Albania

$6,494.4
2.81M
Ranking
80/ 82
Original Score

* As some Indicators can be skipped where data is unavailable, the maximum overall and Domain scores are not identical for each country. Country rankings are generated from ratios of the maximum scores and the achieved scores.

47/ 396
Executive partner
BIRN Ltd
Index Year
2022
Layer Scores

The Indicators have been classified by the stage of the influence process at which they occur. Some Indicators correspond to exposure to PRC influence, e.g. the presence of Confucius Institutes. Others test for pressure – such as visa denials to academics or journalists. Finally, some Indicators capture the effect of PRC influence, such as national policy changes in favor of PRC interests.
The individual Layer scores for each country are tallied and displayed via rankings.

Exposure

16%

Exposure assesses the conditions that make the target country vulnerable to PRC's influence, e.g. in terms of economic dependence, or the receiving of some form of benefit.

Pressure

10%

Pressure measures the actions that the PRC directly or indirectly exerts over the target country in order to change the behavior of people in the target country, e.g. in terms of threatening economic punishment to provoke/prevent a political decision.

Effect

5%

Effect evaluates the degree of accommodations the target country makes to the PRC, and the actual effects and impacts on the target country.

In 2021, Albania had a GDP per capita of US$6,494 and a total population of 2.81 million people, with the Chinese population estimated at some 200 people, or 0.007% of the total population.

Albania established diplomatic relations with the People’s Republic of China in 1949. Albania was ranked 103rd in Reporters Without Borders' 2022 World Press Freedom Index, and listed as Partly Free in Freedom House's 2022 Global Freedom Status, with a score of 67/100.

Domain Scores
Country Percentage
Index Average

Percentage scores do not suggest some degree out of a “completely influenced” level of 100%. The percentages express the country’s score out of the total achievable amount based on the Indicators for each Domain.

  • Media
    27.3% / 30.1%
  • Academia
    11.4% / 34%
  • Economy
    18.2% / 33.6%
  • Society
    11.4% / 23.6%
  • Military
    0.0% / 23.4%
  • Law Enforcement
    0.0% / 30.2%
  • Technology
    18.2% / 40.8%
  • Domestic Politics
    18.2% / 37.2%
  • Foreign Policy
    2.3% / 41%

Media

The Media Domain evaluates how PRC entities influence public debate and media coverage about the PRC in the Index country.

1.
Exposure

In my country, there are media organizations that belong to the World Chinese Media (世界华文媒体) network.

No

Answer ( 0 / 4 )

More

Skipped

2 countries chose this answer

0/ No

42 countries chose this answer

1/ Few, but insignificant

19 countries chose this answer

2/ More than a few, but insignificant

4 countries chose this answer

3/ Few, but significant

13 countries chose this answer

4/ More than a few, and significant

2 countries chose this answer

80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

Supporting Evidence

Not Found

      Answered by Edval Zoto, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

      Hide
      2.
      Exposure

      In my country, there are journalists or media organizations which are members of the Belt and Road Media Cooperation Alliance/Union, the Belt and Road News Alliance, or other Belt and Road media networks that connected to PRC (e.g. Belt and Road Media Community, Belt and Road Journalists Network, Belt and Road News Network, or B&R TV Networks).

      Yes

      Answer ( 3 / 4 )

      More

      Skipped

      1 countries chose this answer

      0/ No

      39 countries chose this answer

      1/ Few, but insignificant

      23 countries chose this answer

      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

      4 countries chose this answer

      3/ Few, but significant

      14 countries chose this answer

      4/ More than a few, and significant

      1 countries chose this answer

      81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

      Supporting Evidence

      Not Found

      1. https://brnalink.com/members.html
      2. http://albanian.cri.cn/1552/2017/06/01/63s161700.htm

      Supplementary Notes

      Vizion Plus, RTSH, Top Channel Albanian media organizations are members of the Belt and Road News Alliance at: Link See also on cooperation agreement between ATSH and CRI (2017), enabling China Radio International broadcast in Albania: Link

      1. https://brnalink.com/members.html
      2. http://albanian.cri.cn/1552/2017/06/01/63s161700.htm

      Answered by Edval Zoto, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

      Hide
      3.
      Exposure

      In my country, there are journalists, media organizations or online influencers who have attended all-expenses paid media tours in PRC.

      Yes

      Answer ( 2 / 4 )

      More

      Skipped

      11 countries chose this answer

      0/ No

      15 countries chose this answer

      1/ Few, but insignificant

      15 countries chose this answer

      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

      5 countries chose this answer

      3/ Few, but significant

      23 countries chose this answer

      4/ More than a few, and significant

      13 countries chose this answer

      71 countries answered this indicator; 11 countries skipped this indicator

      Supporting Evidence

      Not Found

      1. http://albanian.cri.cn/interchange/more/3107/20210511/661461.html
      2. http://albanian.cri.cn/interchange/pic/3105/20210316/635696.html
      3. http://albanian.cri.cn/1560/2016/06/07/65s152634.htm
      4. http://albanian.cri.cn/1559/2017/06/27/28s162298.htm
      5. http://albanian.cri.cn/1552/2017/06/19/22s162117.htm
      6. http://albanian.cri.cn/1552/2017/05/12/23s161261.htm
      7. http://albanian.cri.cn/381/2014/01/22/302s129351.htm

      Supplementary Notes

      While the linked stories do not explicitly state that all expenses have been paid, this is indirectly confirmed when the journalist mentions recieving invites visit trips being organized from the PRC Embassy or PRC counterpart insitutions. We have confirmed directly with participants in at least two trips that media tours were all paid by the PRC Embassy in Tirana - flights and hotel stay, and touring in PRC.

        Answered by Edval Zoto, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

        Hide
        4.
        Exposure

        In my country, there are journalists, media organizations or online influencers who have received trainings from PRC state-owned media or PRC-connected entities.

        No

        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

        More

        Skipped

        3 countries chose this answer

        0/ No

        37 countries chose this answer

        1/ Few, but insignificant

        16 countries chose this answer

        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

        2 countries chose this answer

        3/ Few, but significant

        14 countries chose this answer

        4/ More than a few, and significant

        10 countries chose this answer

        79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

        Supporting Evidence

        Not Found

            Answered by Edval Zoto, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

            Hide
            5.
            Exposure

            In my country, PRC state-media (including print, radio, and video) is broadcasted or distributed in a local language.

            Yes

            Answer ( 1 / 4 )

            More

            Skipped

            1 countries chose this answer

            0/ No

            24 countries chose this answer

            1/ Few, but insignificant

            22 countries chose this answer

            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

            7 countries chose this answer

            3/ Few, but significant

            18 countries chose this answer

            4/ More than a few, and significant

            10 countries chose this answer

            81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

            Supporting Evidence

            China Radio International website is published in the Albanian language. Furthermore, CRI broadcasts online in the Albanian language through the radio channel “Radio Ejani”. The online magazine “Revista Ejani" is also published in the Albanian language. CRI has been broadcasting in Albanian since 2012 in Albania. See: Link See mentioned entities in the website of CRI: Link ;

            1. https://qbz.gov.al/share/qU1jkRm8Qg-qpKL5adqqog
            2. http://albanian.cri.cn

              Answered by Edval Zoto, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

              Hide
              6.
              Exposure

              In my country, there are local media outlets wholly or partly owned by PRC citizens or corporations.

              No

              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

              More

              Skipped

              2 countries chose this answer

              0/ No

              44 countries chose this answer

              1/ Few, but insignificant

              19 countries chose this answer

              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

              3 countries chose this answer

              3/ Few, but significant

              14 countries chose this answer

              4/ More than a few, and significant

              0 countries chose this answer

              80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

              Supporting Evidence

              Not Found

                  Answered by Edval Zoto, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                  Hide
                  7.
                  Exposure

                  In my country, there are media outlets that have delivered cheap or free contents provided by PRC state-fund media.

                  Yes

                  Answer ( 2 / 4 )

                  More

                  Skipped

                  3 countries chose this answer

                  0/ No

                  22 countries chose this answer

                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                  21 countries chose this answer

                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                  6 countries chose this answer

                  3/ Few, but significant

                  23 countries chose this answer

                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                  7 countries chose this answer

                  79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                  Supporting Evidence

                  The press statements from the PRC Embassy report specifically on video content produced by PRC state-funded media (CRI) and that have been aired by local Albanian media, specificaly the public broadcaster aired a documentary produced by CRI.

                  1. http://albanian.cri.cn/1552/2018/01/26/61s167629.htm
                  2. http://shekulli.com.al/61789/
                  3. http://albanian.cri.cn/news/region/3126/20211118/715610.html
                  4. http://albanian.cri.cn/news/region/3126/20191020/518999.html

                  Supplementary Notes

                  For more in general on this issue: Link ; and: Link“China’s-Rising-Media-Presence-in-South-East-Europe”.pdf

                  1. https://china-cee.eu/wp-content/uploads/2020/06/Working_paper-202021-by-Visar-Sylaj.pdf
                  2. https://bird.tools/wp-content/uploads/2020/12/

                  Answered by Edval Zoto, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                  Hide
                  8.
                  Exposure

                  In my country, there are regular PRC state-media or government advertisements inserted within local newspapers, online news websites or social media.

                  No

                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                  More

                  Skipped

                  1 countries chose this answer

                  0/ No

                  38 countries chose this answer

                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                  13 countries chose this answer

                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                  7 countries chose this answer

                  3/ Few, but significant

                  15 countries chose this answer

                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                  8 countries chose this answer

                  81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                  Supporting Evidence

                  Not Found

                      Answered by Edval Zoto, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                      Hide
                      9.
                      Pressure

                      In my country, there are journalists who have had pressure exerted on them by the PRC, including (but not limited to) public denouncement, revocation of journalist ID, denial of visa.

                      Yes

                      Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                      More

                      Skipped

                      1 countries chose this answer

                      0/ No

                      57 countries chose this answer

                      4/ Yes

                      24 countries chose this answer

                      81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                      Hide
                      10.
                      Effect

                      In my country, there are incidents of media outlets censoring views critical of the PRC government.

                      No

                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                      More

                      Skipped

                      4 countries chose this answer

                      0/ No

                      51 countries chose this answer

                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                      11 countries chose this answer

                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                      3 countries chose this answer

                      3/ Few, but significant

                      9 countries chose this answer

                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                      4 countries chose this answer

                      78 countries answered this indicator; 4 countries skipped this indicator

                      Supporting Evidence

                      Not Found

                          Answered by Edval Zoto, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                          Hide
                          11.
                          Effect

                          In my country, there are media personalities (including reporters, journalists or commentators) or celebrities who deny the existence of human rights abuses in the PRC (e.g. a media personality that doubts there are re-education camps for Uyghurs in Xinjiang).

                          No

                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                          More

                          Skipped

                          2 countries chose this answer

                          0/ No

                          44 countries chose this answer

                          1/ Few, but insignificant

                          18 countries chose this answer

                          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                          4 countries chose this answer

                          3/ Few, but significant

                          9 countries chose this answer

                          4/ More than a few, and significant

                          5 countries chose this answer

                          80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                          Supporting Evidence

                          Not Found

                              Answered by Edval Zoto, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                              Hide

                              Academia

                              The Academia Domain measures how the PRC state attempts to restrict academic freedom by influencing or interfering with the Index country’s academic and educational activities.

                              1.
                              Exposure

                              In my country, universities have established research partnerships with PRC-connected entities. (e.g. Huawei, Tencent or Alibaba)

                              No

                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                              More

                              0/ No

                              9 countries chose this answer

                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                              11 countries chose this answer

                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                              6 countries chose this answer

                              3/ Few, but significant

                              31 countries chose this answer

                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                              25 countries chose this answer

                              82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                              Hide
                              2.
                              Exposure

                              In my country, there are Confucius Institutes/Classrooms.

                              Yes

                              Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                              More

                              0/ No

                              5 countries chose this answer

                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                              14 countries chose this answer

                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                              5 countries chose this answer

                              3/ Few, but significant

                              31 countries chose this answer

                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                              27 countries chose this answer

                              82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                              Supporting Evidence

                              There are Confucius Institutes at the University of Tirana (registered as an Institute within the organizational structure of the University of Tirana). See: Link In 2018, it opened a classroom also at the University of Durres “Aleksander Moisiu”. See: Link . The institute of Tirana also promotes Chinese language courses through other public Universities in Albania. See: Link

                              1. https://ciut.edu.al/unitir-bfsu-hanban/
                              2. https://www.faktor.al/2018/01/17/durresi-flet-kinezce-hapet-instituti-konfuci-ne-universitet/
                              3. https://univlora.edu.al/2021/09/03/regjistrimet-ne-gjuhen-dhe-kulturen-kineze-ne-institutit-konfuci-ut/

                                Answered by Edval Zoto, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                Hide
                                3.
                                Exposure

                                My country plans to include, or does include, Chinese as a foreign language in K12 or primary education, and receives free or subsidized (e.g. offered below market price) educational books and teachers from PRC.

                                No

                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                More

                                Skipped

                                1 countries chose this answer

                                0/ No

                                46 countries chose this answer

                                4/ Yes

                                35 countries chose this answer

                                81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                Supporting Evidence

                                According to official programming the second language taught in public programs in K12 or primary education include: German, Italian, French, English. See: Link

                                  Supplementary Notes

                                  There was a public call from former PM Berisha in 2012 in this regard, but such program was never materialised. See: Link

                                  1. https://www.gazetatema.net/2012/12/07/berisha-te-fusim-sa-me-shpejt-ne-shkollat-shqiptare-gjuhen-kineze/

                                  Answered by Edval Zoto, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                  Hide
                                  4.
                                  Exposure

                                  In my country, one or more think tanks and academic research centers belong to PRC-affiliated networks/associations (such as: the Silk Road Think Tank Association, Silk Road Think Tank Network [SiLKS], Belt and Road Studies Network, University Alliance of the Silk Road, University Consortium of the 21st Century Maritime Silk Road).

                                  No

                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                  More

                                  Skipped

                                  2 countries chose this answer

                                  0/ No

                                  40 countries chose this answer

                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                  17 countries chose this answer

                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                  7 countries chose this answer

                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                  14 countries chose this answer

                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                  2 countries chose this answer

                                  80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                  Supporting Evidence

                                  Not Found

                                    Supplementary Notes

                                    No Albanian organizations are members in these networks based on research in their websites and open source research.

                                      Answered by Edval Zoto, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                      Hide
                                      5.
                                      Exposure

                                      In my country, think tanks and academic research centers have received financial support from PRC-connected individuals or entities.

                                      Yes

                                      Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                                      More

                                      Skipped

                                      10 countries chose this answer

                                      0/ No

                                      21 countries chose this answer

                                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                                      11 countries chose this answer

                                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                      11 countries chose this answer

                                      3/ Few, but significant

                                      19 countries chose this answer

                                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                                      10 countries chose this answer

                                      72 countries answered this indicator; 10 countries skipped this indicator

                                      Hide
                                      6.
                                      Exposure

                                      In my country, experts participate in PRC talent recruitment programs such as the Thousand Talents Program or Changjiang Scholars program.

                                      Yes

                                      Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                                      More

                                      Skipped

                                      3 countries chose this answer

                                      0/ No

                                      47 countries chose this answer

                                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                                      11 countries chose this answer

                                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                      6 countries chose this answer

                                      3/ Few, but significant

                                      10 countries chose this answer

                                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                                      5 countries chose this answer

                                      79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                                      Supporting Evidence

                                      There are a few scholars programs, see: LinkË_9-2-2022.pdf , and: Link but they are offered through Ministry of Education of Albania. Also Chinese Embassy periodically issues various small awards, see: Link, and: Link, and: Link

                                      1. https://arsimi.gov.al/wp-content/uploads/2022/02/144-Shpallja-e-njoftimit-RDCY-KINË_9-2-2022.pdf
                                      2. https://arsimi.gov.al/bursa-dhe-programe-studimi/

                                        Answered by Edval Zoto, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                        Hide
                                        7.
                                        Exposure

                                        In my country, scholars have taken trips to the PRC paid for by PRC-connected individuals or entities.

                                        No

                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                        More

                                        Skipped

                                        13 countries chose this answer

                                        0/ No

                                        17 countries chose this answer

                                        1/ Few, but insignificant

                                        15 countries chose this answer

                                        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                        11 countries chose this answer

                                        3/ Few, but significant

                                        12 countries chose this answer

                                        4/ More than a few, and significant

                                        14 countries chose this answer

                                        69 countries answered this indicator; 13 countries skipped this indicator

                                        Supporting Evidence

                                        Not Found

                                          Supplementary Notes

                                          Albania has several agreements with China in regard to academic exchanges, but they are well known publicly and include periodic exchanges. See: Linkëdheniet-dypalëshe

                                          1. http://www.ambasadat.gov.al/china/sq/marr

                                          Answered by Edval Zoto, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                          Hide
                                          8.
                                          Pressure

                                          In my country, organized PRC-connected student groups, such as Chinese Students and Scholars Associations (CSSAs), are involved in attempts to censor staff or students (e.g. by harassing students protesting human rights abuses in the PRC, or formally complaining about the identification of Taiwan as a country in lecture slides).

                                          No

                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                          More

                                          Skipped

                                          1 countries chose this answer

                                          0/ No

                                          64 countries chose this answer

                                          1/ Few, but insignificant

                                          6 countries chose this answer

                                          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                          3 countries chose this answer

                                          3/ Few, but significant

                                          5 countries chose this answer

                                          4/ More than a few, and significant

                                          3 countries chose this answer

                                          81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                          Supporting Evidence

                                          Not Found

                                            Supplementary Notes

                                            No evidence found in this regard, however the Chinese Embassy organizes periodically meetings with Chinese students in Albania and Albanian students in Chinese Universities, see: Link , and: Link

                                            1. http://al.chineseembassy.org/eng/zagx/zajw/201908/t20190828_2533315.htm
                                            2. http://al.chineseembassy.org/eng/zagx/zajw/201905/t20190501_2533290.htm

                                            Answered by Edval Zoto, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                            Hide
                                            9.
                                            Pressure

                                            In my country, scholars or academics have been denied visas to travel to the PRC after expressing opinions or producing scholarship that is critical of the PRC.

                                            No

                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                            More

                                            Skipped

                                            7 countries chose this answer

                                            0/ No

                                            64 countries chose this answer

                                            1/ Few, but insignificant

                                            1 countries chose this answer

                                            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                            0 countries chose this answer

                                            3/ Few, but significant

                                            6 countries chose this answer

                                            4/ More than a few, and significant

                                            4 countries chose this answer

                                            75 countries answered this indicator; 7 countries skipped this indicator

                                            Supporting Evidence

                                            Not Found

                                                Answered by Edval Zoto, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                Hide
                                                10.
                                                Effect

                                                In my country, PRC-connected entities have been involved in school or university curriculum design, such as courses about East Asian history, modern politics, etc.

                                                No

                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                More

                                                Skipped

                                                2 countries chose this answer

                                                0/ No

                                                64 countries chose this answer

                                                4/ Yes

                                                16 countries chose this answer

                                                80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                Not Found

                                                  Supplementary Notes

                                                  No evidence found in this regard. However, the Confucius Institute at the University of Tirana is established as an integral part of the university of Tirana, and therefore may, in theory, be involved in shaping of courses/curriculum.

                                                    Answered by Edval Zoto, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                    Hide
                                                    11.
                                                    Effect

                                                    In my country, there are confirmed reports of teachers or professors avoiding the discussion of sensitive political issues (e.g. Uyghur re-education camps, Taiwan independence, Tiananmen Square Massacre).

                                                    No

                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                    More

                                                    Skipped

                                                    5 countries chose this answer

                                                    0/ No

                                                    65 countries chose this answer

                                                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                    1 countries chose this answer

                                                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                    1 countries chose this answer

                                                    3/ Few, but significant

                                                    6 countries chose this answer

                                                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                    4 countries chose this answer

                                                    77 countries answered this indicator; 5 countries skipped this indicator

                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                    Not Found

                                                        Answered by Edval Zoto, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                        Hide

                                                        Economy

                                                        The Economy Domain measures the PRC’s economic leverage in the Index country, and how this is used to influence economic policy or corporate behavior in ways that favor the PRC.

                                                        1.
                                                        Exposure

                                                        The PRC is my country's number one trading partner (for trade in goods only).

                                                        No

                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                        More

                                                        0/ No

                                                        51 countries chose this answer

                                                        4/ Yes

                                                        31 countries chose this answer

                                                        82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                        According to official data retrieved from National Institute of Statistics of Albania (INSTAT) on foreign trade. See: Link

                                                        1. http://www.instat.gov.al/al/temat/tregtia-e-jashtme/tregtia-e-jashtme-e-mallrave/#tab3

                                                        Supplementary Notes

                                                        PRC is the third trading partner for Albania (if ranking is by country), and Italy and Turkey are the first and second ranked. However over 60% of trade of Albania is conducted with EU countries. Trade with PRC (imports) range in the value of about 7-8% yearly.

                                                          Answered by Edval Zoto, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                          Hide
                                                          2.
                                                          Exposure

                                                          PRC-connected entities own more than 50% of my country’s sovereign debt.

                                                          No

                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                          More

                                                          Skipped

                                                          1 countries chose this answer

                                                          0/ No

                                                          77 countries chose this answer

                                                          4/ Yes

                                                          4 countries chose this answer

                                                          81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                          Not Found

                                                              Answered by Edval Zoto, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                              Hide
                                                              3.
                                                              Exposure

                                                              The PRC is the top customer for my country’s extractive industries.

                                                              No

                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                              More

                                                              0/ No

                                                              62 countries chose this answer

                                                              4/ Yes

                                                              20 countries chose this answer

                                                              82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                              According to official data retrieved from National Institute of Statistics of Albania (INSTAT) on exports by product type. See: Link

                                                              1. http://databaza.instat.gov.al/pxweb/sq/DST/START__FT__FTY/NewFTY007/

                                                              Supplementary Notes

                                                              In 2021 China was the fourth top customer of the country’s extractive industry, with Spain, Greece and Germany heading the ranking. In 2020 and 2019 PRC has been the second top customer, however in terms of net value exports toward PRC stand at about 25-30% of the value of extractives exports of Albania toward Spain. (2019-2021)

                                                                Answered by Edval Zoto, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                Hide
                                                                4.
                                                                Exposure

                                                                In my country, PRC-related entities own, operate or substantially control critical infrastructure (e.g. ports, power plants, digital data centers, etc) or sensitive sectors (biotech, raw materials, etc.)

                                                                Yes

                                                                Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                More

                                                                0/ No

                                                                36 countries chose this answer

                                                                4/ Yes

                                                                46 countries chose this answer

                                                                82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                Geo-Jade Petroleum purchased in 2016 and still owns Banker Petroleum Albania ltd., which operates Patos-Marinza Oilfield, the largest onshore oilfield in Europe. Through Bankers Albania get 75% of country wide royalties. See: Link , and: Link

                                                                1. https://seenews.com/news/chinas-geo-jade-closes-purchase-of-albania-focused-bankers-petroleum-541529
                                                                2. https://euronews.al/en/albania/2021/05/28/bankers-petroleum-extracts-over-160-000-tons-from-january-to-march-2021-in-patos-marinza-oilfield/

                                                                  Answered by Edval Zoto, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                  Hide
                                                                  5.
                                                                  Exposure

                                                                  My country joined (or applied to join) the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB).

                                                                  No

                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                  More

                                                                  0/ No

                                                                  27 countries chose this answer

                                                                  4/ Yes

                                                                  55 countries chose this answer

                                                                  82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                  Not Found

                                                                  1. https://www.aiib.org/en/about-aiib/governance/members-of-bank/index.html

                                                                    Answered by Edval Zoto, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                    Hide
                                                                    6.
                                                                    Exposure

                                                                    In my country, major businesses are members of the Silk Road Chamber of International Commerce, or of the Belt and Road Industrial and Commercial Alliance, or of the Belt and Road General Chamber of Commerce.

                                                                    Yes

                                                                    Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                    More

                                                                    0/ No

                                                                    41 countries chose this answer

                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                    41 countries chose this answer

                                                                    82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                    At least two business organizations are members of the Silk Road Chamber of International Commerce (SRCIC) as noted in Members Section of the SRCIC, the Albanian Entrepreneurs Union (it is not clear who this refers to, but potentially the Young Albanian Entrepreneurs Union Link ) and the Union of Chambers of Commerce and Industry of Albania (UCCIAL - Link - this is an umbrella business organization aiming at ‘coordination at national level the chambers of commerce and industry’; its role and membership are not available through their website. www.uccial.al ) See: Link

                                                                    1. https://srcic.org/silk-road-members/?page=3
                                                                    2. https://srcic.org/silk-road-members/?page=1

                                                                    Supplementary Notes

                                                                    Calik Holding Group leadership seems to have been involved in SRCIC activities in the past: Link Calik Holding Group is present in Albania in major investments in banking and telecommunications sector.

                                                                    1. https://srcic.org/news/star-of-march-calik-holding-group/

                                                                    Answered by Edval Zoto, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                    Hide
                                                                    7.
                                                                    Pressure

                                                                    My country has been the target of PRC economic coercion (e.g. trade or investment sanctions) that was specifically tailored at products or services that are highly dependent on the PRC market.

                                                                    No

                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                    More

                                                                    0/ No

                                                                    64 countries chose this answer

                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                    18 countries chose this answer

                                                                    82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                    Not Found

                                                                        Answered by Edval Zoto, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                        Hide
                                                                        8.
                                                                        Pressure

                                                                        In my country, local businesses have been harassed, threatened, or boycotted, due to their activities or statements in support of causes deemed unacceptable by the PRC government (e.g. Taiwanese independence, Hong Kong democracy, Tibet or Xinjiang issues, etc).

                                                                        No

                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                        More

                                                                        Skipped

                                                                        2 countries chose this answer

                                                                        0/ No

                                                                        65 countries chose this answer

                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                        15 countries chose this answer

                                                                        80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                        Not Found

                                                                            Answered by Edval Zoto, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                            Hide
                                                                            9.
                                                                            Effect

                                                                            My country has free-trade agreement(s) with the PRC (either bilateral or as part of regional agreement(s)) that primarily deals with trade in goods or services, including digital goods or services.

                                                                            No

                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                            More

                                                                            0/ No

                                                                            51 countries chose this answer

                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                            31 countries chose this answer

                                                                            82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                            No evidence found. Free trade agreements of Albania are listed on the Customs Website: Link . There is no agreement with PRC, either direct or indirect.

                                                                              Supplementary Notes

                                                                              Albania has a double tax treaty with PRC since 2005. See: Link

                                                                              1. https://qbz.gov.al/share/YFrvTwRcQgCJAi8LQn5cbg

                                                                              Answered by Edval Zoto, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                              Hide
                                                                              10.
                                                                              Effect

                                                                              In my country, central or local governments have relaxed or removed regulatory restrictions, or have established special economic zones (or free trade zones, industrial parks, etc.) to attract investments or economic participation from the PRC.

                                                                              No

                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                              More

                                                                              0/ No

                                                                              47 countries chose this answer

                                                                              4/ Yes

                                                                              35 countries chose this answer

                                                                              82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                              Not Found

                                                                                Supplementary Notes

                                                                                In 2008, Albania voted in a special law for the creation of “Economic Zones” in order to gain and encourage investments. 9 economic zones, 8 of which were designed as industrial parks and 1 as a free zone were part of a modernization process and transformation to a market economy. The Albanian Ministry of Economy launched 8 industrial parks: • Koplik: The Industrial Park in Koplik, Shkoder, approved on January 4, 2008. With an area of 61 hectares, for industrial production activities, trade, agri-processing etc. • Shengjin: Industrial Park with an area of 3,2 hectares. • Elbasan: Industrial Park with an area of 254,7 hectares in the region of the former Metallurgic Plant. • Durres: Industrial Park in Spitalle, Durres, with an area of 850 hectares, state and privately owned area. • Vlora: Industrial Park in Vlora. • Shkoder: The Industrial Park includes the former industrial center with an area of 137 hectares. • Lezha: Industrial Park of Lezha, proposed by the municipality of Lezha and approved on 27 January 2009. • Tirana: Industrial Park of Tirana approved on 22 July 2009 in Laknas. • And one free Zone “Vlora Free Zone” approved by the government on 11 June 2009. But due to some problems with land ownership, infrastructure issues, ineffective promotional campaign and lack of enforcement of contracts and inventive packages those announced zones were not successful. According to the new law No. 54/2015 that entered into force, the areas defined as “industrial parks” or “ free zones” were replaced by “Technological and Economic Development Area” TEDA which is defined, again according to the law as a “separate territory, a designated area of land or buildings and other immovable properties, developed in accordance with a general plan and provided with the relevant infrastructure for production, industrial development, trade and provision of services, which is estimated part of the customs territory of the Republic of Albania, separate from this territory in terms of fiscal and customs regime and which is governed in accordance with the provisions of this law, other legal and sub-legal acts for its enforcement.” See: Link , Following the new law in 2015, Albania envisioned having only 3 TEDAs: in Vlore, Spitalle (Durres), and Koplik (Shkoder). Then another option has been discussed in regard to the TEDA in Kashar (Tirana). None of TEDAs is effective yet. See: Link and: Link , and: Link, and: Link

                                                                                1. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/324242126_Albanian_Model_of_Free_Zones_Implementation_and_Implications
                                                                                2. https://www.oecd.org/south-east-europe/SEZ_WB_2017.pdf
                                                                                3. https://aida.gov.al/en/business-in-albania/sectors/teda
                                                                                4. https://www.monitor.al/anulohet-zona-e-lire-e-spitalles-financat-mbyllin-proceduren-per-zhvillimit-e-teda-s/
                                                                                5. http://www.scan-tv.com/pas-koplikut-e-spitalles-krijohet-zone-e-lire-ne-kashar-detajet-investim-102-mln-euro-5-7-mije-vende-pune-synohen-kompani-it-dhe-automobile/

                                                                                Answered by Edval Zoto, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                Hide
                                                                                11.
                                                                                Effect

                                                                                In my country, PRC-connected entities requisitioned infrastructure or land for failure to repay debts in a timely manner.

                                                                                No

                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                More

                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                76 countries chose this answer

                                                                                4/ Yes

                                                                                4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                Not Found

                                                                                    Answered by Edval Zoto, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                    Hide

                                                                                    Society

                                                                                    The Society Domain measures the extent and effectiveness of the PRC’s efforts to advance its soft power in the Index country, including its influence over the actions and views of local organizations and citizens.

                                                                                    1.
                                                                                    Exposure

                                                                                    In my country, there are local groups or organizations with words like “Promotion of Peaceful Reunification” in their name, and they regularly publicize their views on Taiwan, Hong Kong, Tibet and Xinjiang issues.

                                                                                    No

                                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                    More

                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                    1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                    49 countries chose this answer

                                                                                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                    12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                    7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                    3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                    9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                    4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                    81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                    Not Found

                                                                                      Supplementary Notes

                                                                                      There are only two Albanian-Chinese Associations. One is named Albanian-Chinese Friendship Association and was established in 2011 (see: Link ). The second one is the Cultural Association Albania-China, created in 2015 (see: Link). None of them is registered with the Tax Authorities, as verified through research in the National Center of Business.

                                                                                      1. https://www.facebook.com/groups/122577617833356/
                                                                                      2. http://albanian.cri.cn/381/2015/10/08/302s145838.htm

                                                                                      Answered by Edval Zoto, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                      2.
                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                      In my country, there are members and member organizations of United World Chinese Association (世界华人协会).

                                                                                      No

                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                      More

                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                      1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                      62 countries chose this answer

                                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                                      19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                      81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                      Not Found

                                                                                          Answered by Edval Zoto, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                          3.
                                                                                          Exposure

                                                                                          In my country, labor unions cooperate on exchanges or official visits to the All-China Federation of Trade Unions (ACFTU) in the PRC.

                                                                                          No

                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                          More

                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                          1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                          68 countries chose this answer

                                                                                          4/ Yes

                                                                                          13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                          81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                          Not Found

                                                                                              Answered by Edval Zoto, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                              4.
                                                                                              Exposure

                                                                                              In my country, there are local reports of personnel linked to the UFWD who make appearances at Chinese diaspora community events and activities (e.g. Lunar New Year events, Dragon Boat festival tournaments, etc).

                                                                                              No

                                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                              More

                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                              2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                              50 countries chose this answer

                                                                                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                              9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                              5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                              3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                              9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                              7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                              80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                              Not Found

                                                                                                  Answered by Edval Zoto, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                  5.
                                                                                                  Exposure

                                                                                                  In my country, there are PRC-connected professional associations that are closely engaged with their counterparts locally, such as All-China Journalists Association (中华全国新闻工作者协会), China Artists Association (中国艺术家协会), China Writers Association (中国作家协会) or All-China Women Federation (全国妇联).

                                                                                                  No

                                                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                  2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                  33 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                  25 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                  8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                  8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                  6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                  80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                  Not Found

                                                                                                      Answered by Edval Zoto, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                      6.
                                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                                      In my country, PRC-connected individuals or entities donate money or provide other types of support to religious communities and charities.

                                                                                                      No

                                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                      1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                      46 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                                                      35 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                      81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                      Not Found

                                                                                                        Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                        In December 2021 the PRC Ambassador in Tirana organized a small charity event. See: Link . It is unclear where funds were donated, but the activity was quite modest.

                                                                                                        1. http://al.chineseembassy.org/eng/zagx/zajw/202112/t20211221_10472685.htm

                                                                                                        Answered by Edval Zoto, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                        7.
                                                                                                        Exposure

                                                                                                        In my country, the PRC government or PRC-connected entities distribute entertainment products (including: drama and TV shows) or related hardwares (e.g. OTT streaming players hosting PRC media channels) freely or at a cheap price.

                                                                                                        Yes

                                                                                                        Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                        2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                        38 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                        1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                        21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                        4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                        3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                        11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                        4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                        6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                        80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                        There have been a few occasions, rather symbolic, where PRC entertainment products have been made available to Albanian national TV channels. In 2021 a documentary on Albanian-Chinese friendship was produced by RTH in cooperation with China Media Group, and was aired during the visit of Minister of Foreign Affairs of PRC to Albania. See: Link Chinese Panda was also aired by RTSH in 2019-2020. See: Link . The article also mentions a couple of documentaries on Chinese landscape and nature.

                                                                                                        1. https://dailynews.mk/miqesi-qe-tret-largesine-dokumentar-i-rtsh-ne-bashkepunim-me-cmg/

                                                                                                          Answered by Edval Zoto, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                          8.
                                                                                                          Effect

                                                                                                          Cultural products (such as films and TV shows) produced by my country’s production studios typically portray the PRC in a positive light.

                                                                                                          No

                                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                          7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                          60 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                          4/ Yes

                                                                                                          15 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                          75 countries answered this indicator; 7 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                          Not Found

                                                                                                              Answered by Edval Zoto, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                              9.
                                                                                                              Effect

                                                                                                              In my country, celebrities regularly publish or share propaganda narratives from the PRC.

                                                                                                              No

                                                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                              67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                              10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                              0 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                              3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                              3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                              2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                              82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                              Not Found

                                                                                                                  Answered by Edval Zoto, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                  10.
                                                                                                                  Effect

                                                                                                                  In my country, the national or local governments regularly publish or share propaganda narratives from the PRC (e.g. statements from the PRC government or embassies).

                                                                                                                  No

                                                                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                  2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                  54 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                  12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                  2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                  7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                  5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                  80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                  Not Found

                                                                                                                      Answered by Edval Zoto, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                      11.
                                                                                                                      Effect

                                                                                                                      In my country, a majority of citizens have positive views of the PRC government.

                                                                                                                      Yes

                                                                                                                      Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                      7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                      50 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                                                                      25 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                      75 countries answered this indicator; 7 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                      There is only one survey that matches somewhat more closely the answer to this question. The survey was published in 2021 by the local Center for the Study of Democracy and Governance and supported by FES. It reflects the perceptions on the role of China in the security of Albania. Data was collected in September-October 2020. According to the survey 54.9% of respondents think that China (PRC) has a positive role in the national security of Albania. See: Link

                                                                                                                      1. http://library.fes.de/pdf-files/bueros/albanien/17555.pdf

                                                                                                                        Answered by Edval Zoto, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                        Hide

                                                                                                                        Military

                                                                                                                        The Military Domain gauges the bilateral military relationship between the PRC and the Index country, including PRC efforts to influence local military personnel.

                                                                                                                        1.
                                                                                                                        Exposure

                                                                                                                        My country currently imports (or receives in-kind donation of) military or law-enforcement equipment or components of equipment from the PRC.

                                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                        36 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                                                                        46 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                        82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                        Not Found

                                                                                                                          Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                          The most recent donation towards Albanian security institutions was the donation of gym related materials to the National Guard by the PRC Embassy in 2019. See: Link

                                                                                                                          1. https://www.mfa.gov.cn/ce/ceal/eng/zagx/zajw/t1641907.htm

                                                                                                                          Answered by Edval Zoto, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                          2.
                                                                                                                          Exposure

                                                                                                                          My country currently exports military or law-enforcement equipment or components of equipment to the PRC.

                                                                                                                          No

                                                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                                          1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                          74 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                          4/ Yes

                                                                                                                          7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                          81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                          Not Found

                                                                                                                              Answered by Edval Zoto, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                              3.
                                                                                                                              Exposure

                                                                                                                              My country co-develops or co-produces military or law-enforcement equipment with the PRC.

                                                                                                                              No

                                                                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                              1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                              66 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                              4/ Yes

                                                                                                                              15 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                              81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                              Not Found

                                                                                                                                  Answered by Edval Zoto, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                  4.
                                                                                                                                  Exposure

                                                                                                                                  In my country, there are reports that the PRC has expressed intentions or has taken actions to establish basing.

                                                                                                                                  No

                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                                  2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                  67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                  4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                  13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                  80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                  Not Found

                                                                                                                                      Answered by Edval Zoto, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                      5.
                                                                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                                                                      In my country, the People’s Liberation Army (PLA) has participated in a humanitarian relief/disaster assistance (HADR) effort.

                                                                                                                                      No

                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                                      2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                      61 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                      19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                      80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                      There have been medical materials donations from the PRC but there is no evidence they originate from the PLA. See cases of donations in relation to the reporting period: Link , and: Link, and: Link , and: Link , and: Link ;

                                                                                                                                        Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                        There have been medical materials donations from the PRC but there is no evidence they originate from the PLA. See cases of donations in relation to the reporting period: Link , and: Link, and: Link , and: Link , and: Link ;

                                                                                                                                        1. http://al.chineseembassy.org/eng/zagx/zajw/202007/t20200731_2533353.htm
                                                                                                                                        2. http://al.chineseembassy.org/eng/zagx/zajw/202007/t20200701_2533350.htm
                                                                                                                                        3. http://al.chineseembassy.org/eng/zagx/zajw/202006/t20200604_2533349.htm
                                                                                                                                        4. http://al.chineseembassy.org/eng/zagx/zajw/202004/t20200427_2533346.htm
                                                                                                                                        5. http://al.chineseembassy.org/eng/zagx/zajw/202004/t20200417_2533344.htm

                                                                                                                                        Answered by Edval Zoto, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                                        6.
                                                                                                                                        Exposure

                                                                                                                                        In my country, People’s Liberation Army (PLA) military personnel are permanently or rotationally deployed (excluding defense attaches and peacekeepers).

                                                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                        77 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                        5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                        82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                        Not Found

                                                                                                                                            Answered by Edval Zoto, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                            7.
                                                                                                                                            Exposure

                                                                                                                                            In my country, members of the military have received professional military education from the PRC.

                                                                                                                                            No

                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                            48 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                            34 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                            82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                            Not Found

                                                                                                                                                Answered by Edval Zoto, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                8.
                                                                                                                                                Exposure

                                                                                                                                                In my country, members of the military have received peacekeeping training from the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                No

                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                                2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                Not Found

                                                                                                                                                    Answered by Edval Zoto, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                    9.
                                                                                                                                                    Exposure

                                                                                                                                                    In my country, high-ranking retired or current military and/or intelligence officers have received direct or deferred benefits from PRC-connected individuals or entities openly or covertly (e.g. have been appointed to lucrative positions as board members or consultants with PRC-invested firms, casinos, energy companies, etc.) during or in retirement from public service.

                                                                                                                                                    No

                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                                    4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                    67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                    11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                    78 countries answered this indicator; 4 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                    Not Found

                                                                                                                                                        Answered by Edval Zoto, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                                                        10.
                                                                                                                                                        Effect

                                                                                                                                                        In my country, high-ranking retired or current military and/or intelligence officials advocate for more coordination with the People’s Liberation Army (PLA).

                                                                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                                                        1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                                        68 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                        13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                        81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                        Not Found

                                                                                                                                                            Answered by Edval Zoto, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                                            11.
                                                                                                                                                            Effect

                                                                                                                                                            My country cooperates with the People’s Liberation Army (PLA) on military exchange exercises, including drills and war games.

                                                                                                                                                            No

                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                            51 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                            31 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                            82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                            Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                Answered by Edval Zoto, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                Hide

                                                                                                                                                                Law Enforcement

                                                                                                                                                                The Law Enforcement Domain measures law enforcement cooperation between the PRC and the Index country, as well as the nature and extent of PRC-related criminal activity in the Index country.

                                                                                                                                                                1.
                                                                                                                                                                Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                My country currently maintains an extradition treaty, legal mutual assistance or other similar arrangements with the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                No

                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                32 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                50 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                  Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                  Research was conducted in database of bilateral agreements between the two countries (See: Linkëdheniet-dypalëshe ) and also in database of the General Prosecutor Office on current extraditions, LMA arrangements. See: Link)

                                                                                                                                                                  1. http://www.ambasadat.gov.al/china/sq/marr
                                                                                                                                                                  2. https://www.pp.gov.al/Bashkepunime/Instrumentet_Dypaleshe/

                                                                                                                                                                  Answered by Edval Zoto, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                                                  2.
                                                                                                                                                                  Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                  In my country, law enforcement authorities have signed cooperation agreements with the PRC on combatting terrorism.

                                                                                                                                                                  No

                                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                  1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                  55 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                  4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                  26 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                  81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                  Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by Edval Zoto, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                                                      3.
                                                                                                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                      In my country, PRC-connected gangs (such as Triad, 三合会) are known to be operating in my country.

                                                                                                                                                                      No

                                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                      1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                      52 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                      29 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                      81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                      Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                          Answered by Edval Zoto, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                                                                          4.
                                                                                                                                                                          Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                          In my country, there are reports of economic espionage targeting the private sector that were suspected to benefit PRC-connected entities.

                                                                                                                                                                          No

                                                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                          2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                          49 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                          1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                          7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                          3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                          3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                          12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                          4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                          9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                          80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                          Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                              Answered by Edval Zoto, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                                                                              5.
                                                                                                                                                                              Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                              In my country, there are reports of cyber attacks targeting government, critical infrastructure, or enterprises that were suspected to be initiated from the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                              No

                                                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                              3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                              37 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                              9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                              4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                              3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                              14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                              15 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                              79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                              Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                  Answered by Edval Zoto, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                  6.
                                                                                                                                                                                  Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                  In my country, triads are known to have threatened or used violence to coerce, intimidate or punish Chinese dissidents.

                                                                                                                                                                                  No

                                                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                  2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                  67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                  5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                  3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                  3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                  2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                  80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                  Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by Edval Zoto, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                      7.
                                                                                                                                                                                      Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                      My country has deployed video or internet surveillance systems from the PRC for law enforcement.

                                                                                                                                                                                      No

                                                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                      1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                      30 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                      51 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                      81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                      Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                          Answered by Edval Zoto, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                          8.
                                                                                                                                                                                          Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                          In my country, representatives of the PRC police force have had joint patrols with local law enforcement.

                                                                                                                                                                                          No

                                                                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                          71 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                          4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                          11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                          82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                          Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                              Answered by Edval Zoto, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                              9.
                                                                                                                                                                                              Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                              My government has detained people at the request of the PRC for committing a crime involving engagements with social movements or resistance activities in Hong Kong, Xinjiang or for other human rights or civic rights issues.

                                                                                                                                                                                              No

                                                                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                              1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                              68 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                              4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                              13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                              81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                              Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answered by Edval Zoto, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                  10.
                                                                                                                                                                                                  Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                  My country has deported Taiwan citizens to the PRC to face prosecution.

                                                                                                                                                                                                  No

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                  2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                  71 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                  4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                  9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                  80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by Edval Zoto, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                      11.
                                                                                                                                                                                                      Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                      My country has extradited or has deported individuals to the PRC, although such decisions had attracted criticisms from politicians, government employees or from local or foreign NGOs.

                                                                                                                                                                                                      No

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                      61 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                      21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                      82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answered by Edval Zoto, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Hide

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Technology

                                                                                                                                                                                                          The Technology Domain gauges the PRC’s influence over the technology sector in the Index country, including the activity and financial leverage of PRC companies, use of PRC hardware, and bilateral research partnerships.

                                                                                                                                                                                                          1.
                                                                                                                                                                                                          Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                          In my country, PRC-connected entities (such as China Mobile, China Unicom or China Telecom) or their subsidiaries provide telecom services.

                                                                                                                                                                                                          No

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                          52 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                          4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                          30 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                          82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answered by Edval Zoto, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                              2.
                                                                                                                                                                                                              Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                              In my country, telecoms have signed agreements to adopt hardwares or technical specifications of 4G or 5G cellular networks that are produced or developed by Huawei, ZTE or other PRC enterprises.

                                                                                                                                                                                                              No

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                              16 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                              5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                              4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                              3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                              27 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                              30 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                              82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                              3.
                                                                                                                                                                                                              Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                              In my country, telecoms have adopted hardware or technical specifications by PRC-connected entities in internet/wifi/telecommunication service infrastructure projects, in addition to 4G/5G cellular network.

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                              8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                              14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                              10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                              3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                              3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                              24 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                              23 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                              74 countries answered this indicator; 8 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                              There is evidence that Telecom companies in Albania have been extensively using Huawei hardware, however it is not clear what type of hardware they have been purchasing. (see: Link) Currently there are three main Telecom companies in Albania. The second largest company - One Telecommunications - has already joined the Clean Path Initiative (Link ). Vodafone Albania has been relying largely on Huawei technologies (see: Link ), however as part of Vodafone Group of companies, it may have been/ will be influenced by larger group-level policies in regard to network security (See: Link). The third largest operator – Albtelecom - has also been relying heavily on Huawei technology. (see: Link).

                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. https://businessmag.al/kompania-kineze-huawei-nder-me-aktivet-ne-fushen-e-telekomunikacionit-ne-shqiperi/
                                                                                                                                                                                                              2. https://china-cee.eu/2019/12/09/albania-political-briefing-5g-in-albania-more-about-politics-than-technology/
                                                                                                                                                                                                              3. https://china-cee.eu/2021/07/19/albania-economy-briefing-huawei-in-albania-and-the-very-nonvisible-hand-of-free-market-economy/

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Recently the Hungarian 4iG plc. has purchased Albtelecom and is negotiating the purchase of One Telecomunications.(see: Link and: Link )

                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. https://www.4ig.hu/4iG-Acquires-majority-stake-in-leading-albanian-telecommunications-company
                                                                                                                                                                                                              2. https://www.4ig.hu/4ig-could-acquire-the-fastest-growing-albanian-mobile-operator

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answered by Edval Zoto, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                              4.
                                                                                                                                                                                                              Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                              In my country, PRC-connected entities are authorized vendors to supply tech-related equipment or services to our government, military or security services.

                                                                                                                                                                                                              No

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                              1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                              28 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                              4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                              53 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                              81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Huawei is the only company present directly in Albania (through Huawei Technologies Albania shpk.). On the other side Hikvision, Dahua, Xiaomi are present in Albania through local partners and distributors/sellers of hardware. None of them has a specific status of authorized vendor in relation to supplying tech or related equipment or services to Government parties. However, Huawei has offered meaningful technological support to Albanian state owned OST (Power Transmission Operator). See: Link

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answered by Edval Zoto, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  5.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  In my country, central or local governments have collaboration (such as data collection or exchange agreement, or adoption of related hardwares) with the PRC government or PRC-connected entities on facial, voice recognition or other applications involving biometrics achieved by AI.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  42 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by Edval Zoto, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      6.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      In my country, one or more cities have procured, or have signed contracts with PRC-connected entities to establish “smart city” systems.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      35 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      25 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answered by Edval Zoto, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          7.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          In my country, financial institutions use the China Cross-Border Interbank Payment System (CIPS) clearing and settlement services system.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          63 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          18 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answered by Edval Zoto, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              8.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              In my country, PRC-connected venture capital invests in technology start-ups.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              32 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              18 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Uplift has been a start-up accelerator program initiated in 2021 in Albania. Huawei Technologies Albania was listed as one of the potential sponsor/investors in start-up ideas. (see: Link) However to date Huawei Technologies Albania has no subsidiaries or shares ownership in any subsidiary in Albania. (checked through the National Centre of Business Registry Link ). Huawei has donated also to Tirana Inc., a Universities led initiative to support student start up initiatives. (See: Link and: Link )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. https://uplift.al/12-startupe-do-te-ndjekin-programin-e-akselerimit-te-uplift-albania/

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answered by Edval Zoto, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                9.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                In my country, companies have publicly announced that they had signed MOUs to collaborate on technological development (such as collaborations in A.I., Blockchain, Cloud Computing, Big Data) with PRC-connected entities.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                31 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  In the past Huawei has been the only PRC-linked entity engaged in the ICT sector in Albania and there have been announcements on cooperation between it and other local companies. See: Link

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. http://www.arkivalajmeve.com/Huawei-marreveshje-me-Eagle-Mobile.231356/

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answered by Edval Zoto, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  10.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  In my country, PRC-connected entities are shareholders or developers of the top five popular social media/messaging apps, based on usage.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  44 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  36 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  According to Similarweb, based on Apple AppStore download figures, TikTok is the most used App in Albania. However the next four apps are: WhatsApp Messenger, YouTube, Instagram and Facebook (see: Link). According to AppFigures for Google Play Apps, TikTok is also the top app used in Albania. The next four are: Google One, Coin Master, Zynga Poker, Slotomania (see: Link).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. https://www.similarweb.com/zh-tw/apps/top/apple/store-rank/al/entertainment/top-free/iphone/
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2. https://appfigures.com/top-apps/google-play/albania/social

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by Edval Zoto, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    11.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    In my country, the central or local government(s) has collaborated with the PRC on endorsing the use of BeiDou satellite navigation system.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    64 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    17 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    No evidence found. Albania is not mentioned in Beidou website.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      The last information in this regard is the article from 2019: Link It mentions that although Beidou data is available on navigation systems, there is no endorsement from Albania.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. https://sinopsis.cz/en/are-we-real-friends-albania-china-relations-in-the-xi-era/

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by Edval Zoto, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Hide

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Domestic Politics

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      The Domestic Politics Domain evaluates PRC efforts to influence the political landscape in the Index country, and the footprint of PRC security companies.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      In my country, politicians or government employees at the sub-national level are signing agreements with the PRC government or state-owned enterprises.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      20 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      23 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Since January 2020 there have been no bilateral agreements between PRC government/SOE and Albanian sub-national level entities. The only retrieved exchanges have been some activities based on former agreements/memorandums, such as the “cities twinning” agreement between Tirana and Beijing (2008). Before January 2020 there have been various activities and agreements between the parties. In 2008 Tirana was city twinned with Beijing (See: Link ) In 2013 Tirana Municipality signed a memorandum of cooperation in the field of economic cooperation with China State Construction Engineering Ltd (Link ) , and Durres Municipality also in 2014 signed a cooperation agreement with Ningbo Municipality. (See: Linkë-takim-delegacionin-zyrtar-nga-qyteti-kinez-i-ningbo ); In 2019 Tirana Municipality hosted the 17+1 forum. (See: Link

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. http://www.panorama.com.al/projektet-strategjike-bashkia-e-tiranes-memorandum-me-kinen/
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2. https://www.durres.gov.al/bashkia/zyra-e-shtypit/540-kryebashkiaku-vangjush-dako-pret-në-takim-delegacionin-zyrtar-nga-qyteti-kinez-i-ningbo
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      3. https://tirana.al/artikull/mblidhet-ne-tirane-forumi-17-1-ne-nivel-kryetare-bashkish

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Other activities at the sub-national level included reception of Chinese community living in Tirana (See: Link), donations in celebration of particular dates (See: Link ) ; or donation of medical equipment: Link and Link ) However agreements are not of significant importance, and their nature is rather symbolic.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. https://tirana.al/artikull/bashkia-e-tiranes-dhe-ambasada-kineze-pritje-per-komunitetin-kinez-qe-jeton-ne-kryeqytet
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2. http://al.chineseembassy.org/eng/zagx/zajw/202009/t20200929_2533359.htm
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      3. http://al.chineseembassy.org/eng/zagx/zajw/202007/t20200701_2533350.htm
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      4. http://al.chineseembassy.org/eng/zagx/zajw/202002/t20200217_2533340.htm

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by Edval Zoto, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      In my country, local municipalities have sister-city ties (友好城市) with municipalities in the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      23 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Tirana has been twinned with Beijing since 2018 (See: Link and Link ) . In 2014 there have been talks between Durres and Ningbo officials in regard to twinning the cities, but no official act has been signed yet in this regard. However an agreement for friendly relationships and general cooperation has been reportedly signed in Ningbo in 2014. See: Link and: Linkë-takim-delegacionin-zyrtar-nga-qyteti-kinez-i-ningbo ) In 2015 Vlora was twinned with Yangzhou. (See: Link ) In 2016 Fier was twinned with Lanzhou. (See: Link and Link ). Tirana, Durres, Fier and Vlore are major urban and economic areas in Albania.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. https://tirana.al/artikull/10-vjetori-i-binjakezimit-mes-tiranes-dhe-pekinit and http://english.beijing.gov.cn/beijinginfo/sistercities/
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2. https://www.durres.gov.al/bashkia/zyra-e-shtypit/443-kryabashkiaku-vangjush-dako-takon-delegacionin-nga-kina-bisedime-per-binjakezimin-e-durresit-me-qytetin-ningbo
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      3. https://www.durres.gov.al/bashkia/zyra-e-shtypit/540-kryebashkiaku-vangjush-dako-pret-në-takim-delegacionin-zyrtar-nga-qyteti-kinez-i-ningbo
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      4. http://albanian.cri.cn/1301/2015/09/16/182s145292.htm
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      5. https://www.mfa.gov.cn/ce/ceal//eng/zagx/zajw/t1398022.htm
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      6. http://albanian.cri.cn/381/2011/07/26/65s109415_1.htm

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answered by Edval Zoto, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        3.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        In my country, politicians or government employees have taken trips to the PRC paid for by PRC-connected individuals or entities.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 2 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        22 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        16 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        16 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        73 countries answered this indicator; 9 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        There is no evidence for recent paid visits in PRC, however the practice from the past shows that several Albanian delegations have been invited to visit PRC on expenses paid by PRC government for meetings. Previous visits (before 2020) in PRC by politicians and government employees include: Link and: Link , and: Linkë-takim-delegacionin-zyrtar-nga-qyteti-kinez-i-ningbo While there is no explicit statement that trips have been paid for by the PRC embassy, we have confirmed that this really is the case with several participants on such visits, who told us that the PRC Embassy funds the cost of trips, as well as providing a daily allowance.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. https://arsimi.gov.al/vizita-ne-kine-nga-delegacioni-shqiptar-i-nivelit-te-larte-arsimor-i-kryesuar-nga-sekretari-i-pergjithshem-i-ministrise-se-arsimit-sportit-dhe-rinise-me-qellim-krijimin-e-bashkepunimeve-te-reja-dypal/
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2. https://kohajone.com/deputete-shqiptare-vizite-ne-kine/
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        3. https://www.durres.gov.al/bashkia/zyra-e-shtypit/540-kryebashkiaku-vangjush-dako-pret-në-takim-delegacionin-zyrtar-nga-qyteti-kinez-i-ningbo

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answered by Edval Zoto, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          4.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          In my country, politicians or government employees visit the PRC and have meetings with PRC officials and think tanks.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          25 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          32 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          PRC has several agreements with Albania and Government officials visit PRC on official tours, however this occurs quite rarely. In the period January 2020-March 2022, there is no occurrence retrieved, however before 2020 a few visits have occurred: Link and: Link , and: Linkë-takim-delegacionin-zyrtar-nga-qyteti-kinez-i-ningbo

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. https://arsimi.gov.al/vizita-ne-kine-nga-delegacioni-shqiptar-i-nivelit-te-larte-arsimor-i-kryesuar-nga-sekretari-i-pergjithshem-i-ministrise-se-arsimit-sportit-dhe-rinise-me-qellim-krijimin-e-bashkepunimeve-te-reja-dypal/
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2. https://kohajone.com/deputete-shqiptare-vizite-ne-kine/
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          3. https://www.durres.gov.al/bashkia/zyra-e-shtypit/540-kryebashkiaku-vangjush-dako-pret-në-takim-delegacionin-zyrtar-nga-qyteti-kinez-i-ningbo

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answered by Edval Zoto, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            5.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            In my country, law enforcement and judicial related training offered the PRC-connected individuals or entities has been accepted by national or subnational governments.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            46 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            16 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answered by Edval Zoto, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                6.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                In my country, there are reports of politicians or political parties receiving campaign donations that originate in the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                60 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                0 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                78 countries answered this indicator; 4 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by Edval Zoto, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    7.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    In my country, groups with reported links to the United Front Work Department (UFWD) have hosted fundraisings or have provided other forms of support for government employees, politicians or parties.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    64 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answered by Edval Zoto, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        8.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        In my country, groups with reported links to the United Front Work Department (UFWD) have made public statements opposing the candidacy of a local political candidate or party, claiming them being “anti-China”.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        78 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        0 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        0 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answered by Edval Zoto, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            9.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            In my country, politicians or government employees have publicly expressed positive views of the PRC government.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            37 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            10.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            In my country, politicians or government employees have received direct or deferred benefits from PRC-connected individuals or entities openly or covertly (e.g. have been appointed to lucrative positions as board members or consultants with PRC-invested firms, casinos, energy companies, etc.) during or in retirement from public office.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            40 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            0 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            18 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            73 countries answered this indicator; 9 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answered by Edval Zoto, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                11.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                In my country, security services (安保/保安) offered by private PRC companies are contracted by national or subnational governments.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by Edval Zoto, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Hide

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Foreign Policy

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    The Foreign Policy Domain gauges PRC efforts to achieve diplomatic objectives by influencing key actors in the Index country.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    My country’s legislature has a joint parliamentary friendship group, committee or other forms of sub-organizations with PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    25 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    57 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      In the past there has been a China-Albania Parliamentary Friendship Group established since 2000 (see: Link) until recently, which was headed by the late MP Bashkim Fino until his passing away in April 2021. After the Parliamentary elections in June 2021 and the new Parliament, the China-Albania parliamentary group has not yet been formed. In the most recent meeting between the Chinese Ambassador in Tirana and the Parliamentary Speaker Lindita Nikolla in September 2021, the formation of the Group was declared by Nikolla as “ongoing”. (see: Link). Yet no such group has been formed: Link

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. http://albanian.cri.cn/1560/2019/08/26/65s181528.htm
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2. https://www.parlament.al/News/Index/13974
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      3. https://www.parlament.al/Strukture?kategori=1002&strukture=1041

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by Edval Zoto, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Representatives of a political party in my country’s national legislature have met officially with representatives of the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      20 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      40 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answered by Edval Zoto, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          3.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          The PRC provides training to diplomats or civil servants on governance from my country (such as at 国家行政学院 or 中央党校).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          39 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          4.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          In my country, politicians or government employees have been pressured by PRC diplomats to change their political or diplomatic stances.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          41 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            The only strong criticism from Chinese diplomats against a political stance in Albania is related to US Undersecretary of State for Energy, Economic Growth and Environment Keith Krach’s visit and declarations in 2020 (see: Link). The Chinese Embassy response was: Link No further press statements or any public declaration was made by Chinese diplomats in this regard, or any opposition to Albania positions, or at least there is nothing else public.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. https://al.usembassy.gov/remarks-by-under-secretary-of-state-for-energy-economic-growth-and-environment-keith-krach-at-the-office-of-the-prime-minister-of-albania/
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2. http://al.chineseembassy.org/eng/zagx/zajw/202010/t20201004_2533360.htm

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answered by Edval Zoto, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            5.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Citizens of my country have been detained in PRC or denied exit visas, and believed to be suffering from unfair legal treatments for political reasons, a.k.a. “hostage diplomacy”.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            61 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answered by Edval Zoto, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                6.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                The head of state, head of government or foreign minister of my country has denied Taiwan’s right to participate as a member, observer or guest in WHO.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                65 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Albanian representatives have never directly denied Taiwan’s participation in WHO, at least since 2012. From 2016-2021 Albania has been represented by EU countries’ delegates in committee meetings, however Albania or EU representatives have never been taking active part in the review process (2+2) for Taiwan’s request to be admitted as an observer. Albania sticks to “One China” policy, see: Link

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. https://www.fmprc.gov.cn/mfa_eng/wjb_663304/wjbz_663308/activities_663312/202110/t20211031_10413647.html

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answered by Edval Zoto, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  7.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  My country publicly supported the appointment of a PRC official to be the head of a United Nations agency (such as the FAO or ICAO) or other intergovernmental organizations (such as INTERPOL).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  62 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  73 countries answered this indicator; 9 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by Edval Zoto, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      8.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      My government has shown support of PRC's territorial claims (such as on the South China Sea arbitration ruling issued by the UNCLOS Arbitral Tribunal in July 2016; except claims over Taiwan, which are indirectly covered in indicator 6.)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Oppose

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      0/ My country has rejected PRC’s claim

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      24 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2/ My country has remained silent

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      36 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      4/ My country has adhered to PRC’s claim

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. https://www.consilium.europa.eu/en/press/press-releases/2016/07/15/south-china-sea-arbitration/

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answered by Edval Zoto, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        9.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        My country has shown one of the following stances on PRC’s treatment of its Uyghur population.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Oppose

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        0/ My country has denounced PRC

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        31 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2/ My country has remained silent

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        32 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        4/ My country has voiced support to PRC’s stance

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        17 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        10.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        My country has shown one of the following stances on PRC’s treatment of its Tibet population.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Oppose

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        0/ My country has denounced PRC

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2/ My country has remained silent

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        46 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        4/ My country has voiced support to PRC’s stance

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. https://new-york-un.diplo.de/un-en/news-corner/201006-heusgen-china/2402648
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2. https://www.lawfareblog.com/china-factor-us-albania-relations

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answered by Edval Zoto, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          11.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          My government has not publicly criticized the PRC’s imposition of the National Security Law on Hong Kong.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Oppose

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          0/ My country has denounced PRC

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          24 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2/ My country has remained silent

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          36 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          4/ My country has voiced support to PRC’s stance

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Hide
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