 奥地利中国和平统一促进会) is one of the most influential overseas Chinese association in Austria (Kaminiski and Fang, 2018, p.106).

                                                                                                    1. https://www.chinafile.com/ngo/latest/united-front-work-departments-austrian-chapter-registers-foreign-ngo-china
                                                                                                    2. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/329421364_Overseas_Chinese_Associations_in_Austria

                                                                                                      Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Alfred Gerstl

                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                      2.
                                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                                      In my country, there are members and member organizations of United World Chinese Association (世界华人协会).

                                                                                                      No

                                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                      1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                      62 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                                                      19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                      81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                      There has up until now been no public report of such a phenomenon in Austria.

                                                                                                          Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Alfred Gerstl

                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                          3.
                                                                                                          Exposure

                                                                                                          In my country, labor unions cooperate on exchanges or official visits to the All-China Federation of Trade Unions (ACFTU) in the PRC.

                                                                                                          Yes

                                                                                                          Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                          1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                          68 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                          4/ Yes

                                                                                                          13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                          81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                          According to a Wechat article by the Chinese Embassy in Austria, a delegation of the All-China Federation of Trade Unions (ACFTU) attended the Austrian Trade Union Federation’s (Österreichischer Gewerkschaftsbund, ÖGB) federal congress in 2018, while the ÖGB visit China in 2019. Lastly, the ACFTU sent the ÖGB a shipment of PPEs, which was handed over by the Chinese ambassador, Li Xiaosi, in May 2020. It should noted that no mention of the ACFTU delegation nor the ÖGB’s visit to China has been found on ÖGB’s website, social medias, as well as in Austrian media. This indicates that the relation between ÖGB and ACFTU is rather shallow and should thus not be overstated.

                                                                                                          1. https://mp.weixin.qq.com/s?src=11&timestamp=1655071480&ver=3856&signature=H9pZJ1dvO4O1Jthi8GV-WwOp2K1j8u8mM621VVrDxwdkO7hGQ1VhalPUo5dUlOEPfVbPOg7YXjMvd5xB3SjWDrhmay5HLdHo06422zU-WiWUa974WPnxR*vzmt9vtgYa&new=1
                                                                                                          2. https://mp.weixin.qq.com/s?src=11&timestamp=1655028985&ver=3856&signature=H4ECJ2vqAON-8jbACxTSdMgLGEfSsK*SUmz136w3ZxldkG5CYhc*A7uhEyFaiSZBnOOeX2Y2Ag4c2Y2hz-OFEbw2EPREtJeLRYlmLH-RnZdlBYV6erHLQN9FznQ97-Ij&new=1

                                                                                                            Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Alfred Gerstl

                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                            4.
                                                                                                            Exposure

                                                                                                            In my country, there are local reports of personnel linked to the UFWD who make appearances at Chinese diaspora community events and activities (e.g. Lunar New Year events, Dragon Boat festival tournaments, etc).

                                                                                                            Yes

                                                                                                            Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                            2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                            50 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                            1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                            9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                            5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                            3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                            9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                            4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                            7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                            80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                            The president of the ‘Society for the Promotion of Peaceful National Reunification in Austria’, Yao Longwei 姚龙伟, notably attended the Association of Overseas Chinese living in Austria‘s (in German: Vereinigung von in Österreich lebenden Chinesen; in Chinese: 奥地利华人总会) Lunar New Year celebration in 2016. Representatives of the Society for Promotion of Peaceful National Reunification in Austria were also present at the Lunar New Year celebration in 2019 of the Overseas Chinese Committee (in German: Überseechinesenkomitee; in Chinese: 奥中友协华人委员会). The Society for the Promotion of Peaceful National Reunification in Austria is tightly linked to the UFWD. Its president has notably hosted a meeting in 2019 with UFWD’s deputy secretary Hao Yifeng 郝一峰 and several representatives of Austria’s diaspora associations.

                                                                                                            1. https://mp.weixin.qq.com/s?src=3&timestamp=1655050730&ver=1&signature=-0hyMRkxc2O*wmHkoXh7pgWvSZbCv-E4i9eiOZL*6SaIzmd0MhvX*67n3il75kd4vNEINMeSfKckcjMG7vIjYTUb-JQKk3SiSmbPZHlKwwwYztkDt8iPU6LRQfeiXjqEdugfjUV-9HuSzmtsd2gHqw==
                                                                                                            2. https://www.163.com/dy/article/E5K35JJE0514BIH4.html
                                                                                                            3. http://www.xztzb.cn/shiwu/1562581066753.shtml

                                                                                                              Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Alfred Gerstl

                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                              5.
                                                                                                              Exposure

                                                                                                              In my country, there are PRC-connected professional associations that are closely engaged with their counterparts locally, such as All-China Journalists Association (中华全国新闻工作者协会), China Artists Association (中国艺术家协会), China Writers Association (中国作家协会) or All-China Women Federation (全国妇联).

                                                                                                              Yes

                                                                                                              Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                              2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                              33 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                              25 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                              8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                              3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                              8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                              6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                              80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                              Several professional associations from the PRC have engaged over the past decades with their Austrian counterparts. It seems, however, that these relations seem to be both infrequent and rather shallow. In 2016 a delegation of Chinese journalists organized by the All-China Journalists Association (ACJA) visited Austria and Germany. In Austria following journalistic institutions were visited: Austria Presse Agentur, the community channel Okto (see notably Media Question 5), Association of Austrian Newspapers (Verband Österreichischer Zeitungen), as well as the newspaper Der Standard. Similarly, a forum discussion organized by the China Writers Association in 2019 saw the attendance of several representatives of Austrian writers association, namely the Austrian Writers’ Union (Österreichischen Schriftstellerverband) and the Austrian PEN Club.

                                                                                                              1. http://www.xinhuanet.com/zgjx/2016-09/27/c_135717471.htm
                                                                                                              2. https://www.163.com/dy/article/EORMAMFM0514BIH4.html

                                                                                                                Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Alfred Gerstl

                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                6.
                                                                                                                Exposure

                                                                                                                In my country, PRC-connected individuals or entities donate money or provide other types of support to religious communities and charities.

                                                                                                                No

                                                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                46 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                4/ Yes

                                                                                                                35 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                There has up until now been no public report of such a phenomenon in Austria.

                                                                                                                    Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Alfred Gerstl

                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                    7.
                                                                                                                    Exposure

                                                                                                                    In my country, the PRC government or PRC-connected entities distribute entertainment products (including: drama and TV shows) or related hardwares (e.g. OTT streaming players hosting PRC media channels) freely or at a cheap price.

                                                                                                                    Yes

                                                                                                                    Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                    2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                    38 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                    21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                    4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                    3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                    11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                    6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                    80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                    While there has been some such instances, these seem to be both rather rare and have a limited impact on the Austrian public. For instance, in 2016 the Zhejiang Television Station International Channel ‘provide’ the community Channel Okto with a German translation of the documentary West lake 西湖.

                                                                                                                    1. https://k.sina.cn/article_2368187283_8d27ab930190027bx.html
                                                                                                                    2. https://www.okto.tv/de/oktothek/episode/17136

                                                                                                                      Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Alfred Gerstl

                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                      8.
                                                                                                                      Effect

                                                                                                                      Cultural products (such as films and TV shows) produced by my country’s production studios typically portray the PRC in a positive light.

                                                                                                                      No

                                                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                      7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                      60 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                                                                      15 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                      75 countries answered this indicator; 7 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                      This appears not to be the case in Austria. Indeed, cultural products, such as the documentary “Weiyena – ein Heimatfilm”, which tells the story of a Chinese diaspora family living in Austria, engage with China in a critical manner.

                                                                                                                      1. https://filminstitut.at/filme/weiyena-einheimatfilm

                                                                                                                        Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Alfred Gerstl

                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                        9.
                                                                                                                        Effect

                                                                                                                        In my country, celebrities regularly publish or share propaganda narratives from the PRC.

                                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                        67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                        1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                        10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                        0 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                        3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                        3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                        4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                        2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                        82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                        Not Found

                                                                                                                          Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                          No evidence to suggest otherwise.

                                                                                                                            Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Alfred Gerstl

                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                            10.
                                                                                                                            Effect

                                                                                                                            In my country, the national or local governments regularly publish or share propaganda narratives from the PRC (e.g. statements from the PRC government or embassies).

                                                                                                                            No

                                                                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                            2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                            54 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                            1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                            12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                            2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                            3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                            7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                            4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                            5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                            80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                            There has up until now been no public report of such a phenomenon in Austria.

                                                                                                                                Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Alfred Gerstl

                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                11.
                                                                                                                                Effect

                                                                                                                                In my country, a majority of citizens have positive views of the PRC government.

                                                                                                                                No

                                                                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                50 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                25 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                75 countries answered this indicator; 7 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                While there has been up until now no survey carried out regarding the Austrian’s public views on China, given the stark deterioration of feeling towards China in Germany (see. notably Rühlig et al. (2020)) and the promoximity of both countries media ecosystem, it appears likely that views towards the PRC government have followed a similar trend in Austria.

                                                                                                                                1. https://ceias.eu/wp-content/uploads/2020/11/DE-poll-report_ISBN1.pdf

                                                                                                                                  Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Alfred Gerstl

                                                                                                                                  Hide

                                                                                                                                  Military

                                                                                                                                  The Military Domain gauges the bilateral military relationship between the PRC and the Index country, including PRC efforts to influence local military personnel.

                                                                                                                                  1.
                                                                                                                                  Exposure

                                                                                                                                  My country currently imports (or receives in-kind donation of) military or law-enforcement equipment or components of equipment from the PRC.

                                                                                                                                  No

                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                  36 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                  4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                  46 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                  82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                  The 22nd Annual Report on Arms Exports by the European Council does not list any arms export from China to Austria for 2019. Moreover, in the category ‘HS 93: Arms and ammunition’ imports from China represented merely 1.15% of Austria’s total imports in 2019 (statistics computed using the BACI database).

                                                                                                                                  1. https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/PDF/?uri=CELEX%3A52020XG1211%2803%29&from=EN

                                                                                                                                    Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Alfred Gerstl

                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                    2.
                                                                                                                                    Exposure

                                                                                                                                    My country currently exports military or law-enforcement equipment or components of equipment to the PRC.

                                                                                                                                    No

                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                    1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                    74 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                    7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                    81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                    The 22nd Annual Report on Arms Exports by the European Council does not list any arms export from Austria to China for 2019. Moreover, in the category ‘HS 93: Arms and ammunition’ Austria’s exports to China represented merely 3.53% of China’s total imports in 2019 (statistics computed using the BACI database). Lastly, according to an analysis by the Austrian journalistic research platform Addendum, between 2004 and 2017 Austria exported to the PRC €700,000 in Vehicles & accessories, in IT € 456,304, as well as € 159,317 in Personnel equipment. Compared to Austria’s biggest export market, the USA, Austria’s exports to China in arms appears to be very limited. It should, however, be noted that in the product category HS 930400 Other arms (for example, spring, air or gas guns and pistols, truncheons) Austria is China second biggest import source behind Germany.

                                                                                                                                    1. https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/PDF/?uri=CELEX%3A52020XG1211%2803%29&from=EN
                                                                                                                                    2. https://www.addendum.org/waffen/exporte/

                                                                                                                                      Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Alfred Gerstl

                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                      3.
                                                                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                                                                      My country co-develops or co-produces military or law-enforcement equipment with the PRC.

                                                                                                                                      Yes

                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                                      1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                      66 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                      15 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                      81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                      The Austrian aircraft producer Diamon Aircraft entered a comprehensive technical cooperation with CETC Wuhu Diamond Aircraft Manufacturing Co., Ltd. (referred to below as CETC Wuhu) 中电科芜湖钻石飞机制造有限公司. In 2019 CETC Wuhu the completion of first flight of its TA-20 basic military trainer aircraft – “[…] a joint venture between CETC and the Wuhu Municipal Government, which builds aircraft under licence from Austria’s Diamond Aircraft Industries.” (see also. Economy Question 4).

                                                                                                                                          Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Alfred Gerstl

                                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                                          4.
                                                                                                                                          Exposure

                                                                                                                                          In my country, there are reports that the PRC has expressed intentions or has taken actions to establish basing.

                                                                                                                                          No

                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                                                          2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                          67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                          4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                          13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                          80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                          There has up until now been no public report of such an intention in Austria.

                                                                                                                                              Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Alfred Gerstl

                                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                                              5.
                                                                                                                                              Exposure

                                                                                                                                              In my country, the People’s Liberation Army (PLA) has participated in a humanitarian relief/disaster assistance (HADR) effort.

                                                                                                                                              No

                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                                              2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                              61 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                              4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                              19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                              80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                              There has up until now been no public report of such a phenomenon in Austria.

                                                                                                                                                  Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Alfred Gerstl

                                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                                  6.
                                                                                                                                                  Exposure

                                                                                                                                                  In my country, People’s Liberation Army (PLA) military personnel are permanently or rotationally deployed (excluding defense attaches and peacekeepers).

                                                                                                                                                  No

                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                                  77 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                  4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                  5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                  82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                  The Chinese Embassy in Austria hosts a military attaché, who belongs to the PLA. Other than this, there is no PLA military presence in Austria.

                                                                                                                                                      Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Alfred Gerstl

                                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                                      7.
                                                                                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                                                                                      In my country, members of the military have received professional military education from the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                      No

                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                      48 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                      34 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                      82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                      There has up until now been no public report of such a phenomenon in Austria.

                                                                                                                                                          Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Alfred Gerstl

                                                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                                                          8.
                                                                                                                                                          Exposure

                                                                                                                                                          In my country, members of the military have received peacekeeping training from the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                          No

                                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                                                                          2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                                          67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                          4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                          13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                          80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                          There has up until now been no public report regarding PLA members having received peacekeeping training in Austria during the last decade. However, it should be noted that ten representatives of the PLA attended a mountain combat/survival training by the Austrian armed forces in 2007.

                                                                                                                                                          1. http://jczs.news.sina.com.cn/p/2007-03-12/0808434499.html
                                                                                                                                                          2. https://www.welt.de/politik/article750444/Bundesheer-bildet-chinesische-Militaers-aus.html

                                                                                                                                                            Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Alfred Gerstl

                                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                                            9.
                                                                                                                                                            Exposure

                                                                                                                                                            In my country, high-ranking retired or current military and/or intelligence officers have received direct or deferred benefits from PRC-connected individuals or entities openly or covertly (e.g. have been appointed to lucrative positions as board members or consultants with PRC-invested firms, casinos, energy companies, etc.) during or in retirement from public service.

                                                                                                                                                            No

                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                                                            4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                            67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                            11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                            78 countries answered this indicator; 4 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                            There has up until now been no public report of such a phenomenon in Austria.

                                                                                                                                                                Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Alfred Gerstl

                                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                                10.
                                                                                                                                                                Effect

                                                                                                                                                                In my country, high-ranking retired or current military and/or intelligence officials advocate for more coordination with the People’s Liberation Army (PLA).

                                                                                                                                                                No

                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                68 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                There has up until now been no public report of such a phenomenon in Austria.

                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Alfred Gerstl

                                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                                    11.
                                                                                                                                                                    Effect

                                                                                                                                                                    My country cooperates with the People’s Liberation Army (PLA) on military exchange exercises, including drills and war games.

                                                                                                                                                                    No

                                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                    51 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                    31 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                    82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                    There has up until now been no public report of such a phenomenon in Austria.

                                                                                                                                                                        Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Alfred Gerstl

                                                                                                                                                                        Hide

                                                                                                                                                                        Law Enforcement

                                                                                                                                                                        The Law Enforcement Domain measures law enforcement cooperation between the PRC and the Index country, as well as the nature and extent of PRC-related criminal activity in the Index country.

                                                                                                                                                                        1.
                                                                                                                                                                        Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                        My country currently maintains an extradition treaty, legal mutual assistance or other similar arrangements with the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                        32 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                        50 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                        82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                        While Austria and China signed an agreement on bilateral mutual legal assistance in 2018, the agreement has, however, not yet come into effect. It was also agreed that following the evaluation of the agreement on bilateral mutual legal assistance the possibility of an extradition treaty would be checked.

                                                                                                                                                                        1. https://www.ris.bka.gv.at/Ergebnis.wxe?Abfrage=BgblAuth&Bgblnummer=21/2018&SucheNachTeil3=True
                                                                                                                                                                        2. https://www.bmeia.gv.at/oeb-peking/bilaterale-beziehungen/oesterreich-china/vertraege/
                                                                                                                                                                        3. https://www.bundespraesident.at/aktuelles/detail/gemeinsame-erklaerung-zur-errichtung-einer-freundschaftlichen-strategischen-partnerschaft-zwischen-der-volksrepublik-china-und-der-republik-oesterreich

                                                                                                                                                                          Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Alfred Gerstl

                                                                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                                                                          2.
                                                                                                                                                                          Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                          In my country, law enforcement authorities have signed cooperation agreements with the PRC on combatting terrorism.

                                                                                                                                                                          No

                                                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                          1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                          55 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                          4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                          26 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                          81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                          While during the state visit of the Austrian Federal President, Alexander Van der Bellen, and the then Federal Chancellor, Sebastian Kurz, both countries stated that they are committed to combatting terrorism, no cooperation agreement has been signed.

                                                                                                                                                                          1. https://www.bundespraesident.at/aktuelles/detail/gemeinsame-erklaerung-zur-errichtung-einer-freundschaftlichen-strategischen-partnerschaft-zwischen-der-volksrepublik-china-und-der-republik-oesterreich

                                                                                                                                                                            Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Alfred Gerstl

                                                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                                                            3.
                                                                                                                                                                            Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                            In my country, PRC-connected gangs (such as Triad, 三合会) are known to be operating in my country.

                                                                                                                                                                            Yes

                                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                            1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                            52 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                            29 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                            81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                            A report by the European parliament published in 2011 affirms that one of the leading traids, Sun Yee On, is active in Austria. More recently, the Austrian police carried out operations, notably with the assistance of Chinese police forces, against Chinese human trafficking rings.

                                                                                                                                                                            1. https://www.europarl.europa.eu/RegData/etudes/note/join/2011/453191/IPOL-LIBE_NT(2011)453191_DE.pdf
                                                                                                                                                                            2. https://www.derstandard.at/story/2000111187879/unter-dem-radar-wiens-chinesische-community-abseits-der-teigtascherlmafia
                                                                                                                                                                            3. https://kurier.at/chronik/oesterreich/chinesen-uebernehmen-das-rotlicht/266.547.394

                                                                                                                                                                              Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Alfred Gerstl

                                                                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                                                                              4.
                                                                                                                                                                              Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                              In my country, there are reports of economic espionage targeting the private sector that were suspected to benefit PRC-connected entities.

                                                                                                                                                                              Yes

                                                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 2 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                              2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                              49 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                              7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                              3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                              3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                              12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                              9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                              80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                              In 2011 a software for wind turbines developed by AMSC Austria GmbH, subsidiary of American Superconductor (AMSC), was stolen by China’s Sinovel Wind Group. Sinovel was later sentenced for theft of trade secrets in 2018. This case was notably mention in the Commission Staff Working Document accompanying the EU Directive on the protection of undisclosed know-how and business information (trade secrets) against their unlawful acquisition, use and disclosure. Hence, it appears that the AMSC-Sinovel case had a significant policy impact.

                                                                                                                                                                              1. https://www.europarl.europa.eu/doceo/document/E-7-2012-003049_EN.html
                                                                                                                                                                              2. https://www.eco-business.com/news/china-corporate-espionage-boom-knocks-wind-out-of-us-companies/
                                                                                                                                                                              3. https://www.justice.gov/opa/pr/court-imposes-maximum-fine-sinovel-wind-group-theft-trade-secrets
                                                                                                                                                                              4. https://www.parlament.gv.at/PAKT/EU/XXV/EU/00/42/EU_04206/imfname_10425037.pdf

                                                                                                                                                                                Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Alfred Gerstl

                                                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                5.
                                                                                                                                                                                Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                In my country, there are reports of cyber attacks targeting government, critical infrastructure, or enterprises that were suspected to be initiated from the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                                Skip

                                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                37 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                15 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                1. https://www.diepresse.com/598953/chinesen-hacken-oesterreichs-aussenministerium

                                                                                                                                                                                Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                There are no public report of such incident in recent years. Currently, Russia is the more likely source of such attacks. However, the potential source is never publicly mentioned. Earlier in 2010 the Austrian MFA reported a cyberattack, which it suspected to have come from China.

                                                                                                                                                                                  Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Alfred Gerstl

                                                                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                  6.
                                                                                                                                                                                  Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                  In my country, triads are known to have threatened or used violence to coerce, intimidate or punish Chinese dissidents.

                                                                                                                                                                                  No

                                                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                  2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                  67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                  5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                  3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                  3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                  2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                  80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                  There has up until now been no public report of such a incidents in Austria.

                                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Alfred Gerstl

                                                                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                      7.
                                                                                                                                                                                      Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                      My country has deployed video or internet surveillance systems from the PRC for law enforcement.

                                                                                                                                                                                      No

                                                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                      1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                      30 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                      51 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                      81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                      There has up until now been no public report of such a phenomenon in Austria.

                                                                                                                                                                                          Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Alfred Gerstl

                                                                                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                          8.
                                                                                                                                                                                          Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                          In my country, representatives of the PRC police force have had joint patrols with local law enforcement.

                                                                                                                                                                                          No

                                                                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                          71 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                          4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                          11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                          82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                          There has up until now been no public report of such a phenomenon in Austria.

                                                                                                                                                                                              Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Alfred Gerstl

                                                                                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                              9.
                                                                                                                                                                                              Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                              My government has detained people at the request of the PRC for committing a crime involving engagements with social movements or resistance activities in Hong Kong, Xinjiang or for other human rights or civic rights issues.

                                                                                                                                                                                              No

                                                                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                              1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                              68 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                              4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                              13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                              81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                              There has up until now been no public report of such incidents in Austria.

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Alfred Gerstl

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                  10.
                                                                                                                                                                                                  Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                  My country has deported Taiwan citizens to the PRC to face prosecution.

                                                                                                                                                                                                  No

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                  2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                  71 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                  4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                  9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                  80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                  There has up until now been no public report of such incidents in Austria.

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Alfred Gerstl

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                      11.
                                                                                                                                                                                                      Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                      My country has extradited or has deported individuals to the PRC, although such decisions had attracted criticisms from politicians, government employees or from local or foreign NGOs.

                                                                                                                                                                                                      No

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                      61 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                      21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                      82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                      There has up until now been no public report of such incidents in Austria.

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Alfred Gerstl

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Hide

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Technology

                                                                                                                                                                                                          The Technology Domain gauges the PRC’s influence over the technology sector in the Index country, including the activity and financial leverage of PRC companies, use of PRC hardware, and bilateral research partnerships.

                                                                                                                                                                                                          1.
                                                                                                                                                                                                          Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                          In my country, PRC-connected entities (such as China Mobile, China Unicom or China Telecom) or their subsidiaries provide telecom services.

                                                                                                                                                                                                          No

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                          52 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                          4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                          30 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                          82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                          There is at this point no evidence available in this regard. However, it should be mentioned that China Unicom (Europe) established a branch in Austria in 2021.

                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/china-unicom-europe-registered-new-branch-austria-/

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Alfred Gerstl

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                            2.
                                                                                                                                                                                                            Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                            In my country, telecoms have signed agreements to adopt hardwares or technical specifications of 4G or 5G cellular networks that are produced or developed by Huawei, ZTE or other PRC enterprises.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                            16 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                            1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                            5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                            4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                            3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                            27 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                            4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                            30 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                            82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Two out of Austria’s three main network providers have partnered with Chinese companies. First, Hutchison Drei, which is owned by Hong Kong group CK Hutchison, has partnered with ZTE. Secondly, Magenta, which is owned by Deutsche Telekom, has partnered with Huawei. Both of these partnerships also encompasses the 5G roll out.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. https://www.derstandard.de/story/2000121119274/magenta-chef-bierwirthwir-brauchen-huawei
                                                                                                                                                                                                            2. https://www.ots.at/presseaussendung/OTS_20180718_OTS0029/zte-austria-partnerschaft-mit-hutchison-drei-in-richtung-oesterreichische-5g-vorreiterschaft

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Alfred Gerstl

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                              3.
                                                                                                                                                                                                              Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                              In my country, telecoms have adopted hardware or technical specifications by PRC-connected entities in internet/wifi/telecommunication service infrastructure projects, in addition to 4G/5G cellular network.

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Skip

                                                                                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                              8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                              14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                              10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                              3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                              3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                              24 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                              23 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                              74 countries answered this indicator; 8 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Not possible to verify.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Alfred Gerstl

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  4.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  In my country, PRC-connected entities are authorized vendors to supply tech-related equipment or services to our government, military or security services.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  28 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  53 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    No evidence to suggest otherwise.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Alfred Gerstl

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      5.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      In my country, central or local governments have collaboration (such as data collection or exchange agreement, or adoption of related hardwares) with the PRC government or PRC-connected entities on facial, voice recognition or other applications involving biometrics achieved by AI.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      42 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      There has up until now been no public report of such phenomenon in Austria.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Alfred Gerstl

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          6.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          In my country, one or more cities have procured, or have signed contracts with PRC-connected entities to establish “smart city” systems.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          35 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          25 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          The state of Carinthia has in the context with its partnership with ZTE installed smart lighting devices in the commune of Pörtschach am Wörthersee.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. https://www.ots.at/presseaussendung/OTS_20181031_OTS0017/zte-austria-und-land-kaernten-vertiefen-partnerschaft-im-bereich-5g

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Alfred Gerstl

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            7.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            In my country, financial institutions use the China Cross-Border Interbank Payment System (CIPS) clearing and settlement services system.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            63 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            18 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            There has up until now been no public report of such phenomenon in Austria.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Alfred Gerstl

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                8.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                In my country, PRC-connected venture capital invests in technology start-ups.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                32 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                18 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Upon research only one investment by a Chinese venture fund in an Austrian start-up has been identified: in 2020 the Austrian medtech Medicus AI received an EUR 1.2 million investment from the Chinese venture capital firm Sunhope Capital VC.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. https://investinaustria.at/en/news/2020/01/medicus-ai-million-investment-chinese-vc.php

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Alfred Gerstl

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  9.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  In my country, companies have publicly announced that they had signed MOUs to collaborate on technological development (such as collaborations in A.I., Blockchain, Cloud Computing, Big Data) with PRC-connected entities.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  31 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  There is no evidence to suggest otherwise

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Alfred Gerstl

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      10.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      In my country, PRC-connected entities are shareholders or developers of the top five popular social media/messaging apps, based on usage.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      44 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      36 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      A study by the Mobile Marketing Association lists the following apps as the five most used social media apps in 2020: 1. Whatsapp 2. Facebook 3. Instagram 4. Snapchat 5. Tik Tok Out of those only TikTok is owned by a Chinese company (Bytedance).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. https://www.mmaaustria.at/single-post/mobile-communications-report-2020

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Alfred Gerstl

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        11.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        In my country, the central or local government(s) has collaborated with the PRC on endorsing the use of BeiDou satellite navigation system.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        64 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        17 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        There has up until now been no public report of such phenomenon in Austria.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Alfred Gerstl

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Hide

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Domestic Politics

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            The Domestic Politics Domain evaluates PRC efforts to influence the political landscape in the Index country, and the footprint of PRC security companies.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            In my country, politicians or government employees at the sub-national level are signing agreements with the PRC government or state-owned enterprises.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            20 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            23 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Several local politicians signed agreements with the PRC. For instance, Styria notably signed a Memorandum with Jiangsu in 2011 and with Shanghai in 2017. Similarly, Lower Austria signed a MoU with Zhejiang in 2019. However, the agreements in themselves seem to have not had a significant impact on bilateral relations nor do they appear to lend PRC governments or state-owned enterprises a significant of influence in China. On the other hand, the government of Carinthia entered in 2016 a digital partnership with ZTE. The following years saw the implementation of several projects, notably installation of smart lighting in Pörtschach am Wörthersee, as well as more recently in 2019 the roll out of 5G technology. In contrast to the agreements between sub-national governments, this agreement between Carinthia and ZTE appears to have made a significant impact.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. https://www.europa.steiermark.at/cms/ziel/162077018/DE/
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2. https://www.noen.at/niederoesterreich/wirtschaft/noe-wirtschaft-will-in-china-staerker-werden-niederoesterreich-wirtschaft-china-144698964
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            3. https://www.tourismuspresse.at/presseaussendung/TPT_20190813_TPT0009/drei-zte-und-land-kaernten-starten-mit-dem-5g-echtbetrieb-in-der-digitalen-vorzeigeregion-woerthersee

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Alfred Gerstl

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              In my country, local municipalities have sister-city ties (友好城市) with municipalities in the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 2 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              23 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              This is a quite common phenomenon (for an official list see link below). However, the significance of these in terms of impact and influence for PRC entities appears to be limited.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. https://www.bmeia.gv.at/oeb-peking/bilaterale-beziehungen/oesterreich-china/partnerschaften-freundschaftsvertraege/

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Alfred Gerstl

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                3.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                In my country, politicians or government employees have taken trips to the PRC paid for by PRC-connected individuals or entities.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                22 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                16 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                16 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                73 countries answered this indicator; 9 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Representatives of several Austrian states have taken trips to the PRC in recent years, notably from Styria to Shanghai and Foshan (Guangdong) in 2017, from Burgenland to Shanghai and Hunan in 2018, from Upper-Austria to Shandong in 2019, as well as from Lower-Austria to Zhejiang and Shanghai in 2019. However, these there are no indications that these trips have been paid for by PRC entities.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. https://www.heute.at/s/mikl-leitner-mit-delegation-aus-no-auf-china-besuch-55146548
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2. https://www.tips.at/nachrichten/linz/wirtschaft-politik/484431-land-ooe-sucht-neue-chancen-in-china
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                3. https://www.kommunikation.steiermark.at/cms/beitrag/12577138/29767960/
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                4. https://burgenland.orf.at/v2/news/stories/2917845/

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Alfred Gerstl

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  4.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  In my country, politicians or government employees visit the PRC and have meetings with PRC officials and think tanks.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  25 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  32 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  There has been several official Austrian delegations visiting the PRC in recent years (see. notably Question 3). These official visits, as well as associated meetings have substantially shaped the bilateral relation between both countries both on a national and subnational level, as well as in different policy fields. For instance, the official visit to Shanghai and Zhejiang by the governor of Lower-Austria in 2019 witnessed the signing of an MoU between the University for Continuing Education Krems (Donau-Universität Krems) and East China Normal University.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. https://www.ecoplus.at/newsroom/wirtschaftsdelegation-nach-china

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Alfred Gerstl

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    5.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    In my country, law enforcement and judicial related training offered the PRC-connected individuals or entities has been accepted by national or subnational governments.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    46 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    16 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      There are no indication of such a phenomenon in Austria.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Alfred Gerstl

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        6.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        In my country, there are reports of politicians or political parties receiving campaign donations that originate in the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        60 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        0 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        78 countries answered this indicator; 4 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          There has up until now been no public report of such phenomenon in Austria.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Alfred Gerstl

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            7.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            In my country, groups with reported links to the United Front Work Department (UFWD) have hosted fundraisings or have provided other forms of support for government employees, politicians or parties.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            64 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            During the Austrian presidential election in 2016, an election event for the Chinese diaspora was held for the candidate of the socialist party (SPÖ) and then Federal minister of social affairs, Rudolf Hundstorfer. This event featured a speech by the president of the ‘Society for the Promotion of Peaceful National Reunification in Austria’ Yao Longwei (see. Society Question 3). Arguably, more than indicating an influence over Austrian politics, this rather speaks to the influence of the Society for the Promotion of Peaceful National Reunification within Austria in the Austrian diaspora community.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. http://www.zhongguotongcuhui.org.cn/hnwtchdt/201604/t20160414_11433810.html

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Alfred Gerstl

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              8.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              In my country, groups with reported links to the United Front Work Department (UFWD) have made public statements opposing the candidacy of a local political candidate or party, claiming them being “anti-China”.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              78 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              0 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              0 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                No such instance has up until now been identified.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Alfred Gerstl

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  9.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  In my country, politicians or government employees have publicly expressed positive views of the PRC government.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  37 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  With Austrian politicians taking a rather cautious stance towards bilateral relation with China, while still seeking to deepen economic relations, relatively positive comments concerning the PRC have been the norm rather than the exception.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. https://www.parlament.gv.at/PAKT/PR/JAHR_2021/PK1344/index.shtml

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Alfred Gerstl

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    10.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    In my country, politicians or government employees have received direct or deferred benefits from PRC-connected individuals or entities openly or covertly (e.g. have been appointed to lucrative positions as board members or consultants with PRC-invested firms, casinos, energy companies, etc.) during or in retirement from public office.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    40 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    0 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    18 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    73 countries answered this indicator; 9 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    The former Austrian Chancellor Werner Faymann (Chancellor from 2008 to 2016, SPÖ) has joined Tojoy Group (天九共享控股集团有限公司) in 2019 as a co-chairman of the board of directors. This position seems, however, not be his main occupation (see Article by Kurier below). Moreover, having notably invited the Dalai Lama in 2012 to Vienna – a visit, which led to a significant cooling down of bilateral relations- Faymann was not particularly know for his friendly position towards the PRC. Similarly, the former Austrian Chancellor Christian Kern (Chancellor from 2016 to 2017, SPÖ) was in 2019 selected as the president of the European China Business Council, which was created by China Europe Association for Technology and Economic Cooperation (registered under the PRC’s Ministry of Civil Affairs). This, however, does not represent Kern's current main professional occupation.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. https://www.ots.at/presseaussendung/OTS_20190809_OTS0094/fruehere-staatsoberhaeupter-schliessen-sich-tojoy-als-eu-executives-an
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2. https://cn.tojoy.com/e/core-team/chairman/c/zhuxifengcai
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    3. https://kurier.at/politik/inland/faymann-hilft-unternehmen-bei-expansion-nach-china/400573229
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    4. https://www.diepresse.com/761101/faymann-trifft-dalai-lama-heftiger-protest-aus-china
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    5. https://kurier.at/politik/inland/ex-kanzler-kern-nun-europa-praesident-von-china-unternehmerverein/400611611

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Alfred Gerstl

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      11.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      In my country, security services (安保/保安) offered by private PRC companies are contracted by national or subnational governments.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        There are no indication for such a phenomenon in Austria.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Alfred Gerstl

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Hide

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Foreign Policy

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          The Foreign Policy Domain gauges PRC efforts to achieve diplomatic objectives by influencing key actors in the Index country.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          My country’s legislature has a joint parliamentary friendship group, committee or other forms of sub-organizations with PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          25 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          57 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Parliamentary friendship groups are very common in Austrial The Austrian parliament has an Austrian-China parliamentarian group. This group, however, includes both China ‘friendly’ and more critical AUSTRIAN parliamentarians, not Chinese ones. Moreover, the group does seem to play a major role in shaping bilateral relations.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. https://www.parlament.gv.at/PERK/PI/BIPARLG/ParlG_C_G.shtml#ParlG_China
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2. https://www.mfa.gov.cn/ce/ceat//det/xwdt/t1571073.htm

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Alfred Gerstl

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Representatives of a political party in my country’s national legislature have met officially with representatives of the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            20 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            40 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            This is quite a common phenomenon. The Chinese ambassador has notably met with representatives of most Austrian political parties, especially Austria’s traditional government parties Social Democratic Party of Austria (SPÖ) and Austrian People's Party (ÖVP). However, it seems that rather than targeting specific parties, Chinese representatives have sought to meet political parties currently in power. Indeed, during the coalition government between the Austrian People's Party (ÖVP) and the far-right Freedom Party of Austria (FPÖ) between 2017 and 2019, PRC representatives have increasingly met with representatives of the FPÖ.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. http://at.china-embassy.gov.cn/det/news/201903/t20190328_2145727.htm
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2. https://www.mfa.gov.cn/ce/ceat/det/xwdt/t1649044.htm

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Alfred Gerstl

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              3.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              The PRC provides training to diplomats or civil servants on governance from my country (such as at 国家行政学院 or 中央党校).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              39 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                There has up until now been no public report of such phenomenon in Austria.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Alfred Gerstl

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  4.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  In my country, politicians or government employees have been pressured by PRC diplomats to change their political or diplomatic stances.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  41 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  According to Austrian and Taiwanese diplomats, Chinese diplomats in Austria closely monitor the contacts between Austrian and Taiwanese diplomats or civil servants. They criticize these contacts if they are in their view too close.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Alfred Gerstl

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      5.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Citizens of my country have been detained in PRC or denied exit visas, and believed to be suffering from unfair legal treatments for political reasons, a.k.a. “hostage diplomacy”.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      61 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        There has up until now been no public report of such incident in Austria.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Alfred Gerstl

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          6.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          The head of state, head of government or foreign minister of my country has denied Taiwan’s right to participate as a member, observer or guest in WHO.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          65 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            There has up until now been no public report in that regard.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Alfred Gerstl

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              7.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              My country publicly supported the appointment of a PRC official to be the head of a United Nations agency (such as the FAO or ICAO) or other intergovernmental organizations (such as INTERPOL).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              62 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              73 countries answered this indicator; 9 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              There has up until now been no public report of such instance in Austria. Austria votes usually as part of the EU bloc.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Alfred Gerstl

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  8.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  My government has shown support of PRC's territorial claims (such as on the South China Sea arbitration ruling issued by the UNCLOS Arbitral Tribunal in July 2016; except claims over Taiwan, which are indirectly covered in indicator 6.)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Silence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  0/ My country has rejected PRC’s claim

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  24 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2/ My country has remained silent

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  36 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  4/ My country has adhered to PRC’s claim

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  The Austrian government has not published any statement on that issue recently. But it supports the more critical EU view.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Alfred Gerstl

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      9.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      My country has shown one of the following stances on PRC’s treatment of its Uyghur population.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Oppose

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      0/ My country has denounced PRC

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      31 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2/ My country has remained silent

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      32 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      4/ My country has voiced support to PRC’s stance

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      17 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Austria has signed several joint statements expressing concern on the human rights situation in Xinjiang. However, it should be noted that on a bilateral level this issue has not gained significant attention.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. https://www.hrw.org/sites/default/files/supporting_resources/190708_joint_statement_xinjiang.pdf
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2. https://new-york-un.diplo.de/un-en/news-corner/201006-heusgen-china/2402648
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      3. https://www.government.nl/documents/diplomatic-statements/2022/06/14/joint-statement-47-countries-un-human-rights-council-situation-china

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Alfred Gerstl

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        10.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        My country has shown one of the following stances on PRC’s treatment of its Tibet population.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Silence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        0/ My country has denounced PRC

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2/ My country has remained silent

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        46 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        4/ My country has voiced support to PRC’s stance

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        The Austrian government has not published any statement on that issue recently. The Austrian government has not issued a separate or specific statement criticizing the human rights situation in Xinjiang and Tibet. Austrian members of the European Parliament were critical of China's human rights record, but we did not find public statements of the Austrian government.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Alfred Gerstl

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            11.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            My government has not publicly criticized the PRC’s imposition of the National Security Law on Hong Kong.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Oppose

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            0/ My country has denounced PRC

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            24 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2/ My country has remained silent

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            36 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            4/ My country has voiced support to PRC’s stance

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Austria signed a joint statement expressing concern on the “recent developments in Hong Kong” in 2020. This statement notably also expresses concern on National Security Law. However, as in the context of Xinjiang (see. Question 9), this issue has not gained significant attention on a bilateral level.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. https://new-york-un.diplo.de/un-en/news-corner/201006-heusgen-china/2402648

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Alfred Gerstl

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Hide
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