South Africa

$6,994.2
60M
Ranking
5/ 82
Original Score

* As some Indicators can be skipped where data is unavailable, the maximum overall and Domain scores are not identical for each country. Country rankings are generated from ratios of the maximum scores and the achieved scores.

219/ 396
Executive partner
Code for Africa
Index Year
2022
Layer Scores

The Indicators have been classified by the stage of the influence process at which they occur. Some Indicators correspond to exposure to PRC influence, e.g. the presence of Confucius Institutes. Others test for pressure – such as visa denials to academics or journalists. Finally, some Indicators capture the effect of PRC influence, such as national policy changes in favor of PRC interests.
The individual Layer scores for each country are tallied and displayed via rankings.

Exposure

67%

Exposure assesses the conditions that make the target country vulnerable to PRC's influence, e.g. in terms of economic dependence, or the receiving of some form of benefit.

Pressure

46%

Pressure measures the actions that the PRC directly or indirectly exerts over the target country in order to change the behavior of people in the target country, e.g. in terms of threatening economic punishment to provoke/prevent a political decision.

Effect

35%

Effect evaluates the degree of accommodations the target country makes to the PRC, and the actual effects and impacts on the target country.

In 2021, South Africa had a GDP per capita of US$6,994 and a total population of 60.04 million people, with the Chinese population comprising roughly 500,000 people, or 1.18% of the total population.

South Africa established diplomatic relations with the People's Republic of China in 1998. South Africa was ranked 35th in Reporters Without Borders' 2022 World Press Freedom Index, and free in Freedom House's 2022 Global Freedom Status, with a score of 79/100.

Domain Scores
Country Percentage
Index Average

Percentage scores do not suggest some degree out of a “completely influenced” level of 100%. The percentages express the country’s score out of the total achievable amount based on the Indicators for each Domain.

  • Media
    56.8% / 30.1%
  • Academia
    50.0% / 34%
  • Economy
    36.4% / 33.6%
  • Society
    40.9% / 23.6%
  • Military
    18.2% / 23.4%
  • Law Enforcement
    50.0% / 30.2%
  • Technology
    93.2% / 40.8%
  • Domestic Politics
    75.0% / 37.2%
  • Foreign Policy
    77.3% / 41%

Media

The Media Domain evaluates how PRC entities influence public debate and media coverage about the PRC in the Index country.

1.
Exposure

In my country, there are media organizations that belong to the World Chinese Media (世界华文媒体) network.

Yes

Answer ( 3 / 4 )

More

Skipped

2 countries chose this answer

0/ No

42 countries chose this answer

1/ Few, but insignificant

19 countries chose this answer

2/ More than a few, but insignificant

4 countries chose this answer

3/ Few, but significant

13 countries chose this answer

4/ More than a few, and significant

2 countries chose this answer

80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

Hide
2.
Exposure

In my country, there are journalists or media organizations which are members of the Belt and Road Media Cooperation Alliance/Union, the Belt and Road News Alliance, or other Belt and Road media networks that connected to PRC (e.g. Belt and Road Media Community, Belt and Road Journalists Network, Belt and Road News Network, or B&R TV Networks).

Yes

Answer ( 3 / 4 )

More

Skipped

1 countries chose this answer

0/ No

39 countries chose this answer

1/ Few, but insignificant

23 countries chose this answer

2/ More than a few, but insignificant

4 countries chose this answer

3/ Few, but significant

14 countries chose this answer

4/ More than a few, and significant

1 countries chose this answer

81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

Supporting Evidence

There are two media organisations linked to the B and R News Alliance. 1. The China Media Group set up a new collaboration with 36 partners, including Independent Media Group in South Africa. However, Tencent is a member, which is 30% owned by Naspers, which in turn is the holding company for Media24 - South Africa's largest media company.

  1. https://www.iol.co.za/news/partnered/china-media-group-has-set-up-a-new-collaboration-platform-with-africa-6492e7ef-fcbf-4e8e-8857-21b064f01afd
  2. https://edition.cnn.com/2022/06/28/investing/tencent-stock-prosus-naspers-intl-hnk/index.html

    Answered by Amanda Strydom, and has been reviewed by Chris Roper and Joyce Lin

    Hide
    3.
    Exposure

    In my country, there are journalists, media organizations or online influencers who have attended all-expenses paid media tours in PRC.

    Yes

    Answer ( 3 / 4 )

    More

    Skipped

    11 countries chose this answer

    0/ No

    15 countries chose this answer

    1/ Few, but insignificant

    15 countries chose this answer

    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

    5 countries chose this answer

    3/ Few, but significant

    23 countries chose this answer

    4/ More than a few, and significant

    13 countries chose this answer

    71 countries answered this indicator; 11 countries skipped this indicator

    Supporting Evidence

    The Independent is the third-largest media house in South Africa.

    1. https://www.iol.co.za/weekend-argus/news/china-welcomes-african-asian-reporters-for-media-co-operation-programme-19542948

      Answered by Amanda Strydom, and has been reviewed by Chris Roper and Joyce Lin

      Hide
      4.
      Exposure

      In my country, there are journalists, media organizations or online influencers who have received trainings from PRC state-owned media or PRC-connected entities.

      No

      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

      More

      Skipped

      3 countries chose this answer

      0/ No

      37 countries chose this answer

      1/ Few, but insignificant

      16 countries chose this answer

      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

      2 countries chose this answer

      3/ Few, but significant

      14 countries chose this answer

      4/ More than a few, and significant

      10 countries chose this answer

      79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

      Supporting Evidence

      Finding hard evidence of this has been tricky, but China as part of the BRICS has done training with South African journalists.

          Answered by Chris Roper, and has been reviewed by Amanda Strydom

          Hide
          5.
          Exposure

          In my country, PRC state-media (including print, radio, and video) is broadcasted or distributed in a local language.

          Yes

          Answer ( 4 / 4 )

          More

          Skipped

          1 countries chose this answer

          0/ No

          24 countries chose this answer

          1/ Few, but insignificant

          22 countries chose this answer

          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

          7 countries chose this answer

          3/ Few, but significant

          18 countries chose this answer

          4/ More than a few, and significant

          10 countries chose this answer

          81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

          Supporting Evidence

          CGTN has a 24-hour channel on DStv. CCTV4 broadcasts in English. China Radio International broadcasts in English on satellite radio.

              Answered by Amanda Strydom, and has been reviewed by Chris Roper

              Hide
              6.
              Exposure

              In my country, there are local media outlets wholly or partly owned by PRC citizens or corporations.

              Yes

              Answer ( 3 / 4 )

              More

              Skipped

              2 countries chose this answer

              0/ No

              44 countries chose this answer

              1/ Few, but insignificant

              19 countries chose this answer

              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

              3 countries chose this answer

              3/ Few, but significant

              14 countries chose this answer

              4/ More than a few, and significant

              0 countries chose this answer

              80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

              Supporting Evidence

              Sekunjalo Independent Media Consortium - Two Chinese State Owned Enterprises (China International Television Corporation and the China Africa Development Fund) own 20%.

                  Answered by Amanda Strydom, and has been reviewed by Chris Roper

                  Hide
                  7.
                  Exposure

                  In my country, there are media outlets that have delivered cheap or free contents provided by PRC state-fund media.

                  Yes

                  Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                  More

                  Skipped

                  3 countries chose this answer

                  0/ No

                  22 countries chose this answer

                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                  21 countries chose this answer

                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                  6 countries chose this answer

                  3/ Few, but significant

                  23 countries chose this answer

                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                  7 countries chose this answer

                  79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                  Supporting Evidence

                  Independent Media publish regular PCR opinion articles on the front page of their newspapers and websites.

                  1. https://www.iol.co.za/capetimes/opinion/genocide-tag-against-china-is-the-lie-of-the-century-60eee326-654e-49da-82ab-e1209f75cc7b

                    Answered by Amanda Strydom, and has been reviewed by Chris Roper

                    Hide
                    8.
                    Exposure

                    In my country, there are regular PRC state-media or government advertisements inserted within local newspapers, online news websites or social media.

                    Yes

                    Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                    More

                    Skipped

                    1 countries chose this answer

                    0/ No

                    38 countries chose this answer

                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                    13 countries chose this answer

                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                    7 countries chose this answer

                    3/ Few, but significant

                    15 countries chose this answer

                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                    8 countries chose this answer

                    81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                    Supporting Evidence

                    Independent Media regularly publish sponsored content from PRC

                    1. https://www.iol.co.za/news/sponsored/the-facts-about-the-uyghur-peoples-life-in-xinjiang-should-not-be-ignored-ebeed587-28c6-4edf-8e8f-4c1e49490d9b

                      Answered by Amanda Strydom, and has been reviewed by Chris Roper

                      Hide
                      9.
                      Pressure

                      In my country, there are journalists who have had pressure exerted on them by the PRC, including (but not limited to) public denouncement, revocation of journalist ID, denial of visa.

                      No

                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                      More

                      Skipped

                      1 countries chose this answer

                      0/ No

                      57 countries chose this answer

                      4/ Yes

                      24 countries chose this answer

                      81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                      Supporting Evidence

                      No evidence within the reporting period.

                          Answered by Amanda Strydom, and has been reviewed by Chris Roper

                          Hide
                          10.
                          Effect

                          In my country, there are incidents of media outlets censoring views critical of the PRC government.

                          Yes

                          Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                          More

                          Skipped

                          4 countries chose this answer

                          0/ No

                          51 countries chose this answer

                          1/ Few, but insignificant

                          11 countries chose this answer

                          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                          3 countries chose this answer

                          3/ Few, but significant

                          9 countries chose this answer

                          4/ More than a few, and significant

                          4 countries chose this answer

                          78 countries answered this indicator; 4 countries skipped this indicator

                          Supporting Evidence

                          A weekly column in the South African newspaper, which forms part of the Independent Media Group, was canceled due to the discussion of the Uighur Muslims in Xinjiang.

                          1. https://foreignpolicy.com/2018/09/14/china-is-buying-african-medias-silence/

                            Answered by Amanda Strydom, and has been reviewed by Chris Roper and Joyce Lin

                            Hide
                            11.
                            Effect

                            In my country, there are media personalities (including reporters, journalists or commentators) or celebrities who deny the existence of human rights abuses in the PRC (e.g. a media personality that doubts there are re-education camps for Uyghurs in Xinjiang).

                            No

                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                            More

                            Skipped

                            2 countries chose this answer

                            0/ No

                            44 countries chose this answer

                            1/ Few, but insignificant

                            18 countries chose this answer

                            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                            4 countries chose this answer

                            3/ Few, but significant

                            9 countries chose this answer

                            4/ More than a few, and significant

                            5 countries chose this answer

                            80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                            Supporting Evidence

                            No evidence in the reporting period.

                                Answered by Amanda Strydom, and has been reviewed by Chris Roper

                                Hide

                                Academia

                                The Academia Domain measures how the PRC state attempts to restrict academic freedom by influencing or interfering with the Index country’s academic and educational activities.

                                1.
                                Exposure

                                In my country, universities have established research partnerships with PRC-connected entities. (e.g. Huawei, Tencent or Alibaba)

                                Yes

                                Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                More

                                0/ No

                                9 countries chose this answer

                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                11 countries chose this answer

                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                6 countries chose this answer

                                3/ Few, but significant

                                31 countries chose this answer

                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                25 countries chose this answer

                                82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                Supporting Evidence

                                In 2020, The South African College Principals Organisation (Sacpo) and Huawei signed a memorandum of understanding to roll out information and communication technology (ICT) academies in all of South Africa’s 50 technical and vocational education and training (TVET) colleges by 2021. Alibaba Business School and the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) brought 29 young entrepreneurs from 11 countries across Africa to the Alibaba campus in Hangzhou, China for the third eFounders Fellowship cohort, including three from South Africa.

                                1. https://unctad.org/news/alibaba-business-school-and-unctad-train-african-entrepreneurs
                                2. https://www.engineeringnews.co.za/article/sacpohuawei-to-roll-out-ict-academies-across-south-african-tvet-colleges-by-2021-2020-12-09

                                  Answered by Amanda Strydom, and has been reviewed by Chris Roper and Joyce Lin

                                  Hide
                                  2.
                                  Exposure

                                  In my country, there are Confucius Institutes/Classrooms.

                                  Yes

                                  Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                  More

                                  0/ No

                                  5 countries chose this answer

                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                  14 countries chose this answer

                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                  5 countries chose this answer

                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                  31 countries chose this answer

                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                  27 countries chose this answer

                                  82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                  Hide
                                  3.
                                  Exposure

                                  My country plans to include, or does include, Chinese as a foreign language in K12 or primary education, and receives free or subsidized (e.g. offered below market price) educational books and teachers from PRC.

                                  Yes

                                  Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                  More

                                  Skipped

                                  1 countries chose this answer

                                  0/ No

                                  46 countries chose this answer

                                  4/ Yes

                                  35 countries chose this answer

                                  81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                  Supporting Evidence

                                  The Chinese government will send Chinese teachers to South Africa and donate 2,000 textbooks to assist in teaching Mandarin in schools until a South African textbook is developed, Basic Education Minister Angie Motshekga said. South African public schools will begin offering Mandarin as an optional second language in 2016, according to an announcement from the country’s education ministry.

                                  1. http://www.xinhuanet.com//english/2017-03/26/c_136159118.htm
                                  2. https://qz.com/africa/477748/south-africas-schools-will-start-teaching-mandarin-and-continue-neglecting-local-languages/

                                    Answered by Amanda Strydom, and has been reviewed by Chris Roper and Joyce Lin

                                    Hide
                                    4.
                                    Exposure

                                    In my country, one or more think tanks and academic research centers belong to PRC-affiliated networks/associations (such as: the Silk Road Think Tank Association, Silk Road Think Tank Network [SiLKS], Belt and Road Studies Network, University Alliance of the Silk Road, University Consortium of the 21st Century Maritime Silk Road).

                                    Yes

                                    Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                    More

                                    Skipped

                                    2 countries chose this answer

                                    0/ No

                                    40 countries chose this answer

                                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                                    17 countries chose this answer

                                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                    7 countries chose this answer

                                    3/ Few, but significant

                                    14 countries chose this answer

                                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                                    2 countries chose this answer

                                    80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                    Supporting Evidence

                                    The Centre for Chinese Studies (CCS) at Stellenbosch University originated from a joint undertaking between the governments of South Africa and the People’s Republic of China.

                                    1. http://www0.sun.ac.za/ccs/?cat=17

                                      Answered by Amanda Strydom, and has been reviewed by Chris Roper and Joyce Lin

                                      Hide
                                      5.
                                      Exposure

                                      In my country, think tanks and academic research centers have received financial support from PRC-connected individuals or entities.

                                      Yes

                                      Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                      More

                                      Skipped

                                      10 countries chose this answer

                                      0/ No

                                      21 countries chose this answer

                                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                                      11 countries chose this answer

                                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                      11 countries chose this answer

                                      3/ Few, but significant

                                      19 countries chose this answer

                                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                                      10 countries chose this answer

                                      72 countries answered this indicator; 10 countries skipped this indicator

                                      Supporting Evidence

                                      South Africa think tank PriceMetrics Inclusive Society Institute, South Africa China-Africa Think Tanks Forum

                                      1. http://www.news.cn/english/2021-10/22/c_1310262037.htm
                                      2. https://kknews.cc/finance/8ko826n.html
                                      3. https://www.bg3.co/a/guo-jia-neng-yuan-ji-tuan-long-yuan-nan-fei-gong-si-lian-he-nan-fei-zhi-ku-fa-bu-yan-jiu-bao-gao.html

                                      Supplementary Notes

                                      South Africa and China have signed agreements to build 'Science Parks' for cross-border innovation drives: Link

                                      1. https://www.researchprofessionalnews.com/rr-news-africa-partnerships-2020-12-south-africa-signs-science-parks-agreement-with-china/

                                      Answered by Amanda Strydom, and has been reviewed by Chris Roper and Joyce Lin

                                      Hide
                                      6.
                                      Exposure

                                      In my country, experts participate in PRC talent recruitment programs such as the Thousand Talents Program or Changjiang Scholars program.

                                      Yes

                                      Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                      More

                                      Skipped

                                      3 countries chose this answer

                                      0/ No

                                      47 countries chose this answer

                                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                                      11 countries chose this answer

                                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                      6 countries chose this answer

                                      3/ Few, but significant

                                      10 countries chose this answer

                                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                                      5 countries chose this answer

                                      79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                                      Hide
                                      7.
                                      Exposure

                                      In my country, scholars have taken trips to the PRC paid for by PRC-connected individuals or entities.

                                      No

                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                      More

                                      Skipped

                                      13 countries chose this answer

                                      0/ No

                                      17 countries chose this answer

                                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                                      15 countries chose this answer

                                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                      11 countries chose this answer

                                      3/ Few, but significant

                                      12 countries chose this answer

                                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                                      14 countries chose this answer

                                      69 countries answered this indicator; 13 countries skipped this indicator

                                      Supporting Evidence

                                      No evidence within the research period

                                          Answered by Amanda Strydom, and has been reviewed by Chris Roper and Joyce Lin

                                          Hide
                                          8.
                                          Pressure

                                          In my country, organized PRC-connected student groups, such as Chinese Students and Scholars Associations (CSSAs), are involved in attempts to censor staff or students (e.g. by harassing students protesting human rights abuses in the PRC, or formally complaining about the identification of Taiwan as a country in lecture slides).

                                          No

                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                          More

                                          Skipped

                                          1 countries chose this answer

                                          0/ No

                                          64 countries chose this answer

                                          1/ Few, but insignificant

                                          6 countries chose this answer

                                          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                          3 countries chose this answer

                                          3/ Few, but significant

                                          5 countries chose this answer

                                          4/ More than a few, and significant

                                          3 countries chose this answer

                                          81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                          Supporting Evidence

                                          No evidence of this during research period.

                                              Answered by Amanda Strydom, and has been reviewed by Chris Roper and Joyce Lin

                                              Hide
                                              9.
                                              Pressure

                                              In my country, scholars or academics have been denied visas to travel to the PRC after expressing opinions or producing scholarship that is critical of the PRC.

                                              No

                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                              More

                                              Skipped

                                              7 countries chose this answer

                                              0/ No

                                              64 countries chose this answer

                                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                                              1 countries chose this answer

                                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                              0 countries chose this answer

                                              3/ Few, but significant

                                              6 countries chose this answer

                                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                                              4 countries chose this answer

                                              75 countries answered this indicator; 7 countries skipped this indicator

                                              Supporting Evidence

                                              No evidence

                                                  Answered by Amanda Strydom, and has been reviewed by Chris Roper and Joyce Lin

                                                  Hide
                                                  10.
                                                  Effect

                                                  In my country, PRC-connected entities have been involved in school or university curriculum design, such as courses about East Asian history, modern politics, etc.

                                                  No

                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                  More

                                                  Skipped

                                                  2 countries chose this answer

                                                  0/ No

                                                  64 countries chose this answer

                                                  4/ Yes

                                                  16 countries chose this answer

                                                  80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                  No evidence of this

                                                      Answered by Amanda Strydom, and has been reviewed by Chris Roper and Joyce Lin

                                                      Hide
                                                      11.
                                                      Effect

                                                      In my country, there are confirmed reports of teachers or professors avoiding the discussion of sensitive political issues (e.g. Uyghur re-education camps, Taiwan independence, Tiananmen Square Massacre).

                                                      No

                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                      More

                                                      Skipped

                                                      5 countries chose this answer

                                                      0/ No

                                                      65 countries chose this answer

                                                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                      1 countries chose this answer

                                                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                      1 countries chose this answer

                                                      3/ Few, but significant

                                                      6 countries chose this answer

                                                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                      4 countries chose this answer

                                                      77 countries answered this indicator; 5 countries skipped this indicator

                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                      No evidence of this

                                                          Answered by Amanda Strydom, and has been reviewed by Chris Roper and Joyce Lin

                                                          Hide

                                                          Economy

                                                          The Economy Domain measures the PRC’s economic leverage in the Index country, and how this is used to influence economic policy or corporate behavior in ways that favor the PRC.

                                                          1.
                                                          Exposure

                                                          The PRC is my country's number one trading partner (for trade in goods only).

                                                          Yes

                                                          Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                          More

                                                          0/ No

                                                          51 countries chose this answer

                                                          4/ Yes

                                                          31 countries chose this answer

                                                          82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                          Not Found

                                                          1. https://www.dailymaverick.co.za/article/2020-04-20-time-to-make-south-africas-relationship-with-china-mutually-beneficial/

                                                            Answered by Amanda Strydom, and has been reviewed by Chris Roper and Joyce Lin

                                                            Hide
                                                            2.
                                                            Exposure

                                                            PRC-connected entities own more than 50% of my country’s sovereign debt.

                                                            No

                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                            More

                                                            Skipped

                                                            1 countries chose this answer

                                                            0/ No

                                                            77 countries chose this answer

                                                            4/ Yes

                                                            4 countries chose this answer

                                                            81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                            No evidence

                                                                Answered by Amanda Strydom, and has been reviewed by Chris Roper and Joyce Lin

                                                                Hide
                                                                3.
                                                                Exposure

                                                                The PRC is the top customer for my country’s extractive industries.

                                                                Yes

                                                                Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                More

                                                                0/ No

                                                                62 countries chose this answer

                                                                4/ Yes

                                                                20 countries chose this answer

                                                                82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                Iron and Gold

                                                                1. https://www.miningweekly.com/article/south-africas-iron-ore-sector-to-benefit-from-rising-chinese-demand-2020-10-07/rep_id:3650

                                                                  Answered by Amanda Strydom, and has been reviewed by Chris Roper and Joyce Lin

                                                                  Hide
                                                                  4.
                                                                  Exposure

                                                                  In my country, PRC-related entities own, operate or substantially control critical infrastructure (e.g. ports, power plants, digital data centers, etc) or sensitive sectors (biotech, raw materials, etc.)

                                                                  Yes

                                                                  Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                  More

                                                                  0/ No

                                                                  36 countries chose this answer

                                                                  4/ Yes

                                                                  46 countries chose this answer

                                                                  82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                  Between 2007 and 2020 Chinese development banks provided $23bn for African infrastructure.

                                                                  1. https://www.economist.com/middle-east-and-africa/how-chinese-firms-have-dominated-african-infrastructure/21807721

                                                                    Answered by Amanda Strydom, and has been reviewed by Chris Roper and Joyce Lin

                                                                    Hide
                                                                    5.
                                                                    Exposure

                                                                    My country joined (or applied to join) the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB).

                                                                    No

                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                    More

                                                                    0/ No

                                                                    27 countries chose this answer

                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                    55 countries chose this answer

                                                                    82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                    Not a member, but listed as a 'prospective founder'

                                                                    1. https://www.aiib.org/en/about-aiib/governance/members-of-bank/index.html

                                                                      Answered by Amanda Strydom, and has been reviewed by Chris Roper and Joyce Lin

                                                                      Hide
                                                                      6.
                                                                      Exposure

                                                                      In my country, major businesses are members of the Silk Road Chamber of International Commerce, or of the Belt and Road Industrial and Commercial Alliance, or of the Belt and Road General Chamber of Commerce.

                                                                      Yes

                                                                      Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                      More

                                                                      0/ No

                                                                      41 countries chose this answer

                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                      41 countries chose this answer

                                                                      82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                      Not Found

                                                                      1. https://www.dailymaverick.co.za/article/2021-01-08-belt-and-road-tightening-is-the-silk-road-unravelling/

                                                                        Answered by Amanda Strydom, and has been reviewed by Chris Roper and Joyce Lin

                                                                        Hide
                                                                        7.
                                                                        Pressure

                                                                        My country has been the target of PRC economic coercion (e.g. trade or investment sanctions) that was specifically tailored at products or services that are highly dependent on the PRC market.

                                                                        No

                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                        More

                                                                        0/ No

                                                                        64 countries chose this answer

                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                        18 countries chose this answer

                                                                        82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                        No evidence

                                                                            Answered by Amanda Strydom, and has been reviewed by Chris Roper and Joyce Lin

                                                                            Hide
                                                                            8.
                                                                            Pressure

                                                                            In my country, local businesses have been harassed, threatened, or boycotted, due to their activities or statements in support of causes deemed unacceptable by the PRC government (e.g. Taiwanese independence, Hong Kong democracy, Tibet or Xinjiang issues, etc).

                                                                            No

                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                            More

                                                                            Skipped

                                                                            2 countries chose this answer

                                                                            0/ No

                                                                            65 countries chose this answer

                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                            15 countries chose this answer

                                                                            80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                            No evidence

                                                                                Answered by Amanda Strydom, and has been reviewed by Chris Roper and Joyce Lin

                                                                                Hide
                                                                                9.
                                                                                Effect

                                                                                My country has free-trade agreement(s) with the PRC (either bilateral or as part of regional agreement(s)) that primarily deals with trade in goods or services, including digital goods or services.

                                                                                No

                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                More

                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                51 countries chose this answer

                                                                                4/ Yes

                                                                                31 countries chose this answer

                                                                                82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                A full trade agreement has not been negotiated, BUT via the African Union, there is African Continental Free Trade Area (AfCFTA) which was created by the African Continental Free Trade Agreement which includes South Africa.

                                                                                1. https://www.dailymaverick.co.za/opinionista/2021-02-17-south-africa-needs-a-free-trade-deal-with-china-not-the-belt-and-road-initiative
                                                                                2. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/African_Continental_Free_Trade_Area

                                                                                  Answered by Amanda Strydom, and has been reviewed by Chris Roper and Joyce Lin

                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                  10.
                                                                                  Effect

                                                                                  In my country, central or local governments have relaxed or removed regulatory restrictions, or have established special economic zones (or free trade zones, industrial parks, etc.) to attract investments or economic participation from the PRC.

                                                                                  No

                                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                  More

                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                  47 countries chose this answer

                                                                                  4/ Yes

                                                                                  35 countries chose this answer

                                                                                  82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                  No evidence

                                                                                      Answered by Amanda Strydom, and has been reviewed by Chris Roper

                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                      11.
                                                                                      Effect

                                                                                      In my country, PRC-connected entities requisitioned infrastructure or land for failure to repay debts in a timely manner.

                                                                                      No

                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                      More

                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                      2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                      76 countries chose this answer

                                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                                      4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                      80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                      No evidence

                                                                                          Answered by Amanda Strydom, and has been reviewed by Chris Roper and Joyce Lin

                                                                                          Hide

                                                                                          Society

                                                                                          The Society Domain measures the extent and effectiveness of the PRC’s efforts to advance its soft power in the Index country, including its influence over the actions and views of local organizations and citizens.

                                                                                          1.
                                                                                          Exposure

                                                                                          In my country, there are local groups or organizations with words like “Promotion of Peaceful Reunification” in their name, and they regularly publicize their views on Taiwan, Hong Kong, Tibet and Xinjiang issues.

                                                                                          Yes

                                                                                          Answer ( 2 / 4 )

                                                                                          More

                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                          1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                          49 countries chose this answer

                                                                                          1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                          12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                          7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                          3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                          9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                          4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                          4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                          81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                          There are 15 in South Africa

                                                                                              Answered by Amanda Strydom, and has been reviewed by Chris Roper and Joyce Lin

                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                              2.
                                                                                              Exposure

                                                                                              In my country, there are members and member organizations of United World Chinese Association (世界华人协会).

                                                                                              Yes

                                                                                              Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                              More

                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                              1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                              62 countries chose this answer

                                                                                              4/ Yes

                                                                                              19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                              81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                              Not Found

                                                                                              1. https://www.tcagp.co.za/

                                                                                                Answered by Amanda Strydom, and has been reviewed by Chris Roper and Joyce Lin

                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                3.
                                                                                                Exposure

                                                                                                In my country, labor unions cooperate on exchanges or official visits to the All-China Federation of Trade Unions (ACFTU) in the PRC.

                                                                                                No

                                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                More

                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                68 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                4/ Yes

                                                                                                13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                No evidence

                                                                                                    Answered by Amanda Strydom, and has been reviewed by Chris Roper and Joyce Lin

                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                    4.
                                                                                                    Exposure

                                                                                                    In my country, there are local reports of personnel linked to the UFWD who make appearances at Chinese diaspora community events and activities (e.g. Lunar New Year events, Dragon Boat festival tournaments, etc).

                                                                                                    Yes

                                                                                                    Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                    2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                    50 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                    9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                    5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                    3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                    9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                    7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                    80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                    Not Found

                                                                                                    1. https://japan-forward.com/china-installs-influence-operators-in-diplomatic-posts-foreign-lawmaking-bodies/

                                                                                                      Answered by Amanda Strydom, and has been reviewed by Chris Roper and Joyce Lin

                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                      5.
                                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                                      In my country, there are PRC-connected professional associations that are closely engaged with their counterparts locally, such as All-China Journalists Association (中华全国新闻工作者协会), China Artists Association (中国艺术家协会), China Writers Association (中国作家协会) or All-China Women Federation (全国妇联).

                                                                                                      Yes

                                                                                                      Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                      2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                      33 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                      25 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                      8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                      3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                      8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                      6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                      80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                      In 2014, the South Africa-China Culture and Art Exchange was established. As a supporting activity of the China-South African High-Level People-to-People Exchange Mechanism, the All-China Women's Federation (ACWF) and the African National Congress Women's League (ANCWL) co-hosted a donation ceremony of 320 sewing machines from ACWF to ANCWL on April 26, 2017 in Durban, South Africa.

                                                                                                      1. https://www.womenofchina.cn/servlet/Node?node=19010911&pos=1
                                                                                                      2. https://baike.baidu.com/item/%E5%8D%97%E9%9D%9E%E4%B8%AD%E5%9B%BD%E6%96%87%E5%8C%96%E8%89%BA%E6%9C%AF%E4%BA%A4%E6%B5%81%E5%8D%8F%E4%BC%9A/13388323

                                                                                                        Answered by Amanda Strydom, and has been reviewed by Chris Roper and Joyce Lin

                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                        6.
                                                                                                        Exposure

                                                                                                        In my country, PRC-connected individuals or entities donate money or provide other types of support to religious communities and charities.

                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                        1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                        46 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                                                        35 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                        81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                        No evidence of this

                                                                                                            Answered by Amanda Strydom, and has been reviewed by Chris Roper and Joyce Lin

                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                            7.
                                                                                                            Exposure

                                                                                                            In my country, the PRC government or PRC-connected entities distribute entertainment products (including: drama and TV shows) or related hardwares (e.g. OTT streaming players hosting PRC media channels) freely or at a cheap price.

                                                                                                            Yes

                                                                                                            Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                            2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                            38 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                            1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                            21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                            4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                            3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                            11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                            4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                            6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                            80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                            Just after it unveiled a 2022 slate for Asia comprising programming in six languages, PCCW’s pan-regional OTT video streaming service Viu has strengthened its position as one of the top OTT streaming platforms in Greater Southeast Asia (GSEA), the Middle East and South Africa.

                                                                                                            1. https://www.rapidtvnews.com/2022022862129/viu-tops-greater-southeast-asian-ott-streaming-market.html#axzz7Puoxxzs4

                                                                                                              Answered by Amanda Strydom, and has been reviewed by Chris Roper and Joyce Lin

                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                              8.
                                                                                                              Effect

                                                                                                              Cultural products (such as films and TV shows) produced by my country’s production studios typically portray the PRC in a positive light.

                                                                                                              Yes

                                                                                                              Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                              7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                              60 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                              4/ Yes

                                                                                                              15 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                              75 countries answered this indicator; 7 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                              Similar interest in engaging the South African film market is developing, albeit not yet to the extent of China’s interest in Hollywood. The highest-ranking production (estimated earning $852 million) in China for 2017 was “Wolf Warrior 2” – it was filmed in parts of South Africa, including in Durban, Soweto and Alexandra. The action film centres on a war hero who defends medical aid workers in a fictitious African country. At a local movie reception, Ambassador Lin Songtian of the Chinese embassy in South Africa, described it as 'an excellent Chinese film that carries forward patriotic enthusiasm and friendship between China and Africa'. South Africa hosted the third BRICS Film Festival, which coincides with its hosting of the tenth BRICS Summit in July.

                                                                                                              1. https://qz.com/africa/1301505/china-will-fund-movies-and-tv-shows-to-build-africa-influence-rival-nollywood-others/

                                                                                                                Answered by Amanda Strydom, and has been reviewed by Chris Roper and Joyce Lin

                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                9.
                                                                                                                Effect

                                                                                                                In my country, celebrities regularly publish or share propaganda narratives from the PRC.

                                                                                                                No

                                                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                0 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                No evidence of this

                                                                                                                    Answered by Amanda Strydom, and has been reviewed by Chris Roper

                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                    10.
                                                                                                                    Effect

                                                                                                                    In my country, the national or local governments regularly publish or share propaganda narratives from the PRC (e.g. statements from the PRC government or embassies).

                                                                                                                    No

                                                                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                    2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                    54 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                    12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                    2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                    3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                    7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                    5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                    80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                    No evidence of this

                                                                                                                        Answered by Amanda Strydom, and has been reviewed by Chris Roper

                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                        11.
                                                                                                                        Effect

                                                                                                                        In my country, a majority of citizens have positive views of the PRC government.

                                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                        7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                        50 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                                                                        25 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                        75 countries answered this indicator; 7 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                        No clear evidence of either of these answers

                                                                                                                            Answered by Amanda Strydom, and has been reviewed by Chris Roper

                                                                                                                            Hide

                                                                                                                            Military

                                                                                                                            The Military Domain gauges the bilateral military relationship between the PRC and the Index country, including PRC efforts to influence local military personnel.

                                                                                                                            1.
                                                                                                                            Exposure

                                                                                                                            My country currently imports (or receives in-kind donation of) military or law-enforcement equipment or components of equipment from the PRC.

                                                                                                                            No

                                                                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                            36 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                                                                            46 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                            82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                            Yes and No: In 2011, the Globe and Mail, a Canadian newspaper, reported that Chinese state–controlled arms manufacturers offered stockpiles of arms to the collapsing regime of Muammar Qaddafi in Libya. The documents obtained from the media expose Chinese companies’ conversations with the Qaddafi government regarding vast weapons supplies to Libya via Algeria and South Africa.

                                                                                                                            1. https://www.airuniversity.af.edu/JIPA/Display/Article/2743926/to-honor-its-commitment-to-un-arms-trade-treaty-china-must-sacrifice/

                                                                                                                              Answered by Amanda Strydom, and has been reviewed by Chris Roper and Joyce Lin

                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                              2.
                                                                                                                              Exposure

                                                                                                                              My country currently exports military or law-enforcement equipment or components of equipment to the PRC.

                                                                                                                              Yes

                                                                                                                              Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                              1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                              74 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                              4/ Yes

                                                                                                                              7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                              81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                              South Africa has been selling arms to China since 2000.

                                                                                                                              1. https://www.hrw.org/reports/2000/safrica/Sarfio00-05.htm

                                                                                                                                Answered by Amanda Strydom, and has been reviewed by Chris Roper and Joyce Lin

                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                3.
                                                                                                                                Exposure

                                                                                                                                My country co-develops or co-produces military or law-enforcement equipment with the PRC.

                                                                                                                                No

                                                                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                66 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                15 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                No evidence

                                                                                                                                    Answered by Amanda Strydom, and has been reviewed by Chris Roper and Joyce Lin

                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                    4.
                                                                                                                                    Exposure

                                                                                                                                    In my country, there are reports that the PRC has expressed intentions or has taken actions to establish basing.

                                                                                                                                    No

                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                    2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                    67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                    13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                    80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                    No evidence

                                                                                                                                        Answered by Amanda Strydom, and has been reviewed by Chris Roper and Joyce Lin

                                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                                        5.
                                                                                                                                        Exposure

                                                                                                                                        In my country, the People’s Liberation Army (PLA) has participated in a humanitarian relief/disaster assistance (HADR) effort.

                                                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                                        2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                        61 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                        19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                        80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                        No evidence

                                                                                                                                            Answered by Amanda Strydom, and has been reviewed by Chris Roper and Joyce Lin

                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                            6.
                                                                                                                                            Exposure

                                                                                                                                            In my country, People’s Liberation Army (PLA) military personnel are permanently or rotationally deployed (excluding defense attaches and peacekeepers).

                                                                                                                                            No

                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                            77 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                            5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                            82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                            No evidence

                                                                                                                                                Answered by Amanda Strydom, and has been reviewed by Chris Roper and Joyce Lin

                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                7.
                                                                                                                                                Exposure

                                                                                                                                                In my country, members of the military have received professional military education from the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                No

                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                48 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                34 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                No evidence

                                                                                                                                                    Answered by Amanda Strydom, and has been reviewed by Chris Roper and Joyce Lin

                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                    8.
                                                                                                                                                    Exposure

                                                                                                                                                    In my country, members of the military have received peacekeeping training from the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                    No

                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                                    2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                    67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                    13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                    80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                    No evidence

                                                                                                                                                        Answered by Amanda Strydom, and has been reviewed by Chris Roper and Joyce Lin

                                                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                                                        9.
                                                                                                                                                        Exposure

                                                                                                                                                        In my country, high-ranking retired or current military and/or intelligence officers have received direct or deferred benefits from PRC-connected individuals or entities openly or covertly (e.g. have been appointed to lucrative positions as board members or consultants with PRC-invested firms, casinos, energy companies, etc.) during or in retirement from public service.

                                                                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                                                        4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                                        67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                        11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                        78 countries answered this indicator; 4 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                        No evidence of this

                                                                                                                                                            Answered by Amanda Strydom, and has been reviewed by Chris Roper and Joyce Lin

                                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                                            10.
                                                                                                                                                            Effect

                                                                                                                                                            In my country, high-ranking retired or current military and/or intelligence officials advocate for more coordination with the People’s Liberation Army (PLA).

                                                                                                                                                            No

                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                                                            1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                            68 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                            13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                            81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                            No evidence of this

                                                                                                                                                                Answered by Amanda Strydom, and has been reviewed by Chris Roper and Joyce Lin

                                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                                11.
                                                                                                                                                                Effect

                                                                                                                                                                My country cooperates with the People’s Liberation Army (PLA) on military exchange exercises, including drills and war games.

                                                                                                                                                                Yes

                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                51 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                31 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                1. https://issafrica.org/iss-today/south-africas-military-drills-with-russia-and-china-raise-eyebrows

                                                                                                                                                                  Answered by Amanda Strydom, and has been reviewed by Chris Roper and Joyce Lin

                                                                                                                                                                  Hide

                                                                                                                                                                  Law Enforcement

                                                                                                                                                                  The Law Enforcement Domain measures law enforcement cooperation between the PRC and the Index country, as well as the nature and extent of PRC-related criminal activity in the Index country.

                                                                                                                                                                  1.
                                                                                                                                                                  Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                  My country currently maintains an extradition treaty, legal mutual assistance or other similar arrangements with the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                  Yes

                                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                  32 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                  4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                  50 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                  82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                                                  2.
                                                                                                                                                                  Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                  In my country, law enforcement authorities have signed cooperation agreements with the PRC on combatting terrorism.

                                                                                                                                                                  No

                                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                  1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                  55 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                  4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                  26 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                  81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                  No evidence during research period.

                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by Amanda Strydom, and has been reviewed by Chris Roper and Joyce Lin

                                                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                                                      3.
                                                                                                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                      In my country, PRC-connected gangs (such as Triad, 三合会) are known to be operating in my country.

                                                                                                                                                                      Yes

                                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                      1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                      52 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                      29 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                      81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                      While it does not fall within the research period, there is a long academic trail (more than 15 years) looking into PRC-connected gangs.

                                                                                                                                                                      1. https://media.africaportal.org/documents/paper48.pdf

                                                                                                                                                                        Answered by Amanda Strydom, and has been reviewed by Chris Roper and Joyce Lin

                                                                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                                                                        4.
                                                                                                                                                                        Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                        In my country, there are reports of economic espionage targeting the private sector that were suspected to benefit PRC-connected entities.

                                                                                                                                                                        Yes

                                                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                        2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                        49 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                        1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                        7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                        3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                        3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                        12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                        4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                        9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                        80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                        The US Justice Department says state-sponsored Chinese hackers targeted at least one South African company as part of a hacking campaign.

                                                                                                                                                                        1. https://www.businessinsider.co.za/chinas-hainan-xiandun-tried-to-hack-south-africa-in-stealing-trade-secrets-us-justice-says-2021-7
                                                                                                                                                                        2. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/240494238_INDUSTRIAL_ESPIONAGE_THREAT_IN_CORPORATE_SOUTH_AFRICA

                                                                                                                                                                          Answered by Amanda Strydom, and has been reviewed by Chris Roper and Joyce Lin

                                                                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                                                                          5.
                                                                                                                                                                          Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                          In my country, there are reports of cyber attacks targeting government, critical infrastructure, or enterprises that were suspected to be initiated from the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                          Yes

                                                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                          3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                          37 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                          1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                          9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                          4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                          3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                          14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                          4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                          15 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                          79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                          54 incidents were assessed and found that the most common impact type was data exposure, which was also one that had increased noticeably in recent years. The most prevalent perpetrator type was found to be hacktivists, which had also exhibited a recent increase in activity. A particularly concerning trend was the recent high number of incidents of data exposure caused by error, a trend running contrary to the drive to improve cybersecurity. It was also found that of the incidents considered, 54% targeted state-owned or political entities as victims. In general, the results appeared consistent with global reported trends.

                                                                                                                                                                          1. http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2077-72132017000100006

                                                                                                                                                                            Answered by Amanda Strydom, and has been reviewed by Chris Roper and Joyce Lin

                                                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                                                            6.
                                                                                                                                                                            Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                            In my country, triads are known to have threatened or used violence to coerce, intimidate or punish Chinese dissidents.

                                                                                                                                                                            Yes

                                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                            2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                            67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                            1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                            5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                            3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                            3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                            3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                            4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                            2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                            80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                            Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                            1. https://media.africaportal.org/documents/paper48.pdf

                                                                                                                                                                              Answered by Amanda Strydom, and has been reviewed by Chris Roper and Joyce Lin

                                                                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                                                                              7.
                                                                                                                                                                              Effect

                                                                                                                                                                              My country has deployed video or internet surveillance systems from the PRC for law enforcement.

                                                                                                                                                                              Yes

                                                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                              1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                              30 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                              4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                              51 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                              81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                              Huawei digital surveillance technology deployed in parts of the country - specifically near or in designated smart cities.

                                                                                                                                                                              1. https://africacenter.org/spotlight/surveillance-technology-in-africa-security-concerns/

                                                                                                                                                                                Answered by Amanda Strydom, and has been reviewed by Chris Roper and Joyce Lin

                                                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                8.
                                                                                                                                                                                Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                In my country, representatives of the PRC police force have had joint patrols with local law enforcement.

                                                                                                                                                                                No

                                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                71 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                No clear evidence during research period.

                                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by Amanda Strydom, and has been reviewed by Chris Roper and Joyce Lin

                                                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                    9.
                                                                                                                                                                                    Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                    My government has detained people at the request of the PRC for committing a crime involving engagements with social movements or resistance activities in Hong Kong, Xinjiang or for other human rights or civic rights issues.

                                                                                                                                                                                    No

                                                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                    1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                    68 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                    13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                    81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                    No clear evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                        Answered by Amanda Strydom, and has been reviewed by Chris Roper and Joyce Lin

                                                                                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                        10.
                                                                                                                                                                                        Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                        My country has deported Taiwan citizens to the PRC to face prosecution.

                                                                                                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                        2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                        71 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                        9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                        80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                        No evidence during research period.

                                                                                                                                                                                            Answered by Amanda Strydom, and has been reviewed by Chris Roper and Joyce Lin

                                                                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                            11.
                                                                                                                                                                                            Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                            My country has extradited or has deported individuals to the PRC, although such decisions had attracted criticisms from politicians, government employees or from local or foreign NGOs.

                                                                                                                                                                                            No

                                                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                            61 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                            21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                            82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                            No clear evidence during research period.

                                                                                                                                                                                                Answered by Amanda Strydom, and has been reviewed by Chris Roper and Joyce Lin

                                                                                                                                                                                                Hide

                                                                                                                                                                                                Technology

                                                                                                                                                                                                The Technology Domain gauges the PRC’s influence over the technology sector in the Index country, including the activity and financial leverage of PRC companies, use of PRC hardware, and bilateral research partnerships.

                                                                                                                                                                                                1.
                                                                                                                                                                                                Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                In my country, PRC-connected entities (such as China Mobile, China Unicom or China Telecom) or their subsidiaries provide telecom services.

                                                                                                                                                                                                Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                52 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                30 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                China Mobile partnered with MTN South Africa in 2018. China Unicom also has an ongoing partnership since 2018

                                                                                                                                                                                                1. https://www.prnewswire.co.uk/news-releases/china-mobile-international-limited-establishes-south-africa-office-692919441.html
                                                                                                                                                                                                2. http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/a/201807/19/WS5b5044cfa310796df4df77b4.html

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answered by Amanda Strydom, and has been reviewed by Chris Roper

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                  2.
                                                                                                                                                                                                  Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                  In my country, telecoms have signed agreements to adopt hardwares or technical specifications of 4G or 5G cellular networks that are produced or developed by Huawei, ZTE or other PRC enterprises.

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                  16 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                  5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                  4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                  27 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                  30 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                  82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. https://www.gsma.com/futurenetworks/wiki/powerstar-and-mtn-south-africa-energy-saving-case-study/

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by Amanda Strydom, and has been reviewed by Chris Roper

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                    3.
                                                                                                                                                                                                    Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                    In my country, telecoms have adopted hardware or technical specifications by PRC-connected entities in internet/wifi/telecommunication service infrastructure projects, in addition to 4G/5G cellular network.

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                    8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                    14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                    10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                    3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                    3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                    24 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                    23 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                    74 countries answered this indicator; 8 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                    "Although the Trump administration’s policies successfully curbed Chinese expansion in Western countries, they did not address the growing presence of Chinese technology infrastructure on the African continent." Chinese firms like Huawei, ZTE and China Telecom are behind the core systems of new ICT infrastructure across Africa. And they are providing the next generation of technology. Huawei has expanded across most African countries, including South Africa.

                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. https://www.voanews.com/a/economy-business_analysts-china-expanding-influence-africa-telecom-network-deals/6209516.html
                                                                                                                                                                                                    2. https://www.dw.com/en/investing-in-africas-tech-infrastructure-has-china-won-already/a-48540426
                                                                                                                                                                                                    3. https://www.dw.com/en/africa-embraces-huawei-technology-despite-security-concerns/a-60665700

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by Amanda Strydom, and has been reviewed by Chris Roper and Joyce Lin

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                      4.
                                                                                                                                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                      In my country, PRC-connected entities are authorized vendors to supply tech-related equipment or services to our government, military or security services.

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                      1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                      28 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                      53 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                      81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Chinese law prohibits PMC contractors from carrying weapons at home. Abroad, PMCs must abide by the laws of the countries where they are working. But companies often find ways around restrictions. In South Africa, which tightly regulates foreign PMCs, Chinese companies operate through specially created local subsidiaries.

                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. https://carnegieendowment.org/2020/10/08/chinese-security-contractors-in-africa-pub-82916
                                                                                                                                                                                                      2. https://www.defenceweb.co.za/land/land-land/china-turns-to-pmcs-to-protect-its-workers-and-bri-investments-in-africa/

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answered by Amanda Strydom, and has been reviewed by Chris Roper and Joyce Lin

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                        5.
                                                                                                                                                                                                        Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                        In my country, central or local governments have collaboration (such as data collection or exchange agreement, or adoption of related hardwares) with the PRC government or PRC-connected entities on facial, voice recognition or other applications involving biometrics achieved by AI.

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                        3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                        42 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                        1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                        9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                        2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                        3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                        19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                        4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                        7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                        79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Emerging biometric technologies have become ubiquitous across many parts of Africa, including facial recognition technologies in Zimbabwe, Uganda and South Africa. They’re used to help combat identity theft, fraud and other threats, including terrorism. Much of the technology is being developed by the private sector as well as Chinese state entities as part of the drive to develop ‘smart cities’ across Africa.

                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. https://issafrica.org/iss-today/future-of-facial-recognition-technology-in-africa

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answered by Amanda Strydom, and has been reviewed by Chris Roper and Joyce Lin

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                          6.
                                                                                                                                                                                                          Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                          In my country, one or more cities have procured, or have signed contracts with PRC-connected entities to establish “smart city” systems.

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                          1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                          35 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                          1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                          13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                          4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                          3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                          25 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                          4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                          4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                          81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Yes, it was agreed upon in 2014, but there's been no further building of it.

                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. https://businesstech.co.za/news/property/297422/heres-what-happened-to-south-africas-r84-billion-smart-city/
                                                                                                                                                                                                          2. https://www.capetownetc.com/news/new-smart-cities-planned-for-south-africa-worth-the-billions/

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answered by Amanda Strydom, and has been reviewed by Chris Roper and Joyce Lin

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                            7.
                                                                                                                                                                                                            Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                            In my country, financial institutions use the China Cross-Border Interbank Payment System (CIPS) clearing and settlement services system.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                            1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                            63 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                            18 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                            81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Two banks at the time of research: Rand Merchant Bank/FNB and Standard Bank.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. https://techcabal.com/2020/09/17/china-is-pushing-its-currency-into-africa-through-fintech-partnerships/

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answered by Amanda Strydom, and has been reviewed by Chris Roper

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                              8.
                                                                                                                                                                                                              Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                              In my country, PRC-connected venture capital invests in technology start-ups.

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                              1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                              32 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                              18 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                              8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                              3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                              12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                              11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                              81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                              9.
                                                                                                                                                                                                              Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                              In my country, companies have publicly announced that they had signed MOUs to collaborate on technological development (such as collaborations in A.I., Blockchain, Cloud Computing, Big Data) with PRC-connected entities.

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                              3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                              31 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                              19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                              8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                              3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                              12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                              9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                              79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. https://africanews.space/sansa-signs-mou-with-china-satellite-network-office/

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answered by Amanda Strydom, and has been reviewed by Chris Roper and Joyce Lin

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                10.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                In my country, PRC-connected entities are shareholders or developers of the top five popular social media/messaging apps, based on usage.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                44 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                36 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Tiktok is the fifth-largest social media app in South Africa.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by Amanda Strydom, and has been reviewed by Chris Roper and Joyce Lin

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    11.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    In my country, the central or local government(s) has collaborated with the PRC on endorsing the use of BeiDou satellite navigation system.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    64 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    17 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. http://www.sacsa.gov.za/navigation-by-satellite/

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by Amanda Strydom, and has been reviewed by Chris Roper and Joyce Lin

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Hide

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Domestic Politics

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      The Domestic Politics Domain evaluates PRC efforts to influence the political landscape in the Index country, and the footprint of PRC security companies.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      In my country, politicians or government employees at the sub-national level are signing agreements with the PRC government or state-owned enterprises.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      20 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      23 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      The national airline, SAA, announced direct flights between SA and China in partnership with China Air: Link

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answered by Amanda Strydom, and has been reviewed by Chris Roper and Joyce Lin

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          In my country, local municipalities have sister-city ties (友好城市) with municipalities in the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          23 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          This is a list of places in South Africa which have standing links to local communities in other countries: 15 cities and towns have sister-city ties with municipalities in China.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_twin_towns_and_sister_cities_in_South_Africa

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answered by Amanda Strydom, and has been reviewed by Chris Roper and Joyce Lin

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            3.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            In my country, politicians or government employees have taken trips to the PRC paid for by PRC-connected individuals or entities.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            22 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            16 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            16 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            73 countries answered this indicator; 9 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Beijing announced it would invite 1,000 young African politicians for trainings in China in 2016, including from the ANC that regularly attends workshops in China and has modelled some of its party trainings on the CCP.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. https://qz.com/africa/1119447/china-is-training-africas-next-generation-of-leaders/

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answered by Amanda Strydom, and has been reviewed by Chris Roper and Joyce Lin

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              4.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              In my country, politicians or government employees visit the PRC and have meetings with PRC officials and think tanks.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              25 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              32 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              The research period was during the Covid-19 pandemic, so travel was not permitted, but as a member of BRICS, there are regular meetings.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answered by Amanda Strydom, and has been reviewed by Chris Roper and Joyce Lin

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  5.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  In my country, law enforcement and judicial related training offered the PRC-connected individuals or entities has been accepted by national or subnational governments.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  46 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  16 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. https://www.news24.com/news24/southafrica/news/china-to-train-sas-public-servants-on-its-unique-governance-models-20210422

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by Amanda Strydom, and has been reviewed by Chris Roper and Joyce Lin

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    6.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    In my country, there are reports of politicians or political parties receiving campaign donations that originate in the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    60 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    0 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    78 countries answered this indicator; 4 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    ANC funder-turned-MP and her ‘links’ to shadowy Chinese agency: Dr Xiaomei Havard says she has donated millions to the ANC, with some in the party believing she paid her way in. Chinese-born politician Dr Xiaomei Havard, says she has donated between R2 and R4-million to the ANC in the past “five or six years" from a number of her businesses.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. https://www.timeslive.co.za/sunday-times-daily/news/2021-07-05-investigation--anc-funder-turned-mp-and-her-links-to-shadowy-chinese-agency/

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by Amanda Strydom, and has been reviewed by Chris Roper and Joyce Lin

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      7.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      In my country, groups with reported links to the United Front Work Department (UFWD) have hosted fundraisings or have provided other forms of support for government employees, politicians or parties.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      64 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. https://japan-forward.com/china-installs-influence-operators-in-diplomatic-posts-foreign-lawmaking-bodies/

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answered by Amanda Strydom, and has been reviewed by Chris Roper and Joyce Lin

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        8.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        In my country, groups with reported links to the United Front Work Department (UFWD) have made public statements opposing the candidacy of a local political candidate or party, claiming them being “anti-China”.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        78 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        0 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        0 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        No evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answered by Amanda Strydom, and has been reviewed by Chris Roper and Joyce Lin

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            9.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            In my country, politicians or government employees have publicly expressed positive views of the PRC government.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            37 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. https://www.iol.co.za/news/opinion/south-africa-and-china-what-next-for-relations-between-the-two-countries-49135925

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answered by Amanda Strydom, and has been reviewed by Chris Roper and Joyce Lin

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              10.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              In my country, politicians or government employees have received direct or deferred benefits from PRC-connected individuals or entities openly or covertly (e.g. have been appointed to lucrative positions as board members or consultants with PRC-invested firms, casinos, energy companies, etc.) during or in retirement from public office.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              40 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              0 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              18 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              73 countries answered this indicator; 9 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              No evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answered by Amanda Strydom, and has been reviewed by Chris Roper and Joyce Lin

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  11.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  In my country, security services (安保/保安) offered by private PRC companies are contracted by national or subnational governments.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  South Africa’s State Security Agency – with its own shady past – has enjoyed a close relationship with China’s security forces. Chinese surveillance giant Hikvision has sold thousands of security cameras in South Africa and soon Joburg’s suburbs will see an unprecedented increase of Hikvision’s presence.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. https://www.dailymaverick.co.za/article/2019-06-26-video-surveillance-and-cybersecurity-part-two-chinese-cyber-espionage-is-a-real-threat/

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by Amanda Strydom, and has been reviewed by Chris Roper and Joyce Lin

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Hide

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Foreign Policy

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    The Foreign Policy Domain gauges PRC efforts to achieve diplomatic objectives by influencing key actors in the Index country.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    My country’s legislature has a joint parliamentary friendship group, committee or other forms of sub-organizations with PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    25 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    57 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    In October 20121, the National Assembly and the People’s Republic of China’s National People’s Congress held the fifth Regular Exchange Mechanism (REM) meeting to assess progress with the bilateral cooperation and solutions to the challenges posed by the Covid-19 pandemic.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. https://www.parliament.gov.za/news/national-assembly-speaker-holds-regular-exchange-mechanism-meeting-china

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by Amanda Strydom, and has been reviewed by Chris Roper and Joyce Lin

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Representatives of a political party in my country’s national legislature have met officially with representatives of the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      20 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      40 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Above are only a few examples. As a member of BRICS, SA MPs participate in regular events.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. https://www.parliament.gov.za/press-releases/peoples-republic-china-commends-south-africa-its-successful-efforts-keeping-novel-coronavirus-out-country
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2. http://www.xinhuanet.com/english/2020-05/13/c_139054389.htm

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answered by Amanda Strydom, and has been reviewed by Chris Roper and Joyce Lin

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        3.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        The PRC provides training to diplomats or civil servants on governance from my country (such as at 国家行政学院 or 中央党校).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        39 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Going back to at least 2014, the PRC has offered training to the South African government. The ANC vowed to build an institute to be modelled on the China Executive Leadership Academy Pudong in Shanghai, one of the Communist Party’s leadership and governance schools.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. https://www.gov.za/speeches/school-government-training-public-servants-governance-and-management-emergencies-such-covid
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2. https://time.com/3601968/anc-south-africa-china-communist-party/
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        3. https://www.thesouthafrican.com/news/anc-comrades-to-be-trained-by-the-communist-party-of-china/

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answered by Amanda Strydom, and has been reviewed by Chris Roper and Joyce Lin

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          4.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          In my country, politicians or government employees have been pressured by PRC diplomats to change their political or diplomatic stances.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          41 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          South Africa twice bans Dalai Lama from visiting the country - in 2009, 2011, and in 2014.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. https://www.aljazeera.com/news/2009/3/24/south-africa-bans-dalai-lama-visit
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2. https://www.theguardian.com/world/2014/sep/04/dalai-lama-denied-south-africa-visa-nobel-summit
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          3. https://www.theguardian.com/world/2011/sep/27/dalai-lama-banned-south-africa

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answered by Amanda Strydom, and has been reviewed by Chris Roper and Joyce Lin

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            5.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Citizens of my country have been detained in PRC or denied exit visas, and believed to be suffering from unfair legal treatments for political reasons, a.k.a. “hostage diplomacy”.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            61 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            In July 2015, ten South Africans were arrested without charge in China, having been part of a 20-strong tour group detained by Chinese officials last week. The tour group were on a planned 47-day trip to explore the country, and comprised of 10 South Africans, nine British nationals and one Indian national. This happened at the same time as then-deputy president Cyril Ramaphosa was visiting China.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. https://www.news24.com/News24/10-South-Africans-arrested-in-China-remain-in-custody-20150714

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answered by Amanda Strydom, and has been reviewed by Chris Roper and Joyce Lin

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              6.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              The head of state, head of government or foreign minister of my country has denied Taiwan’s right to participate as a member, observer or guest in WHO.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              65 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              On May 14 2007, the World Health Assembly (WHA) voted 148-17 to reject Taiwan’s application and South Africa is one of the country that voted against Taiwan. In 2017, "South Africa’s ruling ANC party rebuked the opposition mayor of Pretoria for visiting Taiwan last month in what it called a violation of its foreign policy that recognises only the People’s Republic of China."

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. https://cc.pacforum.org/2007/07/dueling-international-arena/
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-safrica-politics-taiwan-idUSKBN14N12V

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answered by Amanda Strydom, and has been reviewed by Chris Roper and Joyce Lin

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                7.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                My country publicly supported the appointment of a PRC official to be the head of a United Nations agency (such as the FAO or ICAO) or other intergovernmental organizations (such as INTERPOL).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                62 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                73 countries answered this indicator; 9 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                The chairperson of the United Nation’s Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO), Qu Dongyu, won the election by 108 votes, mainly from the supports of African countries.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. https://www.africanews.com/2019/07/10/view-for-africa-there-s-more-than-just-money-to-repaying-chinese-debt/

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answered by Amanda Strydom, and has been reviewed by Chris Roper and Joyce Lin

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  8.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  My government has shown support of PRC's territorial claims (such as on the South China Sea arbitration ruling issued by the UNCLOS Arbitral Tribunal in July 2016; except claims over Taiwan, which are indirectly covered in indicator 6.)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Support

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  0/ My country has rejected PRC’s claim

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  24 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2/ My country has remained silent

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  36 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  4/ My country has adhered to PRC’s claim

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  'South Africa backed China on Wednesday against the US’ so-called freedom of navigation operations in the South China Sea, a patrol China has denounced as an illegal threat to peace.'

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. https://www.thebricspost.com/south-africa-backs-chinese-stance-on-south-china-sea-dispute/
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2. https://www.hoover.org/sites/default/files/research/docs/clm51ms.pdf

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by Amanda Strydom, and has been reviewed by Chris Roper and Joyce Lin

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    9.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    My country has shown one of the following stances on PRC’s treatment of its Uyghur population.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Oppose

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    0/ My country has denounced PRC

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    31 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2/ My country has remained silent

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    32 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    4/ My country has voiced support to PRC’s stance

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    17 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    The link is fro 2019 and there is no further evidence of change during the research period.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. https://thediplomat.com/2019/07/which-countries-are-for-or-against-chinas-xinjiang-policies/

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by Amanda Strydom, and has been reviewed by Chris Roper and Joyce Lin

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      10.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      My country has shown one of the following stances on PRC’s treatment of its Tibet population.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Silence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      0/ My country has denounced PRC

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2/ My country has remained silent

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      46 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      4/ My country has voiced support to PRC’s stance

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      In 2018 it was reported that 'there are exactly three Tibetans living in South Africa currently ... the Tibet Office in Pretoria remains open.' Originally Nelson Mandela had invited the Dalai Lama to South Africa in 1996 and the Office of Tibet was established in 1998. While it's not clear whether the SA government openly voiced support of the PRC's treatment, the continued denial of the Dalai Lama's visa seems to indicate a silent agreement.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. https://www.dailymaverick.co.za/article/2018-02-12-tibetsouth-africa-relations-a-tale-of-two-countries-trade-and-the-voiceless/

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answered by Amanda Strydom, and has been reviewed by Chris Roper and Joyce Lin

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        11.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        My government has not publicly criticized the PRC’s imposition of the National Security Law on Hong Kong.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Silence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        0/ My country has denounced PRC

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        24 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2/ My country has remained silent

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        36 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        4/ My country has voiced support to PRC’s stance

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        There is no evidence of SA government publicly criticising the national security law.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. https://thediplomat.com/2020/07/which-countries-support-the-new-hong-kong-national-security-law/

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answered by Amanda Strydom, and has been reviewed by Chris Roper and Joyce Lin

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