Argentina

$10,729.2
45.8M
Ranking
35/ 82
Original Score

* As some Indicators can be skipped where data is unavailable, the maximum overall and Domain scores are not identical for each country. Country rankings are generated from ratios of the maximum scores and the achieved scores.

137/ 392
Executive partner
Data Privacy Brazil
Index Year
2021
Layer Scores

The Indicators have been classified by the stage of the influence process at which they occur. Some Indicators correspond to exposure to PRC influence, e.g. the presence of Confucius Institutes. Others test for pressure – such as visa denials to academics or journalists. Finally, some Indicators capture the effect of PRC influence, such as national policy changes in favor of PRC interests.
The individual Layer scores for each country are tallied and displayed via rankings.

Exposure

48%

Exposure assesses the conditions that make the target country vulnerable to PRC's influence, e.g. in terms of economic dependence, or the receiving of some form of benefit.

Pressure

10%

Pressure measures the actions that the PRC directly or indirectly exerts over the target country in order to change the behavior of people in the target country, e.g. in terms of threatening economic punishment to provoke/prevent a political decision.

Effect

19%

Effect evaluates the degree of accommodations the target country makes to the PRC, and the actual effects and impacts on the target country.

In 2021, Argentina had a GDP per capita of US$10,729 and a total population of 45.80 million people, with the Chinese population comprising 14,649 people, or 0.032% of the total population.

Argentina established diplomatic relations with the People's Republic of China in 1972. Argentina was ranked 29th in Reporters Without Borders’ 2022 World Press Freedom Index, and Free in Freedom House’s 2022 Global Freedom Status, with a score of 84/100.

Domain Scores
Country Percentage
Index Average

Percentage scores do not suggest some degree out of a “completely influenced” level of 100%. The percentages express the country’s score out of the total achievable amount based on the Indicators for each Domain.

  • Media
    31.8% / 30.1%
  • Academia
    34.1% / 34%
  • Economy
    27.3% / 33.6%
  • Society
    18.2% / 23.6%
  • Military
    18.2% / 23.4%
  • Law Enforcement
    36.4% / 30.2%
  • Technology
    65.0% / 40.8%
  • Domestic Politics
    50.0% / 37.2%
  • Foreign Policy
    36.4% / 41%

Media

The Media Domain evaluates how PRC entities influence public debate and media coverage about the PRC in the Index country.

1.
Exposure

In my country, there are media organizations that belong to the World Chinese Media (世界华文媒体) network.

No

Answer ( 0 / 4 )

More

Skipped

2 countries chose this answer

0/ No

42 countries chose this answer

1/ Few, but insignificant

19 countries chose this answer

2/ More than a few, but insignificant

4 countries chose this answer

3/ Few, but significant

13 countries chose this answer

4/ More than a few, and significant

2 countries chose this answer

80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

Supporting Evidence

Not Found

  1. https://worldchinesemedia.com/?s=argentina

Supplementary Notes

According to the Associations websites there are no Argentinian media organizations linked to the world Chinese Media Network.

    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

    Hide
    2.
    Exposure

    In my country, there are journalists or media organizations which are members of the Belt and Road Media Cooperation Alliance/Union, the Belt and Road News Alliance, or other Belt and Road media networks that connected to PRC (e.g. Belt and Road Media Community, Belt and Road Journalists Network, Belt and Road News Network, or B&R TV Networks).

    Yes

    Answer ( 3 / 4 )

    More

    Skipped

    1 countries chose this answer

    0/ No

    39 countries chose this answer

    1/ Few, but insignificant

    23 countries chose this answer

    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

    4 countries chose this answer

    3/ Few, but significant

    14 countries chose this answer

    4/ More than a few, and significant

    1 countries chose this answer

    81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

    Supporting Evidence

    Lidia Fagale, Secretary General of UTPBA was elected President of the Belt and road journalist forum in 2019.

    1. http://brmc.chnpec.com/en/member.shtml
    2. https://chinaenamericalatina.com/2019/10/02/china-la-utpba-preside-la-nueva-organizacion-internacional/

      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

      Hide
      3.
      Exposure

      In my country, there are journalists, media organizations or online influencers who have attended all-expenses paid media tours in PRC.

      Yes

      Answer ( 3 / 4 )

      More

      Skipped

      11 countries chose this answer

      0/ No

      15 countries chose this answer

      1/ Few, but insignificant

      15 countries chose this answer

      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

      5 countries chose this answer

      3/ Few, but significant

      23 countries chose this answer

      4/ More than a few, and significant

      13 countries chose this answer

      71 countries answered this indicator; 11 countries skipped this indicator

      Supporting Evidence

      Nestor Restivo, a very recognized and influential journalist and specialist in Chinese studies, received one of this grants.

      1. http://www.chinaja.org.cn/2019-06/17/c_138149295_2.htm
      2. https://dangdai.com.ar/2012/08/22/los-ganadores-del-concurso-de-radio-china-internacional-viajaran-a-china/

        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

        Hide
        4.
        Exposure

        In my country, there are journalists, media organizations or online influencers who have received trainings from PRC state-owned media or PRC-connected entities.

        Yes

        Answer ( 1 / 4 )

        More

        Skipped

        3 countries chose this answer

        0/ No

        37 countries chose this answer

        1/ Few, but insignificant

        16 countries chose this answer

        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

        2 countries chose this answer

        3/ Few, but significant

        14 countries chose this answer

        4/ More than a few, and significant

        10 countries chose this answer

        79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

        Supporting Evidence

        Interview (April 28, 2021) with journalist who participated in a chinese programme in 2018, sponsored and paid for by the PRC. The interviewee preferred to remain anonymous due to work conditions. He is a journalist from Diario Perfil, recipient of a training program with all expenses paid for by the PRC.

        1. http://spanish.chinatoday.com.cn/2018/sh/202007/t20200717_800214447.html

          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

          Hide
          5.
          Exposure

          In my country, PRC state-media (including print, radio, and video) is broadcasted or distributed in a local language.

          Yes

          Answer ( 3 / 4 )

          More

          Skipped

          1 countries chose this answer

          0/ No

          24 countries chose this answer

          1/ Few, but insignificant

          22 countries chose this answer

          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

          7 countries chose this answer

          3/ Few, but significant

          18 countries chose this answer

          4/ More than a few, and significant

          10 countries chose this answer

          81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

          Supporting Evidence

          In reference 1, Article 5 states that CCTV will receive assitance from Argentina to broadcast its content in Spanish in the local media.

          1. http://www.melectrico.com.ar/web/pdfs/bilpai10800-TV-COMUNICACI%C3%93N.pdf
          2. https://www.tvpublica.com.ar/programa/sorprendente-china/

            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

            Hide
            6.
            Exposure

            In my country, there are local media outlets wholly or partly owned by PRC citizens or corporations.

            No

            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

            More

            Skipped

            2 countries chose this answer

            0/ No

            44 countries chose this answer

            1/ Few, but insignificant

            19 countries chose this answer

            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

            3 countries chose this answer

            3/ Few, but significant

            14 countries chose this answer

            4/ More than a few, and significant

            0 countries chose this answer

            80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

            Supporting Evidence

            Not Found

            1. http://www.protectora.org.ar/publicidad/%C2%BFquienes-son-los-duenos-de-los-medios-de-comunicacion-en-argentina-%C2%BFque-medios-agrupan-y-que-relaciones-tienen-entre-si-ademas-%C2%BFcuales-son-las-propuestas-para-una-nueva-ley-de-comu/791/
            2. http://argentina.mom-rsf.org/es/propietarios/

            Supplementary Notes

            Protectora is an Argentinian Association for the defense of consumers rights.

              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

              Hide
              7.
              Exposure

              In my country, there are media outlets that have delivered cheap or free contents provided by PRC state-fund media.

              Yes

              Answer ( 3 / 4 )

              More

              Skipped

              3 countries chose this answer

              0/ No

              22 countries chose this answer

              1/ Few, but insignificant

              21 countries chose this answer

              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

              6 countries chose this answer

              3/ Few, but significant

              23 countries chose this answer

              4/ More than a few, and significant

              7 countries chose this answer

              79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

              Supporting Evidence

              The Xinhua agency launched a supplement in an Argentine newspaper to deepen knowledge about China (reference 1). China Daily launches its Spanish supplement in Argentina (reference 2).

              1. https://www.telam.com.ar/notas/201503/99468-agencia-xinhua-suplemento-diario-tiempo-argentino.html
              2. http://espanol.cctv.com/2016/05/11/VIDEx4kZ37ziAIAbQu9vvlSf160511.shtml

              Supplementary Notes

              Tiempo Argentino and El Cronista are relevant newspaper with national scope in Argentina

                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                Hide
                8.
                Exposure

                In my country, there are regular PRC state-media or government advertisements inserted within local newspapers, online news websites or social media.

                Yes

                Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                More

                Skipped

                1 countries chose this answer

                0/ No

                38 countries chose this answer

                1/ Few, but insignificant

                13 countries chose this answer

                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                7 countries chose this answer

                3/ Few, but significant

                15 countries chose this answer

                4/ More than a few, and significant

                8 countries chose this answer

                81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                Supporting Evidence

                China Daily launches its Spanish supplement in Argentina (reference 1). In footnote °40 in the book written by J.P. Cardenal (Link) sustain: "China Watch was published for the first time on March 15, 2016 and the campaign continued to mid 2017, at the time of writing of this report. The payment insert appears every fifth day in the economic journal El Cronista, the newspaper La Capital de Rosario, and in the three regional editions of Diario Uno in the provinces of Mendoza, Santa Fe and Entre Ríos". Cardenal, JP (2018), The «incisive power» of China in Latin America and the Argentine case, Buenos Aires: Cadal. Link

                1. http://espanol.cctv.com/2016/05/11/VIDEx4kZ37ziAIAbQu9vvlSf160511.shtml
                2. https://www.cadal.org/libros/pdf/El_Poder_Incisivo_de_China.pdf

                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                  Hide
                  9.
                  Pressure

                  In my country, there are journalists who have had pressure exerted on them by the PRC, including (but not limited to) public denouncement, revocation of journalist ID, denial of visa.

                  No

                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                  More

                  Skipped

                  1 countries chose this answer

                  0/ No

                  57 countries chose this answer

                  4/ Yes

                  24 countries chose this answer

                  81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                  Supporting Evidence

                  Not Found

                    Supplementary Notes

                    There are no reported cases of journalists who had pressure exerted on them by the PRC, such as public denouncement, revocation of journalist ID and denial of visa.

                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                      Hide
                      10.
                      Effect

                      In my country, there are incidents of media outlets censoring views critical of the PRC government.

                      No

                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                      More

                      Skipped

                      4 countries chose this answer

                      0/ No

                      51 countries chose this answer

                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                      11 countries chose this answer

                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                      3 countries chose this answer

                      3/ Few, but significant

                      9 countries chose this answer

                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                      4 countries chose this answer

                      78 countries answered this indicator; 4 countries skipped this indicator

                      Supporting Evidence

                      Interview (April 28, 2021) with journalist who participated in a Chinese programme in 2018, sponsored and paid for by the PRC. The interviewee confirmed that there has been no incidents related to media outlets censoring critics to the PRC. Actually, he stated that there is a wide range of critical views in local media, but the PRC representatives in Argentina have not showed reaction to these views.

                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                          Hide
                          11.
                          Effect

                          In my country, there are media personalities (including reporters, journalists or commentators) or celebrities who deny the existence of human rights abuses in the PRC (e.g. a media personality that doubts there are re-education camps for Uyghurs in Xinjiang).

                          No

                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                          More

                          Skipped

                          2 countries chose this answer

                          0/ No

                          44 countries chose this answer

                          1/ Few, but insignificant

                          18 countries chose this answer

                          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                          4 countries chose this answer

                          3/ Few, but significant

                          9 countries chose this answer

                          4/ More than a few, and significant

                          5 countries chose this answer

                          80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                          Supporting Evidence

                          The massacre of the Uyghurs: why China is ethnically cleansing the Muslim minority (reference 1). China's concentration camps (reference 2). There are reports and editorial articles in local newspapers mentioning human rights violations in the PRC, but they are not continuous or periodical.

                          1. https://www.infobae.com/america/mundo/2021/03/27/la-masacre-de-los-uigures-por-que-china-esta-haciendo-una-limpieza-etnica-de-la-minoria-musulmana/
                          2. https://www.infobae.com/america/mundo/2018/09/29/los-campos-de-concentracion-de-china/

                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                            Hide

                            Academia

                            The Academia Domain measures how the PRC state attempts to restrict academic freedom by influencing or interfering with the Index country’s academic and educational activities.

                            1.
                            Exposure

                            In my country, universities have established research partnerships with PRC-connected entities. (e.g. Huawei, Tencent or Alibaba)

                            Yes

                            Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                            More

                            0/ No

                            9 countries chose this answer

                            1/ Few, but insignificant

                            11 countries chose this answer

                            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                            6 countries chose this answer

                            3/ Few, but significant

                            31 countries chose this answer

                            4/ More than a few, and significant

                            25 countries chose this answer

                            82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                            Supporting Evidence

                            Specific Agreement. Cooperation between Huawei Tech Investment Co Ltd and the Faculty of Engineering of the University of Buenos Aires (reference 1). The UNLP signed an agreement with the Chinese company Huawei (reference 2). The University of La Rioja in Argentina is already a Huawei Academy (reference 3). It is significant considering the agreements with three well renowned national universities. Particularly, the University of Buenos Aires is among the biggest and most recognised institutions in Latin America.

                            1. https://1dc85a5a-66e5-428b-bcba-1cc407d33aad.filesusr.com/ugd/ba0473_b2f0b0e40ae24950bc05fa88a1b4df55.pdf
                            2. https://unlp.edu.ar/institucional/la-unlp-firmo-un-convenio-con-la-empresa-china-huawei-9792
                            3. https://forum.huawei.com/enterprise/es/la-universidad-de-la-rioja-en-argentina-ya-es-academia-huawei/thread/752813-100273

                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                              Hide
                              2.
                              Exposure

                              In my country, there are Confucius Institutes/Classrooms.

                              Yes

                              Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                              More

                              0/ No

                              5 countries chose this answer

                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                              14 countries chose this answer

                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                              5 countries chose this answer

                              3/ Few, but significant

                              31 countries chose this answer

                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                              27 countries chose this answer

                              82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                              Supporting Evidence

                              Confucius Institute University of Buenos Aires (reference 1). UNC officially inaugurated its Confucius Institute (reference 2). The references are the official websites of the National Universities where the Confucius institutes are operating.

                              1. https://www.institutoconfucio.edu.ar/
                              2. https://www.unc.edu.ar/comunicaci%C3%B3n/la-unc-inaugur%C3%B3-oficialmente-su-instituto-confucio

                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                Hide
                                3.
                                Exposure

                                My country plans to include, or does include, Chinese as a foreign language in K12 or primary education, and receives free or subsidized (e.g. offered below market price) educational books and teachers from PRC.

                                Yes

                                Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                More

                                Skipped

                                1 countries chose this answer

                                0/ No

                                46 countries chose this answer

                                4/ Yes

                                35 countries chose this answer

                                81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                Supporting Evidence

                                Argentine-Chinese bilingual school (reference 1). Mandarin Chinese in schools, General Directorate of Culture and Education, Government of the Province of Buenos Aires (reference 2). Argentine-Chinese integration has already started with education (reference 3).

                                1. https://www.buenosaires.gob.ar/sites/gcaba/files/bases-curriculares-argentino-china.pdf
                                2. http://www.abc.gov.ar/chino-mandarin-en-las-escuelas
                                3. https://www.buenosaires.gob.ar/noticias/la-ciudad-inauguro-la-primera-escuela-bilingue-argentino-china

                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                  Hide
                                  4.
                                  Exposure

                                  In my country, one or more think tanks and academic research centers belong to PRC-affiliated networks/associations (such as: the Silk Road Think Tank Association, Silk Road Think Tank Network [SiLKS], Belt and Road Studies Network, University Alliance of the Silk Road, University Consortium of the 21st Century Maritime Silk Road).

                                  Yes

                                  Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                                  More

                                  Skipped

                                  2 countries chose this answer

                                  0/ No

                                  40 countries chose this answer

                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                  17 countries chose this answer

                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                  7 countries chose this answer

                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                  14 countries chose this answer

                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                  2 countries chose this answer

                                  80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                  Supporting Evidence

                                  Members of the University Consortium of the 21st Century Maritime Silk Road (reference 1). ITBA (the prestigious Technology Institute of Buenos Aires) is a member of the University Consortium of the 21st Century Maritime Silk Road. No think tanks or Universities from Argentina belong to the University Alliance of the Silk Road (Link) according to the initiative webpage. The same in the cases of the Silk Road Think Tank Association and the Belt and Road Studies Network (Link).

                                  1. http://www.ucmsr.com/meminfo/80

                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                    Hide
                                    5.
                                    Exposure

                                    In my country, think tanks and academic research centers have received financial support from PRC-connected individuals or entities.

                                    Yes

                                    Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                                    More

                                    Skipped

                                    10 countries chose this answer

                                    0/ No

                                    21 countries chose this answer

                                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                                    11 countries chose this answer

                                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                    11 countries chose this answer

                                    3/ Few, but significant

                                    19 countries chose this answer

                                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                                    10 countries chose this answer

                                    72 countries answered this indicator; 10 countries skipped this indicator

                                    Supporting Evidence

                                    "China's 'incisive power' in Latin America": The researchers financed by the PRC to assist to academic and official events in China are high ranking representatives of Argentinian think tanks. In page 56 of the book in Reference 3 there is also information about the PRC founding to CLEPEC members (A latin american think tank mostly based in Argentina).

                                    1. https://www.cadal.org/libros/pdf/El_Poder_Incisivo_de_China.pdf

                                    Supplementary Notes

                                    Further information can be find here: - Meeting of Think Tanks of the China-CELAC Forum: Link - Negotiations for the T-20 in Beijing and Yangling: Link

                                    1. http://uca.edu.ar/es/noticias/encuentro-de-think-tanks-del-foro-china-celac
                                    2. https://dangdai.com.ar/2018/11/07/gestiones-por-el-t-20-en-beijing-y-yangling/

                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                    Hide
                                    6.
                                    Exposure

                                    In my country, experts participate in PRC talent recruitment programs such as the Thousand Talents Program or Changjiang Scholars program.

                                    No

                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                    More

                                    Skipped

                                    3 countries chose this answer

                                    0/ No

                                    47 countries chose this answer

                                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                                    11 countries chose this answer

                                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                    6 countries chose this answer

                                    3/ Few, but significant

                                    10 countries chose this answer

                                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                                    5 countries chose this answer

                                    79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                                    Supporting Evidence

                                    Hunting the Phoenix (reference 1). The reference shows that there are no recruiment programs based in Argentina, although there is one in Chile.

                                    1. https://www.aspi.org.au/report/hunting-phoenix

                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                      Hide
                                      7.
                                      Exposure

                                      In my country, scholars have taken trips to the PRC paid for by PRC-connected individuals or entities.

                                      Yes

                                      Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                      More

                                      Skipped

                                      13 countries chose this answer

                                      0/ No

                                      17 countries chose this answer

                                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                                      15 countries chose this answer

                                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                      11 countries chose this answer

                                      3/ Few, but significant

                                      12 countries chose this answer

                                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                                      14 countries chose this answer

                                      69 countries answered this indicator; 13 countries skipped this indicator

                                      Supporting Evidence

                                      Moneta and Pappier: Academic Trips to Beijing (Reference 1).

                                      1. https://dangdai.com.ar/2017/06/27/moneta-y-pappier-en-beijing/

                                      Supplementary Notes

                                      For further information: Argentina-China study center deepens people-to-people ties (Link)

                                      1. https://www.chinadaily.com.cn/a/201812/04/WS5c0736b9a310eff30328f252.html

                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                      Hide
                                      8.
                                      Pressure

                                      In my country, organized PRC-connected student groups, such as Chinese Students and Scholars Associations (CSSAs), are involved in attempts to censor staff or students (e.g. by harassing students protesting human rights abuses in the PRC, or formally complaining about the identification of Taiwan as a country in lecture slides).

                                      No

                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                      More

                                      Skipped

                                      1 countries chose this answer

                                      0/ No

                                      64 countries chose this answer

                                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                                      6 countries chose this answer

                                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                      3 countries chose this answer

                                      3/ Few, but significant

                                      5 countries chose this answer

                                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                                      3 countries chose this answer

                                      81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                      Supporting Evidence

                                      Not Found

                                        Supplementary Notes

                                        In Argentina there are no PRC connected student groups operating in universities or academic institutions developing any kind of public activism.

                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                          Hide
                                          9.
                                          Pressure

                                          In my country, scholars or academics have been denied visas to travel to the PRC after expressing opinions or producing scholarship that is critical of the PRC.

                                          No

                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                          More

                                          Skipped

                                          7 countries chose this answer

                                          0/ No

                                          64 countries chose this answer

                                          1/ Few, but insignificant

                                          1 countries chose this answer

                                          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                          0 countries chose this answer

                                          3/ Few, but significant

                                          6 countries chose this answer

                                          4/ More than a few, and significant

                                          4 countries chose this answer

                                          75 countries answered this indicator; 7 countries skipped this indicator

                                          Supporting Evidence

                                          Not Found

                                            Supplementary Notes

                                            There are no reports from scholars or academics on any denial of visas to travel to the PRC. There have been no news about this in the local media, and even though there are oppossing views in the academic community there is little debate about China's domestic policies.

                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                              Hide
                                              10.
                                              Effect

                                              In my country, PRC-connected entities have been involved in school or university curriculum design, such as courses about East Asian history, modern politics, etc.

                                              No

                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                              More

                                              Skipped

                                              2 countries chose this answer

                                              0/ No

                                              64 countries chose this answer

                                              4/ Yes

                                              16 countries chose this answer

                                              80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                              Supporting Evidence

                                              There are no reports on this event, and chinese programs at univiersities are still scarse in Argentina. There are starting to develop, but the programs should be approved by the National commission on Higher Education Evaluation (CONEAU).

                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                  Hide
                                                  11.
                                                  Effect

                                                  In my country, there are confirmed reports of teachers or professors avoiding the discussion of sensitive political issues (e.g. Uyghur re-education camps, Taiwan independence, Tiananmen Square Massacre).

                                                  No

                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                  More

                                                  Skipped

                                                  5 countries chose this answer

                                                  0/ No

                                                  65 countries chose this answer

                                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                  1 countries chose this answer

                                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                  1 countries chose this answer

                                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                                  6 countries chose this answer

                                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                  4 countries chose this answer

                                                  77 countries answered this indicator; 5 countries skipped this indicator

                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                  Not Found

                                                    Supplementary Notes

                                                    The discussions about the Uyghur re education camps or the Hong Kong status are not very expanded in the Argentinian academic circles. Even though there is a growing interest in China's presence and influence, most of the focus is on cultural, economic and foreign policy affairs.

                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                      Hide

                                                      Economy

                                                      The Economy Domain measures the PRC’s economic leverage in the Index country, and how this is used to influence economic policy or corporate behavior in ways that favor the PRC.

                                                      1.
                                                      Exposure

                                                      The PRC is my country's number one trading partner (for trade in goods only).

                                                      No

                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                      More

                                                      0/ No

                                                      51 countries chose this answer

                                                      4/ Yes

                                                      31 countries chose this answer

                                                      82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                      National Institute of Statistics and Censuses (reference 1). TradeMap (reference 2).

                                                      1. https://www.indec.gob.ar/indec/web/Nivel4-Tema-3-2-40
                                                      2. https://www.trademap.org/Country_SelProductCountry_TS.aspx?nvpm=3%7c032%7c%7c%7c%7cTOTAL%7c%7c%7c2%7c1%7c1%7c2%7c2%7c1%7c2%7c1%7c1%7c1

                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                        Hide
                                                        2.
                                                        Exposure

                                                        PRC-connected entities own more than 50% of my country’s sovereign debt.

                                                        No

                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                        More

                                                        Skipped

                                                        1 countries chose this answer

                                                        0/ No

                                                        77 countries chose this answer

                                                        4/ Yes

                                                        4 countries chose this answer

                                                        81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                        Not Found

                                                        1. https://www.argentina.gob.ar/economia/finanzas/presentaciongraficadeudapublica

                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                          Hide
                                                          3.
                                                          Exposure

                                                          The PRC is the top customer for my country’s extractive industries.

                                                          No

                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                          More

                                                          0/ No

                                                          62 countries chose this answer

                                                          4/ Yes

                                                          20 countries chose this answer

                                                          82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                          China was Argentina´s top destination for mineral fuels and oils up to 2017. In 2018 it became the second main destination (after the US). In 2019 and 2020, it doesn't rate as a top destination.

                                                          1. https://www.trademap.org/Product_SelCountry_TS.aspx?nvpm=3%7c032%7c%7c%7c%7cTOTAL%7c%7c%7c2%7c1%7c1%7c2%7c2%7c1%7c1%7c4%7c1%7c1

                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                            Hide
                                                            4.
                                                            Exposure

                                                            In my country, PRC-related entities own, operate or substantially control critical infrastructure (e.g. ports, power plants, digital data centers, etc) or sensitive sectors (biotech, raw materials, etc.)

                                                            Yes

                                                            Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                            More

                                                            0/ No

                                                            36 countries chose this answer

                                                            4/ Yes

                                                            46 countries chose this answer

                                                            82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                            Power china Webpage, Argentina (reference 1). X-ray of Chinese investments in Argentine energy (reference 2). Some of the sectors with Chinese investments are: mining in San Juan Province, the Solar Park in Cauchari (Jujuy Province), lithium project in Jujuy province, wind parks in Chubut Province and Miramar, 50 km of gas pipeline in Entre Ríos province and two Hydroelectric plants in Santa Cruz province.

                                                            1. https://www.powerchina.com.ar/proyectos.html
                                                            2. https://www.ambito.com/energia/china/radiografia-las-inversiones-s-argentina-n5130844

                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                              Hide
                                                              5.
                                                              Exposure

                                                              My country joined (or applied to join) the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB).

                                                              Yes

                                                              Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                              More

                                                              0/ No

                                                              27 countries chose this answer

                                                              4/ Yes

                                                              55 countries chose this answer

                                                              82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                              Not Found

                                                              1. https://www.parlamentario.com/2020/10/28/diputados-convirtio-en-ley-el-ingreso-de-argentina-al-banco-asiatico-de-inversion-en-infraestructura/

                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                Hide
                                                                6.
                                                                Exposure

                                                                In my country, major businesses are members of the Silk Road Chamber of International Commerce, or of the Belt and Road Industrial and Commercial Alliance, or of the Belt and Road General Chamber of Commerce.

                                                                No

                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                More

                                                                0/ No

                                                                41 countries chose this answer

                                                                4/ Yes

                                                                41 countries chose this answer

                                                                82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                Not Found

                                                                1. http://www.srcic.com/silk-road-members/

                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                  Hide
                                                                  7.
                                                                  Pressure

                                                                  My country has been the target of PRC economic coercion (e.g. trade or investment sanctions) that was specifically tailored at products or services that are highly dependent on the PRC market.

                                                                  Yes

                                                                  Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                  More

                                                                  0/ No

                                                                  64 countries chose this answer

                                                                  4/ Yes

                                                                  18 countries chose this answer

                                                                  82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                  The PRC sanctioned Argentine exports of soybean oil in 2010.

                                                                  1. https://www.ambito.com/portada-ingles/china-strike-backs-bans-argentine-soybean-oil-on-quality-standards-n3615976

                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                    Hide
                                                                    8.
                                                                    Pressure

                                                                    In my country, local businesses have been harassed, threatened, or boycotted, due to their activities or statements in support of causes deemed unacceptable by the PRC government (e.g. Taiwanese independence, Hong Kong democracy, Tibet or Xinjiang issues, etc).

                                                                    No

                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                    More

                                                                    Skipped

                                                                    2 countries chose this answer

                                                                    0/ No

                                                                    65 countries chose this answer

                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                    15 countries chose this answer

                                                                    80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                    In Argentina, local business do not express the views or even are much aware of the situation in Taiwan, Hong Kong, Tibet or Xinjiang.

                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                        Hide
                                                                        9.
                                                                        Effect

                                                                        My country has free-trade agreement(s) with the PRC (either bilateral or as part of regional agreement(s)) that primarily deals with trade in goods or services, including digital goods or services.

                                                                        No

                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                        More

                                                                        0/ No

                                                                        51 countries chose this answer

                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                        31 countries chose this answer

                                                                        82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                        Not Found

                                                                        1. http://www.sice.oas.org/ctyindex/arg/argagreements_s.asp

                                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                          Hide
                                                                          10.
                                                                          Effect

                                                                          In my country, central or local governments have relaxed or removed regulatory restrictions, or have established special economic zones (or free trade zones, industrial parks, etc.) to attract investments or economic participation from the PRC.

                                                                          No

                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                          More

                                                                          0/ No

                                                                          47 countries chose this answer

                                                                          4/ Yes

                                                                          35 countries chose this answer

                                                                          82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                          Not Found

                                                                          1. https://dialogochino.net/es/clima-y-energia-es/23529-china-construye-la-planta-solar-mas-grande-de-america-latina/

                                                                          Supplementary Notes

                                                                          Although they do not account as lifting or reducing restictions, there have been incentives to certain imports (e.g., for reneawable energy projects in Jujuy) in which China was a main partner and investor, and favouring Chinese participation.

                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                            Hide
                                                                            11.
                                                                            Effect

                                                                            In my country, PRC-connected entities requisitioned infrastructure or land for failure to repay debts in a timely manner.

                                                                            No

                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                            More

                                                                            Skipped

                                                                            2 countries chose this answer

                                                                            0/ No

                                                                            76 countries chose this answer

                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                            4 countries chose this answer

                                                                            80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                            Argentine crisis challenges Chinese loan repayment (reference 1). There are no reports or news on any Chinese entities having requisitioned infrastructure or land for failure, either from Argentina's national or subnational governments, to repay debts in a timely manner.

                                                                            1. https://dialogochino.net/es/clima-y-energia-es/30864-crisis-argentina-desafia-el-repago-de-los-prestamos-chinos/

                                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                              Hide

                                                                              Society

                                                                              The Society Domain measures the extent and effectiveness of the PRC’s efforts to advance its soft power in the Index country, including its influence over the actions and views of local organizations and citizens.

                                                                              1.
                                                                              Exposure

                                                                              In my country, there are local groups or organizations with words like “Promotion of Peaceful Reunification” in their name, and they regularly publicize their views on Taiwan, Hong Kong, Tibet and Xinjiang issues.

                                                                              No

                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                              More

                                                                              Skipped

                                                                              1 countries chose this answer

                                                                              0/ No

                                                                              49 countries chose this answer

                                                                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                              12 countries chose this answer

                                                                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                              7 countries chose this answer

                                                                              3/ Few, but significant

                                                                              9 countries chose this answer

                                                                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                              4 countries chose this answer

                                                                              81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                              In Argentina, issues referring to Taiwan, Hong Kong, Tibet and Xinjiang are hardly known by the local society, groups or organizations, except for specialized academic or governmental circles. That is why there are not public manifestations of support or views on these topics.

                                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                  2.
                                                                                  Exposure

                                                                                  In my country, there are members and member organizations of United World Chinese Association (世界华人协会).

                                                                                  No

                                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                  More

                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                  1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                  62 countries chose this answer

                                                                                  4/ Yes

                                                                                  19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                  81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                  Not Found

                                                                                  1. https://www.uwca-uob.net/

                                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                    3.
                                                                                    Exposure

                                                                                    In my country, labor unions cooperate on exchanges or official visits to the All-China Federation of Trade Unions (ACFTU) in the PRC.

                                                                                    No

                                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                    More

                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                    1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                    68 countries chose this answer

                                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                                    13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                    81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                    Gerardo Martínez and leaders of the CGT RA received the National Federation of Trade Unions of China - ACFTU (reference 1). There are relations between some labour unions in argentina (particularly CGT) and the ACFTU. Chinese representatives have visited the CGT, but there is no information about exchanges to visit the ACFTU in the PRC.

                                                                                    1. https://www.cgtrainternacional.com.ar/?s=noticias&nov=113

                                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                      4.
                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                      In my country, there are local reports of personnel linked to the UFWD who make appearances at Chinese diaspora community events and activities (e.g. Lunar New Year events, Dragon Boat festival tournaments, etc).

                                                                                      No

                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                      More

                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                      2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                      50 countries chose this answer

                                                                                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                      9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                      5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                      3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                      9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                      7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                      80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                      All the color of the Chinese New Year moved to Puerto Madero for a race of "dragon boats" (reference 1). The celebrations are gaining popularity in Argentina, mostly in buenos Aires, but are still very reduced to a small circle, and there have been no public reports on any participation of UFWD personnel in them.

                                                                                      1. https://www.telam.com.ar/notas/202001/427140-todo-el-color-del-ano-nuevo-chino-se-traslado-a-puerto-madero-para-una-carrera-de-botes-dragones.html

                                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                        5.
                                                                                        Exposure

                                                                                        In my country, there are PRC-connected professional associations that are closely engaged with their counterparts locally, such as All-China Journalists Association (中华全国新闻工作者协会), China Artists Association (中国艺术家协会), China Writers Association (中国作家协会) or All-China Women Federation (全国妇联).

                                                                                        No

                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                        More

                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                        2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                        33 countries chose this answer

                                                                                        1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                        25 countries chose this answer

                                                                                        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                        8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                        3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                        8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                        4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                        6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                        80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                        Official Website of the Association of Argentine Journalistic Entities (reference 1). There are no reports on close relations between these Chinese Associations with their counterparts in Argentina.

                                                                                        1. https://adepa.org.ar/?s=all+china+journalists

                                                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                          6.
                                                                                          Exposure

                                                                                          In my country, PRC-connected individuals or entities donate money or provide other types of support to religious communities and charities.

                                                                                          Yes

                                                                                          Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                          More

                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                          1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                          46 countries chose this answer

                                                                                          4/ Yes

                                                                                          35 countries chose this answer

                                                                                          81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                          The reference indicates that organizations of chinese residents in Argentina have donated money and other tyoes of support to communities in La Plata, Misiones, Chaco, Buenos Aires.

                                                                                          1. http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1870-75992016000100025

                                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                            7.
                                                                                            Exposure

                                                                                            In my country, the PRC government or PRC-connected entities distribute entertainment products (including: drama and TV shows) or related hardwares (e.g. OTT streaming players hosting PRC media channels) freely or at a cheap price.

                                                                                            No

                                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                            More

                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                            2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                            38 countries chose this answer

                                                                                            1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                            21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                            4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                            3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                            11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                            4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                            6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                            80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                            Exchange map (reference 1). Nirvana en Llamas: The Chinese series that captivated Argentina (reference 2). Although there are Chinese entertainment products being broadcasted in Argentina, they are still very few (as both references show) and there ir no clear link between the broadcaster in Argentina and the PRC government.

                                                                                            1. https://dangdai.com.ar/2020/08/03/mapa-del-intercambio/
                                                                                            2. https://lifestyle.americaeconomia.com/articulos/nirvana-en-llamas-la-serie-china-que-cautivo-argentina

                                                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                              8.
                                                                                              Effect

                                                                                              Cultural products (such as films and TV shows) produced by my country’s production studios typically portray the PRC in a positive light.

                                                                                              Yes

                                                                                              Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                              More

                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                              7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                              60 countries chose this answer

                                                                                              4/ Yes

                                                                                              15 countries chose this answer

                                                                                              75 countries answered this indicator; 7 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                              Un cuento chino (reference 1). In Argentina, cultural productions usually portray Chinese people in a positive way, although it reflects prejudices. In the movie mentioned in the reference, the character of the Chinese friend is shown in a very positive light.

                                                                                              1. http://www.elespectadorimaginario.com/pages/septiembre-2011/criticas/un-cuento-chino.php

                                                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                9.
                                                                                                Effect

                                                                                                In my country, celebrities regularly publish or share propaganda narratives from the PRC.

                                                                                                No

                                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                More

                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                0 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                Celebrities in Argentina usually do not mention China in their public interventions. Venezuela or Brazil are most commonly referred to. At some point there are criticism to certain decisiones, such as the Chinese pork investments, but there are no public propaganda sharing from celebrities.

                                                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                    10.
                                                                                                    Effect

                                                                                                    In my country, the national or local governments regularly publish or share propaganda narratives from the PRC (e.g. statements from the PRC government or embassies).

                                                                                                    No

                                                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                    2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                    54 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                    12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                    2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                    3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                    7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                    5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                    80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                    Gioja: Why China and the desire to advance in Agua Negra (reference 1). There are no regular Chinese propaganda being shared by any level of government in Argentina, but some very known politicians do publicly support come PRC political principles. The reference shows the case of a former governor of San Juan Provence (currently a national deputy).

                                                                                                    1. https://dangdai.com.ar/2020/08/18/gioja-por-que-china-y-el-deseo-de-avanzar-en-agua-negra/

                                                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                      11.
                                                                                                      Effect

                                                                                                      In my country, a majority of citizens have positive views of the PRC government.

                                                                                                      No

                                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                      7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                      50 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                                                      25 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                      75 countries answered this indicator; 7 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                      Anti-Chinese perceptions in Latin American virtual communities (reference 1).

                                                                                                      1. https://nuso.org/articulo/percepciones-antichinas-en-las-comunidades-virtuales-latinoamericanas/

                                                                                                      Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                      It is difficult to aseverate that the vast majority of Argentinians have a positive view of Chinese people. Ideas such as Chinese coming to take advantage of labor opportunities and the recent "China virus" retoric have taken a deep root in the citizens opinion over the country. But according to the refenrece quoted, a large majority of participants from Argentina (55%) agreed that it is bad that "Chinese ideas and customs are spreading" in their countrie. In contrast, the same survey also showed a generalized admiration for Chinese science and technology among a large majority in Argentina (72%) . The coexistence of attitudes of admiration and prejudice towards Chinese cultural dimensions is evident.

                                                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                                                        Hide

                                                                                                        Military

                                                                                                        The Military Domain gauges the bilateral military relationship between the PRC and the Index country, including PRC efforts to influence local military personnel.

                                                                                                        1.
                                                                                                        Exposure

                                                                                                        My country currently imports (or receives in-kind donation of) military or law-enforcement equipment or components of equipment from the PRC.

                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                        36 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                                                        46 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                        82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                        Agustín Rossi spoke with the Chinese ambassador about the possible purchase of armoured vehicles for the Argentine Army (reference 1). Argentina is not currently importing military equipment from China, but there are ongoing negotiations.

                                                                                                        1. https://www.infobae.com/politica/2021/01/18/agustin-rossi-se-reune-con-el-embajador-chino-podria-avanzar-con-la-compra-de-aviones-de-combate-y-vehiculos-blindados/

                                                                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                          2.
                                                                                                          Exposure

                                                                                                          My country currently exports military or law-enforcement equipment or components of equipment to the PRC.

                                                                                                          No

                                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                          1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                          74 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                          4/ Yes

                                                                                                          7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                          81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                          3.
                                                                                                          Exposure

                                                                                                          My country co-develops or co-produces military or law-enforcement equipment with the PRC.

                                                                                                          No

                                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                          1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                          66 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                          4/ Yes

                                                                                                          15 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                          81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                          Government deepens relationship with Xi Jinping: plans combined exercises with Chinese Armed Forces (reference 1).

                                                                                                          1. https://www.infobae.com/politica/2021/04/13/el-gobierno-profundiza-la-relacion-con-xi-jinping-planifica-ejercicios-combinados-con-las-fuerzas-armadas-de-china/

                                                                                                          Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                          Recently, some officials from the Ministry of Defense have declared the intention to cooperate on military exercises and the developing of defense projects, but there are no ongoing projects.

                                                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                            4.
                                                                                                            Exposure

                                                                                                            In my country, there are reports that the PRC has expressed intentions or has taken actions to establish basing.

                                                                                                            Yes

                                                                                                            Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                            2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                            67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                                                            13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                            80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                            Honorable Chamber of Deputies of the Nation, Extraordinary Sessions 2014, Order of the Day nº 1751 (reference 1). The gravity of China’s space base in Argentina (reference 2). Cooperation Agreement between the Government of the Argentine Republic and the Government of the People's Republic of China on the construction, establishment and operation of a China's far space station in the province of Neuquén, Argentina, within the framework of the Chinese Program Moon Exploration, held in the City of Buenos Aires, on April 23, 2014. Although the station is declared to be used only for scientific purposes, many voices warn about two special points: the agreement doesn't clarify is the operations are being run by civil or military Chinese personnel, and the the China’s space program is run by the People’s Liberation Army (PLA). The Patagonian deep space station is managed by the China Satellite Launch and Tracking Control General (CLTC). The CLTC reports to the PLA’s Strategic Support Force (reference 2).

                                                                                                            1. https://www4.hcdn.gob.ar/dependencias/dcomisiones/periodo-132/132-1751.pdf
                                                                                                            2. https://www.lowyinstitute.org/the-interpreter/gravity-china-s-space-base-argentina

                                                                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                              5.
                                                                                                              Exposure

                                                                                                              In my country, the People’s Liberation Army (PLA) has participated in a humanitarian relief/disaster assistance (HADR) effort.

                                                                                                              No

                                                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                              2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                              61 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                              4/ Yes

                                                                                                              19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                              80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                              Presentation of the Mobile Hospital donated by the People's Republic of China (reference 1). The PLA has not participated, but there have been donations in the context of the current pandemic. The most relevant is the donatoin of a mobeli hospital.

                                                                                                              1. https://www.argentina.gob.ar/noticias/presentacion-del-hospital-movil-donado-por-la-republica-popular-china

                                                                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                6.
                                                                                                                Exposure

                                                                                                                In my country, People’s Liberation Army (PLA) military personnel are permanently or rotationally deployed (excluding defense attaches and peacekeepers).

                                                                                                                No

                                                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                77 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                4/ Yes

                                                                                                                5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                Not Found

                                                                                                                  Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                  Although there are declaratons promoting cooperation in peacekeeping missions and trainings.

                                                                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                    7.
                                                                                                                    Exposure

                                                                                                                    In my country, members of the military have received professional military education from the PRC.

                                                                                                                    Yes

                                                                                                                    Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                    48 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                                                                    34 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                    82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                    Ambassador Guelar received Chinese soldiers who will study in Argentina (reference 1). In paragraph 2, the reference states: "for its part, in the People's Republic of China, Argentine military students attend seminars and symposia on security in the Asia-Pacific Region, forums on military logistics, Sino-Latin American forums for defense, in addition to permanent student courses in the University of National Defense, War and Language Schools."

                                                                                                                    1. https://echin.cancilleria.gob.ar/es/content/el-embajador-guelar-recibi%C3%B3-militares-chinos-que-cursar%C3%A1n-estudios-en-la-argentina

                                                                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                      8.
                                                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                                                      In my country, members of the military have received peacekeeping training from the PRC.

                                                                                                                      No

                                                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                      2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                      67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                                                                      13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                      80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                      How are international relations in the area of Defense? (reference 1). Although there have been high level talks and Chinese PLA officers have visited Argentina's peacekeeping training facilities, there are no reports of Argentinian officials training in peacekeeping operations the PRC.

                                                                                                                      1. https://www.pagina12.com.ar/332517-como-son-las-relaciones-internacionales-en-el-area-de-defens

                                                                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                        9.
                                                                                                                        Exposure

                                                                                                                        In my country, high-ranking retired or current military and/or intelligence officers have received direct or deferred benefits from PRC-connected individuals or entities openly or covertly (e.g. have been appointed to lucrative positions as board members or consultants with PRC-invested firms, casinos, energy companies, etc.) during or in retirement from public service.

                                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                        4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                        67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                                                                        11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                        78 countries answered this indicator; 4 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                        There is no public information about national military pofficials that have received any such benefits from PRC connected entities or individuals.

                                                                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                            10.
                                                                                                                            Effect

                                                                                                                            In my country, high-ranking retired or current military and/or intelligence officials advocate for more coordination with the People’s Liberation Army (PLA).

                                                                                                                            No

                                                                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                            1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                            68 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                                                                            13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                            81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                            The Chief of the Army: "The pandemic is an opportunity we have to revalue the military" (reference 1). According to the sources, mostly press, because the Ministry of Defense and the websites of the armed forces do not report these statements, there are no declarations or manifestations from the military advocating for cooperation with the PLA.

                                                                                                                            1. https://www.infobae.com/politica/2020/05/29/el-jefe-del-ejercito-la-pandemia-es-una-oportunidad-que-tenemos-para-revalorizar-a-los-militares/

                                                                                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                              11.
                                                                                                                              Effect

                                                                                                                              My country cooperates with the People’s Liberation Army (PLA) on military exchange exercises, including drills and war games.

                                                                                                                              No

                                                                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                              51 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                              4/ Yes

                                                                                                                              31 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                              82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                              Francisco Cafiero, Secretary of International Affairs for the Defense of Argentina: “China is an enormously relevant partner" (reference 2). Argentina is not yet cooperating with China on military exercises, but there were recent declarations from officials from the National Defense Ministry about future cooperation.

                                                                                                                              1. https://www.defensa.com/argentina/lista-ejercicios-militares-otros-paises-americanos-fuerzas-2021
                                                                                                                              2. https://www.nodal.am/2021/03/francisco-cafiero-secretario-de-asuntos-internacionales-para-la-defensa-de-argentina-china-es-un-socio-de-enorme-relevancia/

                                                                                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                                                                                Hide

                                                                                                                                Law Enforcement

                                                                                                                                The Law Enforcement Domain measures law enforcement cooperation between the PRC and the Index country, as well as the nature and extent of PRC-related criminal activity in the Index country.

                                                                                                                                1.
                                                                                                                                Exposure

                                                                                                                                My country currently maintains an extradition treaty, legal mutual assistance or other similar arrangements with the PRC.

                                                                                                                                Yes

                                                                                                                                Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                32 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                50 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                Treaty between the Argentine Republic and the People's Republic of China on Legal Assistance in Civil and Commercial Matters (reference 1).

                                                                                                                                1. https://tratados.cancilleria.gob.ar/tratado_ficha.php?id=mKCknQ==

                                                                                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                  2.
                                                                                                                                  Exposure

                                                                                                                                  In my country, law enforcement authorities have signed cooperation agreements with the PRC on combatting terrorism.

                                                                                                                                  Yes

                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                                  1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                  55 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                  4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                  26 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                  81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                  Cooperation with China (reference 1). China y Argentina fortalecerán cooperación policial (reference 2).

                                                                                                                                  1. https://www.argentina.gob.ar/noticias/gcooperaci%C3%B3n-con-china
                                                                                                                                  2. http://spanish.xinhuanet.com/2018-06/28/c_137286242.htm

                                                                                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                    3.
                                                                                                                                    Exposure

                                                                                                                                    In my country, PRC-connected gangs (such as Triad, 三合会) are known to be operating in my country.

                                                                                                                                    Yes

                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                    1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                    52 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                    29 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                    81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                    Crime DNA: the Chinese mafia defines its internal war with bullets (reference 1).

                                                                                                                                    1. https://www.lanacion.com.ar/seguridad/adn-del-crimen-la-mafia-china-define-a-balazos-su-guerra-interna-nid03042021/

                                                                                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                      4.
                                                                                                                                      Pressure

                                                                                                                                      In my country, there are reports of economic espionage targeting the private sector that were suspected to benefit PRC-connected entities.

                                                                                                                                      No

                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                                      2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                      49 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                      7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                      3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                      3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                      12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                      9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                      80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                      There are no public reports on Chinese economic espionage targeting the private sector in Argentina.

                                                                                                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                                          5.
                                                                                                                                          Pressure

                                                                                                                                          In my country, there are reports of cyber attacks targeting government, critical infrastructure, or enterprises that were suspected to be initiated from the PRC.

                                                                                                                                          No

                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                                                          3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                          37 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                          1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                          9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                          4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                          3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                          14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                          4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                          15 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                          79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                          Not Found

                                                                                                                                            Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                            There have been recent cyberattacks to the National Directorate of Migration, but there are no reports on attacks suspected to be initiated in the PRC (Link)

                                                                                                                                            1. https://www.google.com/search?q=ciberataque+a+la+direccion+nacional+de+migraciones&oq=ciberataque+a+la+direccion+nacional+de+migraciones&aqs=chrome..69i57j33i10i160l2.13919j0j4&sourceid=chrome&ie=UTF-8

                                                                                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                            6.
                                                                                                                                            Pressure

                                                                                                                                            In my country, triads are known to have threatened or used violence to coerce, intimidate or punish Chinese dissidents.

                                                                                                                                            No

                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                                            2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                            67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                            1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                            5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                            3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                            3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                            3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                            4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                            2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                            80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                            The dark origin of "Amistad", the new Chinese mafia that extorts Belgrano supermarkets (reference 1). We arrested three men linked to the Chinese mafia (reference 2). Triads operate in Argentina, but the violence is not directed towards Chinese dissidents.

                                                                                                                                            1. https://www.infobae.com/sociedad/policiales/2021/05/28/el-oscuro-origen-de-amistad-la-nueva-mafia-china-que-extorsiona-a-supermercados-de-belgrano/
                                                                                                                                            2. https://www.argentina.gob.ar/noticias/gdetuvimos-tres-hombres-vinculados-la-mafia-china

                                                                                                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                                              7.
                                                                                                                                              Effect

                                                                                                                                              My country has deployed video or internet surveillance systems from the PRC for law enforcement.

                                                                                                                                              Yes

                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                                              1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                              30 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                              4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                              51 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                              81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                              Security cameras in Jujuy, a sudden hotbed of conflict between the US and China (reference 1).

                                                                                                                                              1. https://www.lanacion.com.ar/tecnologia/camaras-seguridad-jujuy-subito-foco-conflicto-eeuu-nid2265032/

                                                                                                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                8.
                                                                                                                                                Effect

                                                                                                                                                In my country, representatives of the PRC police force have had joint patrols with local law enforcement.

                                                                                                                                                No

                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                71 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                There is incresing cooperation between local police and PRC police officials (as shown here: Link), but there has not been joint patrols exercises reported.

                                                                                                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                    9.
                                                                                                                                                    Effect

                                                                                                                                                    My government has detained people at the request of the PRC for committing a crime involving engagements with social movements or resistance activities in Hong Kong, Xinjiang or for other human rights or civic rights issues.

                                                                                                                                                    No

                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                                    1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                    68 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                    13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                    81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                    There have been no reports on detentions on those basis.

                                                                                                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                                                        10.
                                                                                                                                                        Effect

                                                                                                                                                        My country has deported Taiwan citizens to the PRC to face prosecution.

                                                                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                                                        2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                                        71 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                        9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                        80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                        There have beens deportations of Chinese citizens (for illegal residence and related issues), but not to Taiwan to face prosecution.

                                                                                                                                                          Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                          There have been deportations of Chinese citizens (for illegal residence and related issues), but there are no specifications on Taiwanese citizens being deported to the PRC to face prosecution.

                                                                                                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                                            11.
                                                                                                                                                            Effect

                                                                                                                                                            My country has extradited or has deported individuals to the PRC, although such decisions had attracted criticisms from politicians, government employees or from local or foreign NGOs.

                                                                                                                                                            No

                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                            61 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                            21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                            82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                            They expelled 5 Chinese who had entered the country illegally through Jujuy (reference 1). Introduction to Chinese migration in Argentina (reference 2). The Argentinian official authorities have deported several Chinese citizens over the last decade (as shown in both references) but there are no records of public criticism coming from the public opinion, NGO or local politicians on these specific cases.

                                                                                                                                                            1. https://www.todojujuy.com/jujuy/expulsan-5-chinos-que-habian-ingresado-ilegalmente-al-pais-jujuy-n66060
                                                                                                                                                            2. https://jsapiens.org/includes/uploads/articulos/d64cc-11---migraciones-chinas-en-arg.pdf

                                                                                                                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                                                                                                              Hide

                                                                                                                                                              Technology

                                                                                                                                                              The Technology Domain gauges the PRC’s influence over the technology sector in the Index country, including the activity and financial leverage of PRC companies, use of PRC hardware, and bilateral research partnerships.

                                                                                                                                                              1.
                                                                                                                                                              Exposure

                                                                                                                                                              In my country, PRC-connected entities (such as China Mobile, China Unicom or China Telecom) or their subsidiaries provide telecom services.

                                                                                                                                                              Yes

                                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                                              52 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                              4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                              30 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                              82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                              Not Found

                                                                                                                                                              1. https://www.cmi.chinamobile.com/en/global-resources
                                                                                                                                                              2. https://ctamericas.com.ar/empresa/office-locations/

                                                                                                                                                              Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                              Although the CMI website indicates that there is a PoP in buenos Aires, we couldn't find any news confirming the opening (which was announced for 2020), or any information related to the location of the PoP in Buenos Aires.

                                                                                                                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                                2.
                                                                                                                                                                Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                In my country, telecoms have signed agreements to adopt hardwares or technical specifications of 4G or 5G cellular networks that are produced or developed by Huawei, ZTE or other PRC enterprises.

                                                                                                                                                                Yes

                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                16 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                27 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                30 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                Telco dilemma: Argentina depends on Huawei for 4G and 5G networks, amid China-Trump conflict (reference 1). Huawei is the main technology provider for Argentina's 4G network. It is responsible for 70% of the national telecom network and for 100% of the one located in the AMBA.

                                                                                                                                                                1. https://www.iprofesional.com/tecnologia/293063-trump-vs-huawei-riesgo-para-movistar-personal-y-claro-en-argentina

                                                                                                                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                                                  3.
                                                                                                                                                                  Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                  In my country, telecoms have adopted hardware or technical specifications by PRC-connected entities in internet/wifi/telecommunication service infrastructure projects, in addition to 4G/5G cellular network.

                                                                                                                                                                  Yes

                                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                  8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                  14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                  10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                  3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                  24 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                  23 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                  74 countries answered this indicator; 8 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                  In the case of Movistar, the core of its mobile network is also 100% owned by Huawei, as well as the connectivity deployed between the provinces. When it comes to Claro, the company has fiber optic extensions and microwave infrastructure also supplied by the same provider.

                                                                                                                                                                  1. https://www.iprofesional.com/tecnologia/293063-trump-vs-huawei-riesgo-para-movistar-personal-y-claro-en-argentina

                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                                    4.
                                                                                                                                                                    Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                    In my country, PRC-connected entities are authorized vendors to supply tech-related equipment or services to our government, military or security services.

                                                                                                                                                                    Yes

                                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                    1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                    28 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                    53 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                    81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                    "Safe as China": ZTE finds a very interested buyer in Argentina (reference 1). The Chinese firm ZTE arrives in Jujuy (reference 2). ZTE is a PRC entity, which is provinding security technology to Jujuy. It is the only case in Argentina so far. The reference is about this agreement.

                                                                                                                                                                    1. https://www.reuters.com/article/argentina-china-zte-idLTAKCN1U01EB
                                                                                                                                                                    2. https://asialink.americaeconomia.com/economia-y-negocios-informatica/la-firma-china-zte-llega-jujuy

                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                                                      5.
                                                                                                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                      In my country, central or local governments have collaboration (such as data collection or exchange agreement, or adoption of related hardwares) with the PRC government or PRC-connected entities on facial, voice recognition or other applications involving biometrics achieved by AI.

                                                                                                                                                                      No

                                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                      3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                      42 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                      9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                      2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                      3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                      19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                      7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                      79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                      The Chinese firm ZTE arrives in Jujuy (reference 1). ZTE has reached an agreement with the province of Jujuy, for a nearly $ 30 million surveillance contract to provide cameras, monitoring centers, emergency services and telecommunications infrastructure. But this does not include facial or voice recognition yet, although the reference cites that an official from Jujuy have declared their intention to introduce this technology in the future.

                                                                                                                                                                      1. https://asialink.americaeconomia.com/economia-y-negocios-informatica/la-firma-china-zte-llega-jujuy

                                                                                                                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                                                                        6.
                                                                                                                                                                        Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                        In my country, one or more cities have procured, or have signed contracts with PRC-connected entities to establish “smart city” systems.

                                                                                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                        1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                        35 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                        1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                        13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                        4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                        3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                        25 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                        4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                        4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                        81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                        New directions in the deepening Chinese-Argentine engagement (reference 1). According to the reference, "Argentina is a focus of Chinese attempts to export its “smart cities” and surveillance system technologies to Latin America." But altough there is interest from both parts in advancing this, there are still no contracts signed to develop smart cities systems.

                                                                                                                                                                        1. https://theglobalamericans.org/2021/02/new-directions-in-the-deepening-chinese-argentine-engagement/

                                                                                                                                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                                                                          7.
                                                                                                                                                                          Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                          In my country, financial institutions use the China Cross-Border Interbank Payment System (CIPS) clearing and settlement services system.

                                                                                                                                                                          Yes

                                                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                          1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                          63 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                          4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                          18 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                          81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                          Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                          1. https://www.telam.com.ar/notas/201509/120482-argentina-china-banco.html

                                                                                                                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                                                            8.
                                                                                                                                                                            Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                            In my country, PRC-connected venture capital invests in technology start-ups.

                                                                                                                                                                            Yes

                                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                            1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                            32 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                            1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                            18 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                            8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                            3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                            12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                            4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                            11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                            81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                                                            9.
                                                                                                                                                                            Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                            In my country, companies have publicly announced that they had signed MOUs to collaborate on technological development (such as collaborations in A.I., Blockchain, Cloud Computing, Big Data) with PRC-connected entities.

                                                                                                                                                                            Yes

                                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                            3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                            31 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                            1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                            19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                            8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                            3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                            12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                            4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                            9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                            79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                            Interview with official from the National Ministry of productive Development. According to the interviewee, the most relevant agreements involve ARSAT (The national enterprise for telecommunications). In reference 1, it is stated that the company signed an agreement in 2021 for the provision of the service of more than 210 MHz in C band on the geostationary communications satellite Arsat-2. It is significant because ARSAT is the biggest telecommunications enterprise and the only national company developing satellites.

                                                                                                                                                                            1. https://eleconomista.com.ar/2021-01-acuerdo-empresa-china-y-arsat/
                                                                                                                                                                            2. http://www.periferiaciencia.com.ar/noticia.php?n=1181

                                                                                                                                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                                                                              10.
                                                                                                                                                                              Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                              In my country, PRC-connected entities are shareholders or developers of the top five popular social media/messaging apps, based on usage.

                                                                                                                                                                              No

                                                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                              2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                              44 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                              4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                              36 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                              80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                              Statistics of the digital situation of Argentina in 2020-2021 (reference 1). Most of the media messaging apps in Argentina are not locally based, and the most popular ones are not Chinese. According to the reference quote, YouTube, WhatsApp, Facebook, Instagram and FB Messenger are the preferred platforms of Argentines active in social networks who are between 16 and 64 years old.

                                                                                                                                                                              1. https://branch.com.co/marketing-digital/estadisticas-de-la-situacion-digital-de-argentina-en-el-2020-2021/

                                                                                                                                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                11.
                                                                                                                                                                                Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                In my country, the central or local government(s) has collaborated with the PRC on endorsing the use of BeiDou satellite navigation system.

                                                                                                                                                                                Skip

                                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                64 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                17 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                  Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                  There are no references to the MoU between the Chinese National Satellite Office and the National Space Activities Commission (CONAE, Argentina) in the official website of CONAE (Link; Link

                                                                                                                                                                                  1. https://www.argentina.gob.ar/node/55823/noticias?page=4
                                                                                                                                                                                  2. https://tratados.cancilleria.gob.ar/busqueda.php?modo=c%29

                                                                                                                                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                                                                                                                                  Hide

                                                                                                                                                                                  Domestic Politics

                                                                                                                                                                                  The Domestic Politics Domain evaluates PRC efforts to influence the political landscape in the Index country, and the footprint of PRC security companies.

                                                                                                                                                                                  1.
                                                                                                                                                                                  Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                  In my country, politicians or government employees at the sub-national level are signing agreements with the PRC government or state-owned enterprises.

                                                                                                                                                                                  Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                  1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                  20 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                  5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                  12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                  23 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                  21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                  81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                  Letter of intent on the cooperation in the works of the road and the tunnel of the "black water passage" (reference 1). Act of commitment of agreements for the construction of the cauchari solar renewable energy plant in the province of Jujuy of the Argentine Republic (reference 2). Explain the scope of the hydrocarbon exploitation agreement between REFSA and the Chinese group (reference 3). Several provinces in Argentina have signed agreements with the PRC central government, with Chinese regions and with state owned enterprises. These references are some of the most representative cases, such as the case of Jujuy.

                                                                                                                                                                                  1. https://1dc85a5a-66e5-428b-bcba-1cc407d33aad.filesusr.com/ugd/ba0473_360f38b2169745ce8226a79ea4f98a2c.pdf
                                                                                                                                                                                  2. https://1dc85a5a-66e5-428b-bcba-1cc407d33aad.filesusr.com/ugd/ba0473_09608ba64ef147ea9556825d088105b8.pdf
                                                                                                                                                                                  3. https://www.formosa.gob.ar/noticia/17169/52/explican_alcances_del_acuerdo_de_explotacion_de_hidrocarburos_entre_refsa_y_grupo_chino

                                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                    2.
                                                                                                                                                                                    Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                    In my country, local municipalities have sister-city ties (友好城市) with municipalities in the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                                    Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                    1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                    10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                    10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                    19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                    3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                    19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                    23 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                    81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                    Argentine-Chinese integration has already started with education (reference 1). Signature of the hermanamiento agreement between El Calafate and Hangzhou (reference 2). Hermanamientos of the Province of Santa Fee (reference 3). Several cities in Argentina have sister-city ties agreements with Chinese cities. As examples, we have Rosario and Shangai, and the city of Buenos Aires and Beijing.

                                                                                                                                                                                    1. https://www.buenosaires.gob.ar/noticias/la-ciudad-inauguro-la-primera-escuela-bilingue-argentino-china
                                                                                                                                                                                    2. https://cshan.cancilleria.gob.ar/es/content/firma-del-convenio-de-hermanamiento-entre-el-calafate-y-hangzhou
                                                                                                                                                                                    3. https://www.santafe.gov.ar/index.php/web/content/download/22258/107005/file/Descargar%20Documento.pdf

                                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                      3.
                                                                                                                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                      In my country, politicians or government employees have taken trips to the PRC paid for by PRC-connected individuals or entities.

                                                                                                                                                                                      Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                      9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                      22 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                      12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                      7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                      3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                      16 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                      16 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                      73 countries answered this indicator; 9 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                      Córdoba advances in agreements with Chinese authorities (reference 1). Gerardo Morales will visit China to strengthen economic and cultural ties (reference 2). Strada traveled to China in search of financing for Agua Negra (reference 3). Several Argentinian politician have made trips to the PRC invited by the country or Chinese entities. Some of the examples are the governor of Jujuy, the representatives of San Juan and Córdoba, among others.

                                                                                                                                                                                      1. https://prensa.cba.gov.ar/informacion-general/cordoba-avanza-en-acuerdos-con-autoridades-chinas/
                                                                                                                                                                                      2. https://www.telam.com.ar/notas/201805/283755-el-gobernador-morales-viaja-a-china-para-fortalecer-los-lazos-economicos-y-culturales.html
                                                                                                                                                                                      3. https://www.diariodecuyo.com.ar/politica/Strada-viajo-a-China-en-busca-de-financiamiento-para-Agua-Negra-20140311-0020.html

                                                                                                                                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                        4.
                                                                                                                                                                                        Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                        In my country, politicians or government employees visit the PRC and have meetings with PRC officials and think tanks.

                                                                                                                                                                                        Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                        1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                        1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                        1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                        9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                        14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                        3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                        25 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                        4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                        32 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                        81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                        Political delegation visit China (reference 1). PRO tour in Beijing (reference 2). Politians from the two major political parties, Peronism and PRO, have visit the PRC in the last years.

                                                                                                                                                                                        1. https://echin.cancilleria.gob.ar/es/delegaci%C3%B3n-pol%C3%ADtica-visita-china
                                                                                                                                                                                        2. https://dangdai.com.ar/2018/07/17/el-pro-en-beijing/

                                                                                                                                                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                          5.
                                                                                                                                                                                          Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                          In my country, law enforcement and judicial related training offered the PRC-connected individuals or entities has been accepted by national or subnational governments.

                                                                                                                                                                                          Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                          1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                          46 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                          1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                          6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                          7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                          3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                          16 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                          4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                          6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                          81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                          China and Argentina intensify police exchange (reference 1). It is significant because there are few cases in general of Argentinian police training in third countries, much less in Asia.

                                                                                                                                                                                          1. http://spanish.xinhuanet.com/2019-12/23/c_138652517.htm

                                                                                                                                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                            6.
                                                                                                                                                                                            Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                            In my country, there are reports of politicians or political parties receiving campaign donations that originate in the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                                            No

                                                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                            4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                            60 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                            1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                            4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                            0 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                            3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                            10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                            4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                            4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                            78 countries answered this indicator; 4 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                            12 things you need to know about campaign finance (reference 1). Electoral financing, a black hole in Argentina (reference 2). There are no reports on this situation. Argentina´s funding for political parties lacks transparency according to reports from think tanks as CIPPEC and Transparencia Electoral.

                                                                                                                                                                                            1. https://www.cippec.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/05/215-DPP-IP-Acuerdos-Prioritarios-Tchintian-Page-y-Seira-mayo-2019.pdf
                                                                                                                                                                                            2. https://elpais.com/internacional/2017/06/27/argentina/1498594031_477519.html

                                                                                                                                                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                              7.
                                                                                                                                                                                              Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                              In my country, groups with reported links to the United Front Work Department (UFWD) have hosted fundraisings or have provided other forms of support for government employees, politicians or parties.

                                                                                                                                                                                              No

                                                                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                              64 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                              6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                              1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                              3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                              10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                              1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                              82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                              There are not political parties or politicians in Argentina with reported links to the United Front Work Department.

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                  8.
                                                                                                                                                                                                  Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                                  In my country, groups with reported links to the United Front Work Department (UFWD) have made public statements opposing the candidacy of a local political candidate or party, claiming them being “anti-China”.

                                                                                                                                                                                                  No

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                  1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                  78 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                  2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                  0 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                  1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                  0 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                  81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                  There has not been any declarations against any political candidate on the basis of an anti-China position.

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                      9.
                                                                                                                                                                                                      Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                      In my country, politicians or government employees have publicly expressed positive views of the PRC government.

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                      2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                      12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                      11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                      7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                      3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                      13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                      37 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                      80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Alberto Fernández: "We aspire to deepen ties with China" (reference 1). In Argentina a majority of local politicians have publicly expressed positive views of the PRC government.

                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. https://www.telam.com.ar/notas/202009/510510-alberto-fernandez-argentina-china.html

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                        10.
                                                                                                                                                                                                        Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                        In my country, politicians or government employees have received direct or deferred benefits from PRC-connected individuals or entities openly or covertly (e.g. have been appointed to lucrative positions as board members or consultants with PRC-invested firms, casinos, energy companies, etc.) during or in retirement from public office.

                                                                                                                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                        9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                        40 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                        1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                        7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                        0 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                        3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                        18 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                        4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                        8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                        73 countries answered this indicator; 9 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                          There is no public information about national politicians that have received any of such benefits from PRC connected entities or individuals.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                            11.
                                                                                                                                                                                                            Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                            In my country, security services (安保/保安) offered by private PRC companies are contracted by national or subnational governments.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            No

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                            67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                            1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                            3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                            2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                            3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                            7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                            4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                            3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                            82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Hide

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Foreign Policy

                                                                                                                                                                                                                The Foreign Policy Domain gauges PRC efforts to achieve diplomatic objectives by influencing key actors in the Index country.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                1.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                My country’s legislature has a joint parliamentary friendship group, committee or other forms of sub-organizations with PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                25 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                57 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Parliamentary Group of Friendship with the People's Republic of China (reference 1) The parliamentary group of friendship with the People's Republic of China was formed (reference 2).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. https://www.hcdn.gob.ar/diplomacia_parlamentaria/organismos/grupos-parlamentarios-de-amistad/grupo-parlamentario-amistad-2018-2019/GPA_China.html
                                                                                                                                                                                                                2. https://www.diputados.gob.ar/diplomacia_parlamentaria/eventos/2018/09/agenda_20180927b.html

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Representatives of a political party in my country’s national legislature have met officially with representatives of the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  20 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  40 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  The Chinese CP invited Alberto Fernández to attend the celebrations for the 100 years of the party (reference 1). Peronism reinforces the link with the Communist Party of China for the formation of political cadres (reference 2). There are strong links between the Peronist Party in Argentina and the PRC. The meetings between current and former senators and deputies were relevant because of the centrality of this political party.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. https://www.grupolaprovincia.com/politica/el-pc-chino-invito-a-alberto-fernandez-a-asistir-a-las-celebraciones-por-los-100-anos-del-partido-702880
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2. https://www.infobae.com/politica/2020/08/12/el-peronismo-refuerza-el-vinculo-con-el-partido-comunista-de-china-para-la-formacion-de-cuadros-politicos/

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    3.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    The PRC provides training to diplomats or civil servants on governance from my country (such as at 国家行政学院 or 中央党校).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    39 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Young Argentine leaders participated in the "Bridge to the Future" program (reference 1). The PRC financed, among other scolarships for public officials and young leaders (reference 1), the training of civil servants on governance from Corrientes in 2019 (reference 2).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. https://dangdai.com.ar/2017/07/28/jovenes-lideres-argentinos-participaron-de-un-programa-de-china/
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2. https://relacionesinternacionales.corrientes.gob.ar/noticia/beijing-seminario-de-gestion-publica-para-argentina

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      4.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      In my country, politicians or government employees have been pressured by PRC diplomats to change their political or diplomatic stances.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      41 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Argentine-Chinese relations two years after the political alternation (reference 1). Pressure from China to Argentina to close the agreement of the controversial nuclear power plant (reference 2).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/324865450_Las_relaciones_argentino-chinas_a_dos_anos_de_la_alternancia_politica
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2. https://www.infobae.com/politica/2019/03/31/presion-de-china-a-la-argentina-para-cerrar-el-acuerdo-de-la-polemica-central-nuclear/

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      In both references it is stated that Mauricio Macri´s government was not under Chinese pressure to sign the agreements on the nuclear plants that were originally proposed during the Fernandez Administration.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        5.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Citizens of my country have been detained in PRC or denied exit visas, and believed to be suffering from unfair legal treatments for political reasons, a.k.a. “hostage diplomacy”.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        61 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          There are no reported cases of Argentinian citizens being denied visa exits or given unfair treatment for political reasons.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            6.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            The head of state, head of government or foreign minister of my country has denied Taiwan’s right to participate as a member, observer or guest in WHO.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            65 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            To request the executive branch to declare its support for the inclusion of Taiwan in the the 71st Wordl Health Assembly to be held in Geneva, from May 21 to 26, 2018 (reference 1).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. https://www.diputados.gov.ar/proyectos/proyecto.jsp?exp=2438-D-2018

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            In 2018 the deputies (legislators) from the House of Representatives presented a proposal to the Executive power to declare their support to the inclusion of Taiwan in the 71st WHA. There was no response.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              7.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              My country publicly supported the appointment of a PRC official to be the head of a United Nations agency (such as the FAO or ICAO) or other intergovernmental organizations (such as INTERPOL).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              62 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              73 countries answered this indicator; 9 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              There are no references of speeches in the Argentinian embassy in China or in media websites showing public support to these appointments.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  8.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  My government has shown support of PRC's territorial claims (such as on the South China Sea arbitration ruling issued by the UNCLOS Arbitral Tribunal in July 2016; except claims over Taiwan, which are indirectly covered in indicator 6.)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Silence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  0/ My country has rejected PRC’s claim

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  24 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2/ My country has remained silent

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  36 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  4/ My country has adhered to PRC’s claim

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Diversification and autonomy: axes in Argentina's approach to Southeast Asia - Comillas Journal of International Relations (reference 1). In page 76 there is a direct reference to Argentina's position on the South China Sea conflict, based on an interviewed made by the author to a diplomat from the Philippines in Argentina. Argentina has consistently uphold a neutral position in the conflict, supporting a peaceful resolution, and carefully avoiding any declaration against the Chinese position, considering Argentina's close relation and commercial dependency with the country.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. https://revistas.comillas.edu/index.php/internationalrelations/article/view/7787/7596

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    9.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    My country has shown one of the following stances on PRC’s treatment of its Uyghur population.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Silence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    0/ My country has denounced PRC

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    31 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2/ My country has remained silent

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    32 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    4/ My country has voiced support to PRC’s stance

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    17 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Argentina recommended that China abolish the death penalty (reference 1). Macri and the Subtle Balance Between China and the United States (reference 2). In reference 1: "Macri has never mentioned publicly the Xi Jinping's human rights policy". Argentina has not mentioned the Uighur situation, as part of a consistent foreign policy principle of non intervention in the internal affairs of third states, but also because China is a central partner for the country.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. https://www.cronista.com/economia-politica/Argentina-recomendo-a-China-abolir-la-pena-de-muerte-20181106-0075.html
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2. https://www.bcr.com.ar/es/sobre-bcr/revista-institucional/noticias-revista-institucional/macri-y-el-sutil-equilibrio-entre

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      10.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      My country has shown one of the following stances on PRC’s treatment of its Tibet population.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Silence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      0/ My country has denounced PRC

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2/ My country has remained silent

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      46 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      4/ My country has voiced support to PRC’s stance

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Macri and the Subtle Balance Between China and the United States (reference 1).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. https://www.bcr.com.ar/es/sobre-bcr/revista-institucional/noticias-revista-institucional/macri-y-el-sutil-equilibrio-entre

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Argentina's position in the Tibet situation also responds to its own foreign policy tradition of non intervention and the need to avoid confrontation with China.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        11.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        My government has not publicly criticized the PRC’s imposition of the National Security Law on Hong Kong.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Silence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        0/ My country has denounced PRC

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        24 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2/ My country has remained silent

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        36 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        4/ My country has voiced support to PRC’s stance

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Macri and the Subtle Balance Between China and the United States (reference 1). The relevance of the reference is the mention to Argentina's sustained silent on human rights abuses in China due to the centrality of economic interests. It applies to the cases in Hong Kong, Tibet and Xinjiang. As already mentioned in the previous comment, Argentina's position on the Tibet situation, also responds to its own foreign policy tradition of non intervention and the need to avoid confrontation with China.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. https://www.bcr.com.ar/es/sobre-bcr/revista-institucional/noticias-revista-institucional/macri-y-el-sutil-equilibrio-entre

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Media
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Academia
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Economy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Society
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Military
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Law Enforcement
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Technology
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Domestic Politics
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Foreign Policy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Open
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Cards
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Cards