Afghanistan

$516.7
39.8M
Ranking
38/ 82
Original Score

* As some Indicators can be skipped where data is unavailable, the maximum overall and Domain scores are not identical for each country. Country rankings are generated from ratios of the maximum scores and the achieved scores.

136/ 396
Executive partner
Tsz Yan Yau
Index Year
2022
Layer Scores

The Indicators have been classified by the stage of the influence process at which they occur. Some Indicators correspond to exposure to PRC influence, e.g. the presence of Confucius Institutes. Others test for pressure – such as visa denials to academics or journalists. Finally, some Indicators capture the effect of PRC influence, such as national policy changes in favor of PRC interests.
The individual Layer scores for each country are tallied and displayed via rankings.

Exposure

36%

Exposure assesses the conditions that make the target country vulnerable to PRC's influence, e.g. in terms of economic dependence, or the receiving of some form of benefit.

Pressure

12%

Pressure measures the actions that the PRC directly or indirectly exerts over the target country in order to change the behavior of people in the target country, e.g. in terms of threatening economic punishment to provoke/prevent a political decision.

Effect

43%

Effect evaluates the degree of accommodations the target country makes to the PRC, and the actual effects and impacts on the target country.

In 2020, Afghanistan had a GDP per capital of US$517, and a total population of 39.83 million (World Bank, 2021). There are roughly 2,000 to 3,000 Uyghurs in Afghanistan, a population that the PRC perceives as “cross-border people" (跨界民族/跨境民族), with their origin in the PRC territories.

Afghanistan established diplomatic relations with the People’s Republic of China in 1955. In 2022, Afghanistan was ranked 156th in Reporters Without Borders’ World Press Freedom Index, and rated Not Free in Freedom House's 2022 Global Freedom Index, with a score of 10/100.

Domain Scores
Country Percentage
Index Average

Percentage scores do not suggest some degree out of a “completely influenced” level of 100%. The percentages express the country’s score out of the total achievable amount based on the Indicators for each Domain.

  • Media
    13.6% / 30.1%
  • Academia
    27.3% / 34%
  • Economy
    18.2% / 33.6%
  • Society
    27.3% / 23.6%
  • Military
    27.3% / 23.4%
  • Law Enforcement
    56.8% / 30.2%
  • Technology
    38.6% / 40.8%
  • Domestic Politics
    47.7% / 37.2%
  • Foreign Policy
    52.3% / 41%

Media

The Media Domain evaluates how PRC entities influence public debate and media coverage about the PRC in the Index country.

1.
Exposure

In my country, there are media organizations that belong to the World Chinese Media (世界华文媒体) network.

No

Answer ( 0 / 4 )

More

Skipped

2 countries chose this answer

0/ No

42 countries chose this answer

1/ Few, but insignificant

19 countries chose this answer

2/ More than a few, but insignificant

4 countries chose this answer

3/ Few, but significant

13 countries chose this answer

4/ More than a few, and significant

2 countries chose this answer

80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

Supporting Evidence

No World Chinese Media affiliated organization in Afghanistan - the country is too unstable for the Chinese diaspora community to grow, the Chinese expat community reportedly ranged from 20 to 60 depending on stability in the country during that period.

      Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

      Hide
      2.
      Exposure

      In my country, there are journalists or media organizations which are members of the Belt and Road Media Cooperation Alliance/Union, the Belt and Road News Alliance, or other Belt and Road media networks that connected to PRC (e.g. Belt and Road Media Community, Belt and Road Journalists Network, Belt and Road News Network, or B&R TV Networks).

      No

      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

      More

      Skipped

      1 countries chose this answer

      0/ No

      39 countries chose this answer

      1/ Few, but insignificant

      23 countries chose this answer

      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

      4 countries chose this answer

      3/ Few, but significant

      14 countries chose this answer

      4/ More than a few, and significant

      1 countries chose this answer

      81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

      Supporting Evidence

      Most local journalists in Afghanistan work for foreign medias, there are only a handful of local independent medias but they lack resources and capacity. Also, they tend to be medias supported by the former Afghan government. None of them were found to have joined any Chinese media groups/networks.

          Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

          Hide
          3.
          Exposure

          In my country, there are journalists, media organizations or online influencers who have attended all-expenses paid media tours in PRC.

          Yes

          Answer ( 1 / 4 )

          More

          Skipped

          11 countries chose this answer

          0/ No

          15 countries chose this answer

          1/ Few, but insignificant

          15 countries chose this answer

          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

          5 countries chose this answer

          3/ Few, but significant

          23 countries chose this answer

          4/ More than a few, and significant

          13 countries chose this answer

          71 countries answered this indicator; 11 countries skipped this indicator

          Supporting Evidence

          Ministry of Commerce of the People’s Republic of China arranged the 20-day media management seminar in Beijing, all expenses paid by the PRC. This is a program involving both training and tour to different parts of the PRC. The 30 member group came from former Afghan government medias and independent medias supported by the former Afghan government. This shows that the PRC was attempting to engage with the former Afghan government. But rated insignificant because since Taliban took over Afghanistan, the former Afghan government lost power entirely and by extension all entities that was associated/ created by the former Afghan government such as those medias. Thus PRC engagement with those medias now have little significance.

          1. https://bakhtarnews.af/en/training-seminar-held-for-afghan-journalists-in-beijing/

            Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

            Hide
            4.
            Exposure

            In my country, there are journalists, media organizations or online influencers who have received trainings from PRC state-owned media or PRC-connected entities.

            Yes

            Answer ( 2 / 4 )

            More

            Skipped

            3 countries chose this answer

            0/ No

            37 countries chose this answer

            1/ Few, but insignificant

            16 countries chose this answer

            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

            2 countries chose this answer

            3/ Few, but significant

            14 countries chose this answer

            4/ More than a few, and significant

            10 countries chose this answer

            79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

            Supporting Evidence

            Afghan journalists conducted training visit to China, these are journalists from Afghans medias which were run under the former Afghan government. PRC has no cooperation with Taliban media. Rated insignificant because since Taliban took over Afghanistan, the former Afghan government lost power entirely and by extension all entities that was associated/ created by the former Afghan government such as those medias. Thus PRC engagement with those medias now have little significance.

            1. https://bit.ly/3MDvQyG
            2. http://www.cipg.org.cn/m/2017-04/14/content_40873027.html
            3. http://www.cuc.edu.cn/2017/0428/c1761a162016/pagem.htm

              Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

              Hide
              5.
              Exposure

              In my country, PRC state-media (including print, radio, and video) is broadcasted or distributed in a local language.

              Yes

              Answer ( 1 / 4 )

              More

              Skipped

              1 countries chose this answer

              0/ No

              24 countries chose this answer

              1/ Few, but insignificant

              22 countries chose this answer

              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

              7 countries chose this answer

              3/ Few, but significant

              18 countries chose this answer

              4/ More than a few, and significant

              10 countries chose this answer

              81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

              Supporting Evidence

              The CRI Online media outlet is broadcasting in Pashto language but less influential, public is not exposed to the media. By contract, Western medias are also broadcasting in Pashto and have way better coverage due to programs that installed radios in remote parts of Afghanistan. Thus rated 1 due to comparison.

              1. https://pushtu.cri.cn/

                Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                Hide
                6.
                Exposure

                In my country, there are local media outlets wholly or partly owned by PRC citizens or corporations.

                No

                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                More

                Skipped

                2 countries chose this answer

                0/ No

                44 countries chose this answer

                1/ Few, but insignificant

                19 countries chose this answer

                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                3 countries chose this answer

                3/ Few, but significant

                14 countries chose this answer

                4/ More than a few, and significant

                0 countries chose this answer

                80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                Supporting Evidence

                No local media presence in Afghanistan wholly run by PRC. The Chinese expat community reportedly ranged from 20 to 60 depending on stability in the country during that period, and none of them established a local media.

                    Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                    Hide
                    7.
                    Exposure

                    In my country, there are media outlets that have delivered cheap or free contents provided by PRC state-fund media.

                    Yes

                    Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                    More

                    Skipped

                    3 countries chose this answer

                    0/ No

                    22 countries chose this answer

                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                    21 countries chose this answer

                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                    6 countries chose this answer

                    3/ Few, but significant

                    23 countries chose this answer

                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                    7 countries chose this answer

                    79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                    Supporting Evidence

                    A local media called Shamshad TV is broadcasting 15 minutes China’s related news and it is portrayed as enhancing cultural and social relations between China and Afghanistan. But the media is not popular at all.

                    1. https://afghanistanchina.wordpress.com/

                      Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                      Hide
                      8.
                      Exposure

                      In my country, there are regular PRC state-media or government advertisements inserted within local newspapers, online news websites or social media.

                      No

                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                      More

                      Skipped

                      1 countries chose this answer

                      0/ No

                      38 countries chose this answer

                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                      13 countries chose this answer

                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                      7 countries chose this answer

                      3/ Few, but significant

                      15 countries chose this answer

                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                      8 countries chose this answer

                      81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                      Supporting Evidence

                      This was not observed at all locally.

                          Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                          Hide
                          9.
                          Pressure

                          In my country, there are journalists who have had pressure exerted on them by the PRC, including (but not limited to) public denouncement, revocation of journalist ID, denial of visa.

                          No

                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                          More

                          Skipped

                          1 countries chose this answer

                          0/ No

                          57 countries chose this answer

                          4/ Yes

                          24 countries chose this answer

                          81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                          Supporting Evidence

                          There have been significant pressure placed on Afghan journalists that worked for Western medias but they were exerted not by PRC but by the Taliban, detained and tortured.

                          1. https://www.reuters.com/world/asia-pacific/afghan-journalists-beaten-taliban-detention-editor-says-2021-09-09/
                          2. https://edition.cnn.com/2021/09/12/asia/afghanistan-journalists-beaten-by-taliban-intl/index.html

                            Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                            Hide
                            10.
                            Effect

                            In my country, there are incidents of media outlets censoring views critical of the PRC government.

                            No

                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                            More

                            Skipped

                            4 countries chose this answer

                            0/ No

                            51 countries chose this answer

                            1/ Few, but insignificant

                            11 countries chose this answer

                            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                            3 countries chose this answer

                            3/ Few, but significant

                            9 countries chose this answer

                            4/ More than a few, and significant

                            4 countries chose this answer

                            78 countries answered this indicator; 4 countries skipped this indicator

                            Supporting Evidence

                            So far no such public censoring of voices because there is lack of views critical of PRC/ views about the PRC in general. Medias in Afghanistan are very much concentrated on reporting about conflicts and since the PRC has very low presence in the country it is not reported much.

                                Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                Hide
                                11.
                                Effect

                                In my country, there are media personalities (including reporters, journalists or commentators) or celebrities who deny the existence of human rights abuses in the PRC (e.g. a media personality that doubts there are re-education camps for Uyghurs in Xinjiang).

                                Yes

                                Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                                More

                                Skipped

                                2 countries chose this answer

                                0/ No

                                44 countries chose this answer

                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                18 countries chose this answer

                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                4 countries chose this answer

                                3/ Few, but significant

                                9 countries chose this answer

                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                5 countries chose this answer

                                80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                Supporting Evidence

                                It is locally observed that certain commentators regards Chinese violation of human rights as western anti-China’s propaganda. But this is unpopular voice. Some senior officials from the Republic regime were also pushing PRC lines on Xinjiang, but they have been overthrown so insignificant.

                                1. http://af.china-embassy.gov.cn/sgxw/202102/t20210204_1114527.htm

                                  Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                  Hide

                                  Academia

                                  The Academia Domain measures how the PRC state attempts to restrict academic freedom by influencing or interfering with the Index country’s academic and educational activities.

                                  1.
                                  Exposure

                                  In my country, universities have established research partnerships with PRC-connected entities. (e.g. Huawei, Tencent or Alibaba)

                                  Yes

                                  Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                  More

                                  0/ No

                                  9 countries chose this answer

                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                  11 countries chose this answer

                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                  6 countries chose this answer

                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                  31 countries chose this answer

                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                  25 countries chose this answer

                                  82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                  Supporting Evidence

                                  There is little research capacity in Afghanistan in general. PRC has a dedicated research center on Afghanistan based at the Lanzhou university that does a lot of events and work with local scholars and the Chinese embassy in Kabul. CASS also work with Kabul University. Within China itself there are some Chinese researchers who dedicate their entire career in researching politics of Afghanistan. Certain Chinese academic institutions stepped up in building partnership or offering scholarship to Afghan students and academics including Kabul University. Western countries and Japan contribute more towards education for Afghans. Some Chinese companies have also worked with DAFA in Kabul to support cultural activities.

                                  1. https://www.universityworldnews.com/post.php?story=20091204094855824
                                  2. http://afuhan.org
                                  3. https://news.lzu.edu.cn/c/202007/71563.html
                                  4. https://isrs.nwu.edu.cn/info/1039/2995.htmL

                                    Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                    Hide
                                    2.
                                    Exposure

                                    In my country, there are Confucius Institutes/Classrooms.

                                    Yes

                                    Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                    More

                                    0/ No

                                    5 countries chose this answer

                                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                                    14 countries chose this answer

                                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                    5 countries chose this answer

                                    3/ Few, but significant

                                    31 countries chose this answer

                                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                                    27 countries chose this answer

                                    82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                    Supporting Evidence

                                    There is one official Confucius Institute and one Chinese school in Kabul, but there are also other influential Western schools too. Chinese language and literature department was established by the financial aid of Chinese embassy, in 2008 in Kabul University.

                                    1. https://ciee.tyut.edu.cn/info/1089/3894.htm
                                    2. https://twitter.com/nivayau/status/1323233399931170816
                                    3. https://afghanistanchinablog.wordpress.com/2017/11/26/321-students-graduated-from-chinese-department-yet/
                                    4. https://www.dailyweesa.com/?p=8092
                                    5. https://news.cgtn.com/news/2020-02-19/Students-teachers-at-Confucius-Institute-in-Kabul-encourage-China-Od519oXDS8/index.html
                                    6. https://news.cgtn.com/news/3d3d674d3255544e34457a6333566d54/index.html

                                      Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                      Hide
                                      3.
                                      Exposure

                                      My country plans to include, or does include, Chinese as a foreign language in K12 or primary education, and receives free or subsidized (e.g. offered below market price) educational books and teachers from PRC.

                                      No

                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                      More

                                      Skipped

                                      1 countries chose this answer

                                      0/ No

                                      46 countries chose this answer

                                      4/ Yes

                                      35 countries chose this answer

                                      81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                      Supporting Evidence

                                      Chinese language is not the most popular foreign language in Afghanistan and it is not included in school education system as a foreign language.

                                          Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                          Hide
                                          4.
                                          Exposure

                                          In my country, one or more think tanks and academic research centers belong to PRC-affiliated networks/associations (such as: the Silk Road Think Tank Association, Silk Road Think Tank Network [SiLKS], Belt and Road Studies Network, University Alliance of the Silk Road, University Consortium of the 21st Century Maritime Silk Road).

                                          No

                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                          More

                                          Skipped

                                          2 countries chose this answer

                                          0/ No

                                          40 countries chose this answer

                                          1/ Few, but insignificant

                                          17 countries chose this answer

                                          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                          7 countries chose this answer

                                          3/ Few, but significant

                                          14 countries chose this answer

                                          4/ More than a few, and significant

                                          2 countries chose this answer

                                          80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                          Supporting Evidence

                                          Not Found

                                              Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                              Hide
                                              5.
                                              Exposure

                                              In my country, think tanks and academic research centers have received financial support from PRC-connected individuals or entities.

                                              Yes

                                              Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                              More

                                              Skipped

                                              10 countries chose this answer

                                              0/ No

                                              21 countries chose this answer

                                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                                              11 countries chose this answer

                                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                              11 countries chose this answer

                                              3/ Few, but significant

                                              19 countries chose this answer

                                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                                              10 countries chose this answer

                                              72 countries answered this indicator; 10 countries skipped this indicator

                                              Supporting Evidence

                                              Certain academic institutions and individuals received support either in the form of capacity building or research grants. (personal knowledge)

                                                  Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                  Hide
                                                  6.
                                                  Exposure

                                                  In my country, experts participate in PRC talent recruitment programs such as the Thousand Talents Program or Changjiang Scholars program.

                                                  No

                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                  More

                                                  Skipped

                                                  3 countries chose this answer

                                                  0/ No

                                                  47 countries chose this answer

                                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                  11 countries chose this answer

                                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                  6 countries chose this answer

                                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                                  10 countries chose this answer

                                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                  5 countries chose this answer

                                                  79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                  Not Found

                                                      Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                      Hide
                                                      7.
                                                      Exposure

                                                      In my country, scholars have taken trips to the PRC paid for by PRC-connected individuals or entities.

                                                      Yes

                                                      Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                      More

                                                      Skipped

                                                      13 countries chose this answer

                                                      0/ No

                                                      17 countries chose this answer

                                                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                      15 countries chose this answer

                                                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                      11 countries chose this answer

                                                      3/ Few, but significant

                                                      12 countries chose this answer

                                                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                      14 countries chose this answer

                                                      69 countries answered this indicator; 13 countries skipped this indicator

                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                      PRC offers scholarship to Afghan students and academics in different areas.

                                                      1. https://www.globaltimes.cn/page/202204/1259139.shtml
                                                      2. https://afghanistanchinablog.wordpress.com/2017/11/21/afghan-students-afghan-government-should-be-increasing-academic-relation-with-china/
                                                      3. https://www.fltrp.com/c/2018-09-25/492016.shtml

                                                        Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                        Hide
                                                        8.
                                                        Pressure

                                                        In my country, organized PRC-connected student groups, such as Chinese Students and Scholars Associations (CSSAs), are involved in attempts to censor staff or students (e.g. by harassing students protesting human rights abuses in the PRC, or formally complaining about the identification of Taiwan as a country in lecture slides).

                                                        No

                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                        More

                                                        Skipped

                                                        1 countries chose this answer

                                                        0/ No

                                                        64 countries chose this answer

                                                        1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                        6 countries chose this answer

                                                        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                        3 countries chose this answer

                                                        3/ Few, but significant

                                                        5 countries chose this answer

                                                        4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                        3 countries chose this answer

                                                        81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                        There are no Chinese students in Afghanistan

                                                            Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                            Hide
                                                            9.
                                                            Pressure

                                                            In my country, scholars or academics have been denied visas to travel to the PRC after expressing opinions or producing scholarship that is critical of the PRC.

                                                            No

                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                            More

                                                            Skipped

                                                            7 countries chose this answer

                                                            0/ No

                                                            64 countries chose this answer

                                                            1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                            1 countries chose this answer

                                                            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                            0 countries chose this answer

                                                            3/ Few, but significant

                                                            6 countries chose this answer

                                                            4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                            4 countries chose this answer

                                                            75 countries answered this indicator; 7 countries skipped this indicator

                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                            No such cases revealed except the latest Corona-related restriction where Afghan students were stranded in Afghanistan following their vocations to home or newly selected students on the waiting for visas.

                                                                Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                Hide
                                                                10.
                                                                Effect

                                                                In my country, PRC-connected entities have been involved in school or university curriculum design, such as courses about East Asian history, modern politics, etc.

                                                                No

                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                More

                                                                Skipped

                                                                2 countries chose this answer

                                                                0/ No

                                                                64 countries chose this answer

                                                                4/ Yes

                                                                16 countries chose this answer

                                                                80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                Not Found

                                                                    Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                    Hide
                                                                    11.
                                                                    Effect

                                                                    In my country, there are confirmed reports of teachers or professors avoiding the discussion of sensitive political issues (e.g. Uyghur re-education camps, Taiwan independence, Tiananmen Square Massacre).

                                                                    No

                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                    More

                                                                    Skipped

                                                                    5 countries chose this answer

                                                                    0/ No

                                                                    65 countries chose this answer

                                                                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                    1 countries chose this answer

                                                                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                    1 countries chose this answer

                                                                    3/ Few, but significant

                                                                    6 countries chose this answer

                                                                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                    4 countries chose this answer

                                                                    77 countries answered this indicator; 5 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                    Afghanistan is in general occupied by domestic issues to spare thought on its neighbors, particularly China. Also, due to China’s little involvement in Afghanistan over the last 20 years, professors and teachers are uninterested/less interested to discuss about the sensitive political issues related to China.

                                                                        Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                        Hide

                                                                        Economy

                                                                        The Economy Domain measures the PRC’s economic leverage in the Index country, and how this is used to influence economic policy or corporate behavior in ways that favor the PRC.

                                                                        1.
                                                                        Exposure

                                                                        The PRC is my country's number one trading partner (for trade in goods only).

                                                                        No

                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                        More

                                                                        0/ No

                                                                        51 countries chose this answer

                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                        31 countries chose this answer

                                                                        82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                        PRC is the third, after Pakistan and Iran.

                                                                            Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                            Hide
                                                                            2.
                                                                            Exposure

                                                                            PRC-connected entities own more than 50% of my country’s sovereign debt.

                                                                            No

                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                            More

                                                                            Skipped

                                                                            1 countries chose this answer

                                                                            0/ No

                                                                            77 countries chose this answer

                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                            4 countries chose this answer

                                                                            81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                            PRC does not issue loans to Afghanistan due to instability.

                                                                                Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                Hide
                                                                                3.
                                                                                Exposure

                                                                                The PRC is the top customer for my country’s extractive industries.

                                                                                No

                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                More

                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                62 countries chose this answer

                                                                                4/ Yes

                                                                                20 countries chose this answer

                                                                                82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                Extractive industries in Afghanistan have been paused due to instability. Though PRC is likely eyeing Afghanistan’s mining resources but waiting for security guarantee. According to report from the Chinese Embassy in Kabul, Iran and Pakistan are the largest trading partner with Afghanistan. Only 13-17% of total Afghan export goes to China between 2015 and 2020, and the Embassy report says that the main Afghan export to China is agricultural products. Even there is some evidence of Chinese extractive projects in Afghanistan, it is extremely unclear to what capacity they are working and how the raw materials are being exported. I would be highly cautious to say that there are Chinese extractive projects going on.

                                                                                1. https://www.china-briefing.com/news/china-and-afghanistan-bilateral-trade-relationship-and-future-outlook/
                                                                                2. http://www.mofcom.gov.cn/dl/gbdqzn/upload/afuhan.pdf

                                                                                  Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                  4.
                                                                                  Exposure

                                                                                  In my country, PRC-related entities own, operate or substantially control critical infrastructure (e.g. ports, power plants, digital data centers, etc) or sensitive sectors (biotech, raw materials, etc.)

                                                                                  No

                                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                  More

                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                  36 countries chose this answer

                                                                                  4/ Yes

                                                                                  46 countries chose this answer

                                                                                  82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                  The PRC has expressed interests and have stakes in mining sector of Afghanistan but these deals never materialised/ started due to instability. Given local context, it's extremely unclear what "ownership" here means due to absence of normal business environment, because even if there was an agreement, it's already ineffective because it was likely signed with individuals from the Afghan Republic. And if the Afghan side is the Taliban, this also poses serious question.

                                                                                      Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                      5.
                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                      My country joined (or applied to join) the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB).

                                                                                      Yes

                                                                                      Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                      More

                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                      27 countries chose this answer

                                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                                      55 countries chose this answer

                                                                                      82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                      Since 2017.

                                                                                      1. https://www.aiib.org/en/about-aiib/governance/members-of-bank/index.html

                                                                                        Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                        6.
                                                                                        Exposure

                                                                                        In my country, major businesses are members of the Silk Road Chamber of International Commerce, or of the Belt and Road Industrial and Commercial Alliance, or of the Belt and Road General Chamber of Commerce.

                                                                                        Yes

                                                                                        Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                        More

                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                        41 countries chose this answer

                                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                                        41 countries chose this answer

                                                                                        82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                        Beijing has been talking (for a few years) about linking Afghanistan up to CPEC. They had even put some specific proposals on the table, but disputes between Afghanistan and Pakistan stalled them. This discussion has been re-started of late. However, it is likely that Beijing never saw Afghanistan as a real viable route of transit. As of 2020 “compared to most of the 63 economies participating in the BRI, China still does not seem to consider Afghanistan as an integral part of the project (BRI) and as an effective contributor country.”

                                                                                        1. https://asiapowerwatch.com/chinas-economic-influence-in-afghanistan-in-a-belt-road-context/
                                                                                        2. https://srcic.org/silk-road-members/

                                                                                          Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                          7.
                                                                                          Pressure

                                                                                          My country has been the target of PRC economic coercion (e.g. trade or investment sanctions) that was specifically tailored at products or services that are highly dependent on the PRC market.

                                                                                          No

                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                          More

                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                          64 countries chose this answer

                                                                                          4/ Yes

                                                                                          18 countries chose this answer

                                                                                          82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                          PRC does not impose any economic coercion on Afghanistan, it is unable to do so due to prevailed political uncertainty.

                                                                                              Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                              8.
                                                                                              Pressure

                                                                                              In my country, local businesses have been harassed, threatened, or boycotted, due to their activities or statements in support of causes deemed unacceptable by the PRC government (e.g. Taiwanese independence, Hong Kong democracy, Tibet or Xinjiang issues, etc).

                                                                                              No

                                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                              More

                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                              2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                              65 countries chose this answer

                                                                                              4/ Yes

                                                                                              15 countries chose this answer

                                                                                              80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                              Local businesses in Afghanistan are uninterested in China’s sensitive matters.

                                                                                                  Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                  9.
                                                                                                  Effect

                                                                                                  My country has free-trade agreement(s) with the PRC (either bilateral or as part of regional agreement(s)) that primarily deals with trade in goods or services, including digital goods or services.

                                                                                                  No

                                                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                  51 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                  4/ Yes

                                                                                                  31 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                  82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                  Though PRC grants tax free preferential treatment to Chinese businesses who imports from Afghanistan, but it’s limited, Afghan exports to PRC is still less than 1% of its total export.

                                                                                                  1. http://www.mofcom.gov.cn/dl/gbdqzn/upload/afuhan.pdf

                                                                                                    Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by

                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                    10.
                                                                                                    Effect

                                                                                                    In my country, central or local governments have relaxed or removed regulatory restrictions, or have established special economic zones (or free trade zones, industrial parks, etc.) to attract investments or economic participation from the PRC.

                                                                                                    No

                                                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                    47 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                                                    35 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                    82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                    It depends how the Afghanistan gain regional trust in making such efforts, particularly in the current political uncertainty under the Taliban-controlled government.

                                                                                                    1. https://www.china-briefing.com/news/china-and-afghanistan-bilateral-trade-relationship-and-future-outlook/

                                                                                                      Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                      11.
                                                                                                      Effect

                                                                                                      In my country, PRC-connected entities requisitioned infrastructure or land for failure to repay debts in a timely manner.

                                                                                                      No

                                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                      2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                      76 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                                                      4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                      80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                      Not Found

                                                                                                          Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                          Hide

                                                                                                          Society

                                                                                                          The Society Domain measures the extent and effectiveness of the PRC’s efforts to advance its soft power in the Index country, including its influence over the actions and views of local organizations and citizens.

                                                                                                          1.
                                                                                                          Exposure

                                                                                                          In my country, there are local groups or organizations with words like “Promotion of Peaceful Reunification” in their name, and they regularly publicize their views on Taiwan, Hong Kong, Tibet and Xinjiang issues.

                                                                                                          No

                                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                          1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                          49 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                          1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                          12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                          7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                          3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                          9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                          4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                          4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                          81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                          The Chinese expat community reportedly ranged from 20 to 60 depending on stability in the country during that period

                                                                                                              Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                              2.
                                                                                                              Exposure

                                                                                                              In my country, there are members and member organizations of United World Chinese Association (世界华人协会).

                                                                                                              No

                                                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                              1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                              62 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                              4/ Yes

                                                                                                              19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                              81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                              No members from Afghanistan to the UWCA

                                                                                                                  Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                  3.
                                                                                                                  Exposure

                                                                                                                  In my country, labor unions cooperate on exchanges or official visits to the All-China Federation of Trade Unions (ACFTU) in the PRC.

                                                                                                                  No

                                                                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                  1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                  68 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                  4/ Yes

                                                                                                                  13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                  81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                  Not Found

                                                                                                                      Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                      4.
                                                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                                                      In my country, there are local reports of personnel linked to the UFWD who make appearances at Chinese diaspora community events and activities (e.g. Lunar New Year events, Dragon Boat festival tournaments, etc).

                                                                                                                      No

                                                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                      2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                      50 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                      9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                      5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                      3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                      9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                      7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                      80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                      No UFWD in Afghanistan, the Chinese expat community reportedly ranged from 20 to 60 depending on stability in the country during that period.

                                                                                                                          Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                          5.
                                                                                                                          Exposure

                                                                                                                          In my country, there are PRC-connected professional associations that are closely engaged with their counterparts locally, such as All-China Journalists Association (中华全国新闻工作者协会), China Artists Association (中国艺术家协会), China Writers Association (中国作家协会) or All-China Women Federation (全国妇联).

                                                                                                                          No

                                                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                                          2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                          33 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                          1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                          25 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                          8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                          3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                          8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                          4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                          6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                          80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                          No PRC associations that engaged with these organizations, but the All-China Women Federation organized several events for Afghan organizations.

                                                                                                                          1. http://af.china-embassy.gov.cn/sgxw/201909/t20190904_1113192.htm
                                                                                                                          2. http://www.cwu.edu.cn/xww/jlhz/31975.htm

                                                                                                                            Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                            6.
                                                                                                                            Exposure

                                                                                                                            In my country, PRC-connected individuals or entities donate money or provide other types of support to religious communities and charities.

                                                                                                                            Yes

                                                                                                                            Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                            1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                            46 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                                                                            35 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                            81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                            PRC embassy often facilitates Chinese Red Cross donation to Afghanistan.

                                                                                                                            1. https://www.fmprc.gov.cn/chn/pds/wjdt/zwbd/t410290.htm
                                                                                                                            2. http://af.china-embassy.gov.cn/sgxw/202203/t20220317_10652437.htm

                                                                                                                              Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                              7.
                                                                                                                              Exposure

                                                                                                                              In my country, the PRC government or PRC-connected entities distribute entertainment products (including: drama and TV shows) or related hardwares (e.g. OTT streaming players hosting PRC media channels) freely or at a cheap price.

                                                                                                                              No

                                                                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                              2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                              38 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                              21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                              4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                              3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                              11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                              6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                              80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                              Not Found

                                                                                                                                  Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                  8.
                                                                                                                                  Effect

                                                                                                                                  Cultural products (such as films and TV shows) produced by my country’s production studios typically portray the PRC in a positive light.

                                                                                                                                  Yes

                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                                  7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                  60 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                  4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                  15 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                  75 countries answered this indicator; 7 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                  China is portrayed either positive or there is relatively an indifference.

                                                                                                                                      Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                      9.
                                                                                                                                      Effect

                                                                                                                                      In my country, celebrities regularly publish or share propaganda narratives from the PRC.

                                                                                                                                      No

                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                      67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                      10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                      0 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                      3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                      3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                      2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                      82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                      Generally celebrities (films, sports, or other) are indifferent about China.

                                                                                                                                          Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                                          10.
                                                                                                                                          Effect

                                                                                                                                          In my country, the national or local governments regularly publish or share propaganda narratives from the PRC (e.g. statements from the PRC government or embassies).

                                                                                                                                          No

                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                                                          2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                          54 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                          1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                          12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                          2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                          3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                          7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                          4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                          5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                          80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                          Not Found

                                                                                                                                              Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                                              11.
                                                                                                                                              Effect

                                                                                                                                              In my country, a majority of citizens have positive views of the PRC government.

                                                                                                                                              Yes

                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                                              7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                              50 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                              4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                              25 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                              75 countries answered this indicator; 7 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                              Sino-Afghan bilateral relations is characterised as non-interference that leaves a positive impression over general public. But also depends on the level of understanding of the subject matters. The general public desires access to the Chinese market, Yiwu used to be a hub for Afghan petty traders to buy cheap Chinese products and bring back to sell in Afghanistan.

                                                                                                                                              1. https://www.mfa.gov.cn/ce/ceaf//eng/zagx/t1566687.htm

                                                                                                                                                Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                Hide

                                                                                                                                                Military

                                                                                                                                                The Military Domain gauges the bilateral military relationship between the PRC and the Index country, including PRC efforts to influence local military personnel.

                                                                                                                                                1.
                                                                                                                                                Exposure

                                                                                                                                                My country currently imports (or receives in-kind donation of) military or law-enforcement equipment or components of equipment from the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                Yes

                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                36 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                46 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                During the former Afghan republic government China had provided military equipment and military training in certain aspects. Following Taliban’s takeover of Kabul the support is more related humanitarian assistance and health related initially, but started training towards law enforcement as well.

                                                                                                                                                1. https://ariananews.af/china-to-provide-military-aid-to-afghanistan/
                                                                                                                                                2. https://www.voanews.com/a/china-military-aid-afghanistan/3402178.html
                                                                                                                                                3. http://af.mofcom.gov.cn/article/jmxw/202206/20220603320399.shtml

                                                                                                                                                  Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                                  2.
                                                                                                                                                  Exposure

                                                                                                                                                  My country currently exports military or law-enforcement equipment or components of equipment to the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                  No

                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                                                  1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                                  74 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                  4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                  7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                  81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                  Afghanistan at the moments does not have the capacity to either produce or export military equipment to PRC.

                                                                                                                                                      Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                                      3.
                                                                                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                                                                                      My country co-develops or co-produces military or law-enforcement equipment with the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                      No

                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                                                      1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                      66 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                      15 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                      81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                      At the moments neither such level of capacity nor any agreement of co-production of military equipment with China.

                                                                                                                                                          Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                                                          4.
                                                                                                                                                          Exposure

                                                                                                                                                          In my country, there are reports that the PRC has expressed intentions or has taken actions to establish basing.

                                                                                                                                                          No

                                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                                                                          2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                                          67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                          4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                          13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                          80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                          There were rumours but no evidence.

                                                                                                                                                              Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                                                              5.
                                                                                                                                                              Exposure

                                                                                                                                                              In my country, the People’s Liberation Army (PLA) has participated in a humanitarian relief/disaster assistance (HADR) effort.

                                                                                                                                                              Yes

                                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                                                              2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                                              61 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                              4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                              19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                              80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                              PRC military jets delivered aid to new Taliban regime recently

                                                                                                                                                              1. https://www.scmp.com/news/china/diplomacy/article/3183827/chinese-plas-biggest-y-20-warplanes-boost-aid-delivery-quake

                                                                                                                                                                Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                                6.
                                                                                                                                                                Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                In my country, People’s Liberation Army (PLA) military personnel are permanently or rotationally deployed (excluding defense attaches and peacekeepers).

                                                                                                                                                                No

                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                77 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                No such attempts or plans from either side.

                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                                    7.
                                                                                                                                                                    Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                    In my country, members of the military have received professional military education from the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                    Yes

                                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                    48 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                    34 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                    82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                    Reports of military training of Afghan troops in China during the former Afghan government.

                                                                                                                                                                    1. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-china-afghanistan-idUSKCN1LM1MR
                                                                                                                                                                    2. https://www.bbc.com/pashto/afghanistan/2014/02/140222_hh-china-fm-visitst-kabul

                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                                                      8.
                                                                                                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                      In my country, members of the military have received peacekeeping training from the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                      No

                                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                      2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                      67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                      13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                      80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                      Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                          Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                                                                          9.
                                                                                                                                                                          Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                          In my country, high-ranking retired or current military and/or intelligence officers have received direct or deferred benefits from PRC-connected individuals or entities openly or covertly (e.g. have been appointed to lucrative positions as board members or consultants with PRC-invested firms, casinos, energy companies, etc.) during or in retirement from public service.

                                                                                                                                                                          No

                                                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                          4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                          67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                          4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                          11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                          78 countries answered this indicator; 4 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                          So far no such news/information have been revealed.

                                                                                                                                                                              Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                                                                              10.
                                                                                                                                                                              Effect

                                                                                                                                                                              In my country, high-ranking retired or current military and/or intelligence officials advocate for more coordination with the People’s Liberation Army (PLA).

                                                                                                                                                                              No

                                                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                              1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                              68 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                              4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                              13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                              81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                              There is no or very limited military to military joint coordination with China. Though there is the China-led SCO-Afghanistan Contact group (which was mostly MFA), but also the Quadrilateral Cooperation and Coordination Mechanism (QCCM) which brought together military staffs from Afghanistan, Pakistan, China and Tajikistan.

                                                                                                                                                                                  Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                  11.
                                                                                                                                                                                  Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                  My country cooperates with the People’s Liberation Army (PLA) on military exchange exercises, including drills and war games.

                                                                                                                                                                                  No

                                                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                  51 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                  4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                  31 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                  82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                  No mutual exchange exercises. But unconfirmed reports of PLA patrolling near Wakhan Corridor of Afghanistan bordering Xinjiang aimed at counter-terrorism activities.

                                                                                                                                                                                  1. https://asiatimes.com/2018/09/is-china-deploying-pla-troops-in-afghanistan/
                                                                                                                                                                                  2. https://www.militarytimes.com/news/pentagon-congress/2017/03/05/chinese-troops-appear-to-be-operating-in-afghanistan-and-the-pentagon-is-ok-with-it/

                                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                    Hide

                                                                                                                                                                                    Law Enforcement

                                                                                                                                                                                    The Law Enforcement Domain measures law enforcement cooperation between the PRC and the Index country, as well as the nature and extent of PRC-related criminal activity in the Index country.

                                                                                                                                                                                    1.
                                                                                                                                                                                    Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                    My country currently maintains an extradition treaty, legal mutual assistance or other similar arrangements with the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                                    Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                    32 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                    50 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                    82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                    Yes since 2017

                                                                                                                                                                                    1. http://www.gd.jcy.gov.cn/jcyw/sfxz/flfgytyxd/201812/t20181212_2440091.shtml

                                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                      2.
                                                                                                                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                      In my country, law enforcement authorities have signed cooperation agreements with the PRC on combatting terrorism.

                                                                                                                                                                                      Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                      1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                      55 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                      26 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                      81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                      Not bilateral but trilateral agreement to combat terrorism between PRC Pakistan and Afghanistan.

                                                                                                                                                                                      1. https://www.mfa.gov.cn/chn//pds/wjb/wjbz/xghd/t1522137.shtml

                                                                                                                                                                                        Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                        3.
                                                                                                                                                                                        Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                        In my country, PRC-connected gangs (such as Triad, 三合会) are known to be operating in my country.

                                                                                                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                        1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                        52 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                        29 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                        81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                        Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                            Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                            4.
                                                                                                                                                                                            Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                            In my country, there are reports of economic espionage targeting the private sector that were suspected to benefit PRC-connected entities.

                                                                                                                                                                                            No

                                                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                            2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                            49 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                            1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                            7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                            3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                            3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                            12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                            4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                            9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                            80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                            Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                5.
                                                                                                                                                                                                Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                                In my country, there are reports of cyber attacks targeting government, critical infrastructure, or enterprises that were suspected to be initiated from the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                                                Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                37 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                15 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                Hackers known to affiliate with PRC hacked security council email network of the former Republic regime. Insignificant because of new regime.

                                                                                                                                                                                                1. https://www.voanews.com/a/east-asia-pacific_voa-news-china_chinese-hackers-attacked-afghan-council-network-cybersecurity/6207719.html

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                  6.
                                                                                                                                                                                                  Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                                  In my country, triads are known to have threatened or used violence to coerce, intimidate or punish Chinese dissidents.

                                                                                                                                                                                                  No

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                  2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                  67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                  5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                  3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                  3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                  2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                  80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                  There is fear of being targeted or psychological fear within the Uighur dissidents in Afghanistan but it comes from the former Afghan government/ Taliban who cooperates with the PRC. Though the Uyghur militants in Afghanistan have expressed readiness against PRC

                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. https://www.newsy-today.com/uyghur-muslims-in-afghanistan-frightened-sirajlive-com/
                                                                                                                                                                                                  2. https://www.fdd.org/analysis/2022/06/16/turkistan-islamic-party-leader-celebrates-eid/

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                    7.
                                                                                                                                                                                                    Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                    My country has deployed video or internet surveillance systems from the PRC for law enforcement.

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                    1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                    30 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                    51 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                    81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                    It is said in the report named "China delivered security equipment to Afghanistan" that,China had provided explosive-detective equipment and security scanners that could detect and destroy explosive materials.

                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. https://www.bbc.com/pashto/afghanistan/2016/07/160710_gn_china_400_military_equipments_to_kabul_police

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                      8.
                                                                                                                                                                                                      Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                      In my country, representatives of the PRC police force have had joint patrols with local law enforcement.

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                      71 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                      11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                      82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                      9.
                                                                                                                                                                                                      Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                      My government has detained people at the request of the PRC for committing a crime involving engagements with social movements or resistance activities in Hong Kong, Xinjiang or for other human rights or civic rights issues.

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                      1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                      68 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                      13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                      81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                      The former Afghan republic arrested and handed over Muslim Uighur to China to aimed to persuade Chinese government over Pakistan in facilitating Afghan government and Taliban’s negotiations. The Republic government was very willing to cooperate with the Chinese – in part as they hoped it would help gain leverage with regards Pakistan, but also frankly as they saw the Uyghurs fighting in Afghanistan as their enemies (given they were fighting alongside the Taliban).

                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-afghanistan-taliban-china-idUSKBN0LO18020150220
                                                                                                                                                                                                      2. https://thediplomat.com/2015/02/afghanistan-transfers-captured-uyghur-militants-to-china/

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                        10.
                                                                                                                                                                                                        Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                        My country has deported Taiwan citizens to the PRC to face prosecution.

                                                                                                                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                        2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                        71 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                        9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                        80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                            11.
                                                                                                                                                                                                            Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                            My country has extradited or has deported individuals to the PRC, although such decisions had attracted criticisms from politicians, government employees or from local or foreign NGOs.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                            61 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                            21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                            82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. https://www.aljazeera.com/features/2015/2/18/china-to-neighbours-send-us-your-uighurs

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Hide

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Technology

                                                                                                                                                                                                              The Technology Domain gauges the PRC’s influence over the technology sector in the Index country, including the activity and financial leverage of PRC companies, use of PRC hardware, and bilateral research partnerships.

                                                                                                                                                                                                              1.
                                                                                                                                                                                                              Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                              In my country, PRC-connected entities (such as China Mobile, China Unicom or China Telecom) or their subsidiaries provide telecom services.

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                              52 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                              4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                              30 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                              82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                              In the sense of basic infrastructure, national fibre optics that allows telecom services.

                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. https://asiapowerwatch.com/chinas-economic-influence-in-afghanistan-in-a-belt-road-context/
                                                                                                                                                                                                              2. http://www.sasac.gov.cn/n2588025/n2588124/c8183197/content.html
                                                                                                                                                                                                              3. https://news.ifeng.com/c/88oID8a1cXS
                                                                                                                                                                                                              4. http://www.mofcom.gov.cn/dl/gbdqzn/upload/afuhan.pdf

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                2.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                In my country, telecoms have signed agreements to adopt hardwares or technical specifications of 4G or 5G cellular networks that are produced or developed by Huawei, ZTE or other PRC enterprises.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                16 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                27 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                30 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                ZTE provided GSM and 3G to Afghanistan in 2012. Not many foreign companies are willing to work in Afghanistan due to the instability so Chinese presence is significant.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. https://mcit.gov.af/en/minister-communications-and-information-technology-meets-ambassador-china-kabul
                                                                                                                                                                                                                2. https://it.sohu.com/20121123/n358475075.shtml

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  3.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  In my country, telecoms have adopted hardware or technical specifications by PRC-connected entities in internet/wifi/telecommunication service infrastructure projects, in addition to 4G/5G cellular network.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  24 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  23 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  74 countries answered this indicator; 8 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  ZTE provided GSM and 3G to Afghanistan in 2012. Not many foreign companies are willing to work in Afghanistan due to the instability so Chinese presence is significant.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. https://it.sohu.com/20121123/n358475075.shtml

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    4.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    In my country, PRC-connected entities are authorized vendors to supply tech-related equipment or services to our government, military or security services.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    28 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    53 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Huawei supplied demining tech to Afghanistan as donation from the PRC government. Huawei technology company is providing Digital Telephone switches and CDMA WLL equipment in 12 provinces and the total subscriber lines in this project are 113,000 CDMA and Fixed lines. Both Huawei and ZTE have been players in Afghanistan since before 9/11. They were part of early agreement between PRC and the previous Taliban leadership.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. https://www.mcit.gov.af/index.php/en/node/6943
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2. https://mcit.gov.af/en/annual-mcit-provincial-directors-coordination-conference
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    3. http://www.gov.cn/xinwen/2014-04/28/content_2668254.htm

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      5.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      In my country, central or local governments have collaboration (such as data collection or exchange agreement, or adoption of related hardwares) with the PRC government or PRC-connected entities on facial, voice recognition or other applications involving biometrics achieved by AI.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      42 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Very unlikely. But there are reports on collaboration of information sharing.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. https://www.afghanistantimes.af/afghanistan-china-sign-agreement-on-customs-cooperation/

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        6.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        In my country, one or more cities have procured, or have signed contracts with PRC-connected entities to establish “smart city” systems.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        35 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        25 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        No smart city agreement signed with the PRC. Afghanistan is behind in basic infrastructure thus no at a stage to have smart city.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            7.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            In my country, financial institutions use the China Cross-Border Interbank Payment System (CIPS) clearing and settlement services system.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            63 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            18 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Afghanistan uses the SWIFT service system though it is currently struggling to do so due to sanction on Taliban.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                8.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                In my country, PRC-connected venture capital invests in technology start-ups.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                32 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                18 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    9.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    In my country, companies have publicly announced that they had signed MOUs to collaborate on technological development (such as collaborations in A.I., Blockchain, Cloud Computing, Big Data) with PRC-connected entities.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    31 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    PRC built a fibre optic cable through the Wakhan Corridor – was an IMF project implemented by Chinese firms, part of a larger attempt to connect up the entire region.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. https://tolonews.com/business/afghanistan-china-connect-through-fiber-optic-network
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2. http://www.sasac.gov.cn/n2588025/n2588124/c8183197/content.html

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      10.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      In my country, PRC-connected entities are shareholders or developers of the top five popular social media/messaging apps, based on usage.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      44 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      36 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      This report provides a glimpse of social media usage in Afghanistan. Report of Heinrich Boel Stiftung.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. https://www.boell.de/en/2018/02/07/you-are-what-you-share-how-social-media-changing-afghan-society
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2. https://gs.statcounter.com/social-media-stats/all/afghanistan

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        11.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        In my country, the central or local government(s) has collaborated with the PRC on endorsing the use of BeiDou satellite navigation system.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        64 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        17 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Hide

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Domestic Politics

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            The Domestic Politics Domain evaluates PRC efforts to influence the political landscape in the Index country, and the footprint of PRC security companies.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            In my country, politicians or government employees at the sub-national level are signing agreements with the PRC government or state-owned enterprises.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            20 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            23 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                In my country, local municipalities have sister-city ties (友好城市) with municipalities in the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                23 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                local municipalities in Afghanistan are limited to local task and relatively less functional to reach to PRC arrange sister-city ties.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    3.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    In my country, politicians or government employees have taken trips to the PRC paid for by PRC-connected individuals or entities.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 2 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    22 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    16 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    16 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    73 countries answered this indicator; 9 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    During the Republic regime, the PRC has invited many officials for training programs to the PRC. See below 4 & 5 for more evidence.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        4.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        In my country, politicians or government employees visit the PRC and have meetings with PRC officials and think tanks.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        25 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        32 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Both the members of Taliban and Afghan government have visited PRC for meetings. Including younger members. Chinese officials/experts have been going since before 9/11. Various stages to the engagement. Pre-9/11, then silence for a while, then low level contacts throughout 2005 onwards, surge in 2012, flatlining again after 2014, then gradual pick up over the past few years. Worth noting the Chinese engaged with the former Republic government a lot as well. Ghani came to power pushing heavily for the relationship with China.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. http://www.china.com.cn/opinion2020/2021-08/03/content_77669426.shtml
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2. https://www.mfa.gov.cn/ce/cejo//chn/zgyw/t1079269.htm
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        3. https://www.bbc.com/zhongwen/simp/china/2016/07/160730_taliban_china
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        4. https://www.fltrp.com/c/2018-09-25/492016.shtml
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        5. https://www.daily-sun.com/post/571980/China-intends-to-increase-its-political-influence-in-Afghanistan:-Dissident

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          5.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          In my country, law enforcement and judicial related training offered the PRC-connected individuals or entities has been accepted by national or subnational governments.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          46 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          16 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          PRC presents itself as a peaceful security provider and focuses on non-controversial training topics, such as anti-drug trafficking, counter-terrorism, customs law enforcement. Even though these trainings were towards those who worked for the former Afghan government, it is rated significant because some of the law enforcement forces are still in Afghanistan and could be integrated with the new leadership.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. http://vienna.china-mission.gov.cn/chn/drugandcrime/201512/t20151215_8867261.htm
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2. http://www.ppsuc.edu.cn/info/1058/1809.htm
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          3. http://www.amgx.org/webadm/news-7439.html
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          4. http://news.uibe.edu.cn/info/1608/20469.htm
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          5. http://peixun.court.gov.cn/index.php?m=content&c=index&a=show&catid=7&id=532

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            6.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            In my country, there are reports of politicians or political parties receiving campaign donations that originate in the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            60 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            0 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            78 countries answered this indicator; 4 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            PRC is politically engaged in Afghanistan on all fronts, focusing on building relations with all parties in Afghanistan. Any senior Chinese visit to Kabul involved touching base with the Palace, the Karzai camp, the Abdullah camp and discretely the armed opposition (or Hekmatyar or whoever was up and down at any moment). So rather than not engage, they engage everybody.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                7.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                In my country, groups with reported links to the United Front Work Department (UFWD) have hosted fundraisings or have provided other forms of support for government employees, politicians or parties.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                64 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                No UFWD in Afghanistan, the Chinese expat community reportedly ranged from 20 to 60 depending on stability in the country during that period. Post-Taliban capture, the Chinese expat community grew with the arrival of petty traders, but no signs of UFWD yet.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    8.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    In my country, groups with reported links to the United Front Work Department (UFWD) have made public statements opposing the candidacy of a local political candidate or party, claiming them being “anti-China”.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    78 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    0 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    0 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    No UFWD in Afghanistan, the Chinese expat community reportedly ranged from 20 to 60 depending on stability in the country during that period.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        9.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        In my country, politicians or government employees have publicly expressed positive views of the PRC government.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        37 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Both Taliban and the former Afghan government politicians and employee hold positive views toward PRC government

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. https://insiderpaper.com/china-belt-and-road-afghanistan-us-forces-leave/
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2. https://www.bbc.com/pashto/afghanistan-39200850
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        3. https://bit.ly/3lbRHkI
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        4. https://bit.ly/3NkJAyr
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        5. https://bit.ly/39oYN2u

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          10.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          In my country, politicians or government employees have received direct or deferred benefits from PRC-connected individuals or entities openly or covertly (e.g. have been appointed to lucrative positions as board members or consultants with PRC-invested firms, casinos, energy companies, etc.) during or in retirement from public office.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          40 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          0 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          18 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          73 countries answered this indicator; 9 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          No clear evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              11.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              In my country, security services (安保/保安) offered by private PRC companies are contracted by national or subnational governments.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              China has given non-lethal security equipment (see Nuctech at Kabul airport), as well as mountain forces in Badakhshan. There are also reports that over the years they have given military aid to the Taliban, but not clear how substantial. In 2011, the UK and US complained formally to the Chinese about the volumes of Taliban with new Chinese military hardware they were finding.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. https://jp.reuters.com/article/us-afghanistan-security/kabul-security-gates-in-storage-as-afghan-officials-trade-accusations-idUSKBN14330G
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2. https://www.ariananews.af/china-to-create-mountain-brigade-for-afghan-army-in-badakhshan/

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Hide

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Foreign Policy

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                The Foreign Policy Domain gauges PRC efforts to achieve diplomatic objectives by influencing key actors in the Index country.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                My country’s legislature has a joint parliamentary friendship group, committee or other forms of sub-organizations with PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                25 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                57 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                There is a joint friendship group, Afghan members are all former key officials. It's not strictly a parliamentary friendship group.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. https://www.mfa.gov.cn/ce/ceaf/chn/zagx/t1630806.htm
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2. http://af.china-embassy.gov.cn/zagx/202105/t20210520_8912957.htm

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Representatives of a political party in my country’s national legislature have met officially with representatives of the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  20 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  40 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  The PRC has kept up with meetings with both the members of Taliban and the Afghan government during the days which these two sides are in power.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. https://www.mfa.gov.cn/ce/cegv//eng/zgyw/t1895950.htm
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2. https://www.rfi.fr/cn/国际/20220324-王毅首访塔利班执掌下的阿富汗
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  3. https://www.fmprc.gov.cn/web/wjbz_673089/zyhd_673091/201601/t20160126_7575975.shtml

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    3.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    The PRC provides training to diplomats or civil servants on governance from my country (such as at 国家行政学院 or 中央党校).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 2 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    39 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Many. PRC provided a lot of training programs, a variety of topics, to the members of former Afghan government in effort to induce some degree of stability in Afghanistan. But since Taliban came to power in August 2021 all of this efforts evaporated because the former government is ousted.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. https://www.shzu.edu.cn/2019/0531/c2a129355/page.htm
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2. http://wsbm.shzu.edu.cn/2019/1030/c1257a135008/page.htm
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    3. http://www.fecc.agri.cn/fzyz/201901/t20190108_334971.html
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    4. http://www.gov.cn/gzdt/2007-12/28/content_846435.htm
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    5. http://www.chengdu.cgs.gov.cn/tpxw_4937/201811/t20181109_471040.html
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    6. https://www.court.gov.cn/zixun-xiangqing-125781.html
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    7. http://news.cufe.edu.cn/info/1002/43598.htm
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    8. https://case.iprcc.org.cn/Home/Index/skip/cid/5328.html
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    9. http://politics.people.com.cn/n/2014/0812/c70731-25450931.html
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    10. https://www.nau.edu.cn/2019/0618/c5812a56007/page.htm

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      4.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      In my country, politicians or government employees have been pressured by PRC diplomats to change their political or diplomatic stances.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      41 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      PRC has little visible political influence compared to US, Pakistan, India in Afghanistan. However, the idea of obtaining Chinese investment to back its regime has been a powerful tool for both the Taliban and the Republic regime. One year after the Taliban secured Afghanistan, it's clear that the Chinese side uses the opportunity of investment as a pressure point.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. http://af.china-embassy.gov.cn/sgxw/202102/t20210204_1114527.htm

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        5.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Citizens of my country have been detained in PRC or denied exit visas, and believed to be suffering from unfair legal treatments for political reasons, a.k.a. “hostage diplomacy”.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        61 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            6.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            The head of state, head of government or foreign minister of my country has denied Taiwan’s right to participate as a member, observer or guest in WHO.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            65 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                7.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                My country publicly supported the appointment of a PRC official to be the head of a United Nations agency (such as the FAO or ICAO) or other intergovernmental organizations (such as INTERPOL).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                62 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                73 countries answered this indicator; 9 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    8.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    My government has shown support of PRC's territorial claims (such as on the South China Sea arbitration ruling issued by the UNCLOS Arbitral Tribunal in July 2016; except claims over Taiwan, which are indirectly covered in indicator 6.)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Support

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    0/ My country has rejected PRC’s claim

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    24 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2/ My country has remained silent

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    36 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    4/ My country has adhered to PRC’s claim

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Both Taliban and Afghan government supported PRC claims on South China Sea

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. http://news.cctv.com/2016/05/18/ARTI9KgcaW64KNMKgw9bKAwe160518.shtml
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2. https://big5.sputniknews.cn/20160517/1019298865.html

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      9.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      My country has shown one of the following stances on PRC’s treatment of its Uyghur population.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Support

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      0/ My country has denounced PRC

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      31 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2/ My country has remained silent

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      32 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      4/ My country has voiced support to PRC’s stance

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      17 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Both Taliban and Afghan government supported PRC claims on PRC’s policy in Xinjiang.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. https://mil.news.sina.com.cn/2021-07-10/doc-ikqciyzk4706700.shtml
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2. https://www.bbc.com/zhongwen/trad/world/2014/10/141028_china_afghanistan

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        10.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        My country has shown one of the following stances on PRC’s treatment of its Tibet population.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Silence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        0/ My country has denounced PRC

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2/ My country has remained silent

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        46 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        4/ My country has voiced support to PRC’s stance

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Both the former republic Afghan government and currently Taliban observe a cautious silence over human plight of Tibet.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            11.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            My government has not publicly criticized the PRC’s imposition of the National Security Law on Hong Kong.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Support

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            0/ My country has denounced PRC

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            24 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2/ My country has remained silent

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            36 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            4/ My country has voiced support to PRC’s stance

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Sino-Afghan bilateral relations are characterised by undeclared policy of non-interference in each others internal affairs which Chinese policy of Hong Kong is no exception.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. https://thediplomat.com/2020/10/which-countries-support-china-on-hong-kongs-national-security-law/
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2. http://af.china-embassy.gov.cn/zagx/202006/t20200603_1167051.htm

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Hide
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