Kazakhstan

$10,041.5
19M
Ranking
15/ 82
Original Score

* As some Indicators can be skipped where data is unavailable, the maximum overall and Domain scores are not identical for each country. Country rankings are generated from ratios of the maximum scores and the achieved scores.

171/ 384
Executive partner
Civic IDEA
Index Year
2021
Layer Scores

The Indicators have been classified by the stage of the influence process at which they occur. Some Indicators correspond to exposure to PRC influence, e.g. the presence of Confucius Institutes. Others test for pressure – such as visa denials to academics or journalists. Finally, some Indicators capture the effect of PRC influence, such as national policy changes in favor of PRC interests.
The individual Layer scores for each country are tallied and displayed via rankings.

Exposure

52%

Exposure assesses the conditions that make the target country vulnerable to PRC's influence, e.g. in terms of economic dependence, or the receiving of some form of benefit.

Pressure

23%

Pressure measures the actions that the PRC directly or indirectly exerts over the target country in order to change the behavior of people in the target country, e.g. in terms of threatening economic punishment to provoke/prevent a political decision.

Effect

39%

Effect evaluates the degree of accommodations the target country makes to the PRC, and the actual effects and impacts on the target country.

In 2021, Kazakhstan had a GDP per capita of US$10,042 and a total population of 19.0 million people, of which 3,617 were Chinese labor migrants (according to 2021 estimates).

Kazakhstan established diplomatic relations with the People's Republic of China in 1992. Kazakhstan was ranked 122nd in Reporters Without Borders' 2022 World Press Freedom Index, and Not Free in Freedom House's 2022 Global Freedom Status, with a score of 23/100.

Domain Scores
Country Percentage
Index Average

Percentage scores do not suggest some degree out of a “completely influenced” level of 100%. The percentages express the country’s score out of the total achievable amount based on the Indicators for each Domain.

  • Media
    50.0% / 30.1%
  • Academia
    55.0% / 34%
  • Economy
    45.5% / 33.6%
  • Society
    2.5% / 23.6%
  • Military
    45.5% / 23.4%
  • Law Enforcement
    43.2% / 30.2%
  • Technology
    68.2% / 40.8%
  • Domestic Politics
    22.7% / 37.2%
  • Foreign Policy
    65.9% / 41%

Media

The Media Domain evaluates how PRC entities influence public debate and media coverage about the PRC in the Index country.

1.
Exposure

In my country, there are media organizations that belong to the World Chinese Media (世界华文媒体) network.

No

Answer ( 0 / 4 )

More

Skipped

2 countries chose this answer

0/ No

42 countries chose this answer

1/ Few, but insignificant

19 countries chose this answer

2/ More than a few, but insignificant

4 countries chose this answer

3/ Few, but significant

13 countries chose this answer

4/ More than a few, and significant

2 countries chose this answer

80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

Supporting Evidence

Not Found

      Answered by Tatiana Sedova, and has been reviewed by Ani Kintsurashvili

      Hide
      2.
      Exposure

      In my country, there are journalists or media organizations which are members of the Belt and Road Media Cooperation Alliance/Union, the Belt and Road News Alliance, or other Belt and Road media networks that connected to PRC (e.g. Belt and Road Media Community, Belt and Road Journalists Network, Belt and Road News Network, or B&R TV Networks).

      Yes

      Answer ( 3 / 4 )

      More

      Skipped

      1 countries chose this answer

      0/ No

      39 countries chose this answer

      1/ Few, but insignificant

      23 countries chose this answer

      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

      4 countries chose this answer

      3/ Few, but significant

      14 countries chose this answer

      4/ More than a few, and significant

      1 countries chose this answer

      81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

      Supporting Evidence

      Media "Kazinform" has been one of the board member of the alliance. Link 31 Channel Media of Kazakhstan Link 365Info.com (365Info) is the member of The Belt and Road News Alliance (BRNA) Link [Second respondent]: Kainform is a Kazakh international news agency and one of the largest media outlets in Kazakhstan founded by the government.

      1. http://cn.brnn.com/414904/414908/index.html
      2. http://brmc.chnpec.com/en/MEMBER/2018/03/14/1dabf935b4ee47c68793b9b1242ada22.shtml
      3. https://brnalink.com/members.html

        Answered by Tatiana Sedova and 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Ani Kintsurashvili

        Hide
        3.
        Exposure

        In my country, there are journalists, media organizations or online influencers who have attended all-expenses paid media tours in PRC.

        Yes

        Answer ( 3 / 4 )

        More

        Skipped

        11 countries chose this answer

        0/ No

        15 countries chose this answer

        1/ Few, but insignificant

        15 countries chose this answer

        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

        5 countries chose this answer

        3/ Few, but significant

        23 countries chose this answer

        4/ More than a few, and significant

        13 countries chose this answer

        71 countries answered this indicator; 11 countries skipped this indicator

        Supporting Evidence

        "The program of the Asian media press tour to Hunan Province was organized by the famous Chinese newspaper China Daily, which is published in English. The tour to industrial and innovative enterprises turned out to be very informative. In general, Hunan is a mostly agricultural region in China. But besides this, factories for the production of transport equipment, food products are operating in the region. The province has over 80 industrial zones and parks." Russian source: Link After these tours, Kazakh journalists also write promotional articles about China and their visit Link

        1. https://web.archive.org/web/20200208180810/http://kz.chineseembassy.org/rus/zhgx/t1099414.htm
        2. https://web.archive.org/web/20200208083343/http://kz.chineseembassy.org:80/rus/zhgx/t1073072.htm

        Supplementary Notes

        [Second respondent]: It would be more representative if the answer was more factual. For example, it would be more relevant to list journalists who took part in the press tours or media resources they are affiliated to and briefly describing the main focus of the event. This would allow us to have a better understanding of the “significance” of the exposure.

          Answered by Tatiana Sedova, and has been reviewed by Ani Kintsurashvili and another 1 anonymous expert.

          Hide
          4.
          Exposure

          In my country, there are journalists, media organizations or online influencers who have received trainings from PRC state-owned media or PRC-connected entities.

          Yes

          Answer ( 3 / 4 )

          More

          Skipped

          3 countries chose this answer

          0/ No

          37 countries chose this answer

          1/ Few, but insignificant

          16 countries chose this answer

          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

          2 countries chose this answer

          3/ Few, but significant

          14 countries chose this answer

          4/ More than a few, and significant

          10 countries chose this answer

          79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

          Supporting Evidence

          Same sources as above because, during those tours in China, they also attend the trainings. Link Link

          1. http://kz.chineseembassy.org/rus/zhgx/t1073072.htm
          2. http://kz.chineseembassy.org/rus/zhgx/t1099414.htm

            Answered by Tatiana Sedova, and has been reviewed by Ani Kintsurashvili

            Hide
            5.
            Exposure

            In my country, PRC state-media (including print, radio, and video) is broadcasted or distributed in a local language.

            No

            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

            More

            Skipped

            1 countries chose this answer

            0/ No

            24 countries chose this answer

            1/ Few, but insignificant

            22 countries chose this answer

            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

            7 countries chose this answer

            3/ Few, but significant

            18 countries chose this answer

            4/ More than a few, and significant

            10 countries chose this answer

            81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

            Supporting Evidence

            Not Found

                Answered by Tatiana Sedova, and has been reviewed by Ani Kintsurashvili

                Hide
                6.
                Exposure

                In my country, there are local media outlets wholly or partly owned by PRC citizens or corporations.

                Skip

                More

                Skipped

                2 countries chose this answer

                0/ No

                44 countries chose this answer

                1/ Few, but insignificant

                19 countries chose this answer

                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                3 countries chose this answer

                3/ Few, but significant

                14 countries chose this answer

                4/ More than a few, and significant

                0 countries chose this answer

                80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                Supporting Evidence

                Not Found

                  Supplementary Notes

                  [Second respondent]: It’s interesting to know if the information on media ownership is available for public at all. Otherwise, as per my understanding, answering “no” to this type of question might have a considerable impact on the overall rating and give a misleading representation. In my view, in case of the lack of access to information or absence of the required information, it is more reasonable to skip the question.

                    Answered by Tatiana Sedova and 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Ani Kintsurashvili

                    Hide
                    7.
                    Exposure

                    In my country, there are media outlets that have delivered cheap or free contents provided by PRC state-fund media.

                    Yes

                    Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                    More

                    Skipped

                    3 countries chose this answer

                    0/ No

                    22 countries chose this answer

                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                    21 countries chose this answer

                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                    6 countries chose this answer

                    3/ Few, but significant

                    23 countries chose this answer

                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                    7 countries chose this answer

                    79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                    Supporting Evidence

                    Not Found

                    1. https://exk.kz/opinion/70121/ot-chumy-nie-zariekaiutsia-malienkii-virus-protiv-bolshogho-mira
                    2. https://liter.kz/kitaj-i-kazahstan-druzhit-neobhodimo-ili-chto-dumayut-eksperty-o-vliyanii-podnebesnoj/
                    3. https://forbes.kz/news/2020/04/03/newsid_222542

                    Supplementary Notes

                    I checked whether the Kazakhs wrote about the effectiveness of the virus and in fact, they praise the Chinese in the local media. Even Kazakh Forbes publishes articles derived from the Chinese media.

                      Answered by Tatiana Sedova, and has been reviewed by Ani Kintsurashvili

                      Hide
                      8.
                      Exposure

                      In my country, there are regular PRC state-media or government advertisements inserted within local newspapers, online news websites or social media.

                      Yes

                      Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                      More

                      Skipped

                      1 countries chose this answer

                      0/ No

                      38 countries chose this answer

                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                      13 countries chose this answer

                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                      7 countries chose this answer

                      3/ Few, but significant

                      15 countries chose this answer

                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                      8 countries chose this answer

                      81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                      Supporting Evidence

                      Along with traditional instruments of soft power, China is helping Central Asia in the fight against Covid-19, Chinese diplomats in Central Asia maintain their Facebook and telegram pages (sometimes even too actively), and local openly pro-Chinese media and experts appear in the region. Link

                      1. https://carnegie.ru/commentary/83701

                        Answered by Tatiana Sedova, and has been reviewed by Ani Kintsurashvili

                        Hide
                        9.
                        Pressure

                        In my country, there are journalists who have had pressure exerted on them by the PRC, including (but not limited to) public denouncement, revocation of journalist ID, denial of visa.

                        Yes

                        Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                        More

                        Skipped

                        1 countries chose this answer

                        0/ No

                        57 countries chose this answer

                        4/ Yes

                        24 countries chose this answer

                        81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                        Supporting Evidence

                        Kazakh From Xinjiang Threatened After Pressing Chinese Diplomats About Missing Brother. Link The former Kazakh camp inmate Sayragul Sauytbay speaks out about the oppression of Muslim minorities in China — and has received death threats for doing so. Link In early March, Serikzhan Bilash, a Kazakh activist documenting and advocating for Muslims caught up in an immense internment-camp system in China, was taken from his hotel room by security services and arrested. Link Also see for example: Link While technically not a journalist, this individual is gathering information relevant to Kazakhstan and PRC.

                        1. https://www.rferl.org/a/china-xinjiang-kazakhstan-missing-threats-protests/31157124.html
                        2. https://www.dw.com/en/how-china-is-destroying-kazakh-culture/a-54434930
                        3. https://www.theatlantic.com/international/archive/2019/09/china-xinjiang-uighur-kazakhstan/597106/

                          Answered by Tatiana Sedova and 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Ani Kintsurashvili

                          Hide
                          10.
                          Effect

                          In my country, there are incidents of media outlets censoring views critical of the PRC government.

                          No

                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                          More

                          Skipped

                          4 countries chose this answer

                          0/ No

                          51 countries chose this answer

                          1/ Few, but insignificant

                          11 countries chose this answer

                          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                          3 countries chose this answer

                          3/ Few, but significant

                          9 countries chose this answer

                          4/ More than a few, and significant

                          4 countries chose this answer

                          78 countries answered this indicator; 4 countries skipped this indicator

                          Supporting Evidence

                          Not Found

                              Answered by Tatiana Sedova, and has been reviewed by Ani Kintsurashvili

                              Hide
                              11.
                              Effect

                              In my country, there are media personalities (including reporters, journalists or commentators) or celebrities who deny the existence of human rights abuses in the PRC (e.g. a media personality that doubts there are re-education camps for Uyghurs in Xinjiang).

                              No

                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                              More

                              Skipped

                              2 countries chose this answer

                              0/ No

                              44 countries chose this answer

                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                              18 countries chose this answer

                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                              4 countries chose this answer

                              3/ Few, but significant

                              9 countries chose this answer

                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                              5 countries chose this answer

                              80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                              Supporting Evidence

                              No direct evidence found.

                                  Answered by Tatiana Sedova, and has been reviewed by Ani Kintsurashvili

                                  Hide

                                  Academia

                                  The Academia Domain measures how the PRC state attempts to restrict academic freedom by influencing or interfering with the Index country’s academic and educational activities.

                                  1.
                                  Exposure

                                  In my country, universities have established research partnerships with PRC-connected entities. (e.g. Huawei, Tencent or Alibaba)

                                  Yes

                                  Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                  More

                                  0/ No

                                  9 countries chose this answer

                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                  11 countries chose this answer

                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                  6 countries chose this answer

                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                  31 countries chose this answer

                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                  25 countries chose this answer

                                  82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                  Supporting Evidence

                                  A new research facility, the ‘5G Development Centre’ has opened at Nazarbayev University in Kazakhstan, with backing from China Mobile, the world’s largest cellco by users. Link On August 9, 2011, a laboratory of open systems and cloud computing (Cloud Computing of Innogrid) was established in close cooperation with the Chinese company Huawei, the Zerde infocommunication holding and the International University of Information Technology. Link The Chinese Academy of Sciences launched the Alliance of International Science Organizations in the Belt and Road Region with 37 national scientific institutions in the Belt and Road Region and international organizations, including the National Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Kazakhstan, the National Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Kyrgyzstan, Link Murat Zhurinov, The Director of National Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Kazakhstan talks about the close cooperation with China. Their scholars are participating together with Chinese colleagues in joint research in the fields of Chemistry, Metalurgy, Information Technology and Agriculture. Link

                                  1. https://www.commsupdate.com/articles/2015/01/21/china-mobile-backs-5g-development-centre-in-kazakhstan-huawei-launches-nfv-facility/
                                  2. https://wikipedia.tel/%D0%9C%D0%B5%D0%B6%D0%B4%D1%83%D0%BD%D0%B0%D1%80%D0%BE%D0%B4%D0%BD%D1%8B%D0%B9_%D1%83%D0%BD%D0%B8%D0%B2%D0%B5%D1%80%D1%81%D0%B8%D1%82%D0%B5%D1%82_%D0%B8%D0%BD%D1%84%D0%BE%D1%80%D0%BC%D0%B0%D1%86%D0%B8%D0%BE%D0%BD%D0%BD%D1%8B%D1%85_%D1%82%D0%B5%D1%85%D0%BD%D0%BE%D0%BB%D0%BE%D0%B3%D0%B8%D0%B9
                                  3. http://www.beltandroadforum.org/english/n100/2019/0427/c36-1312.html
                                  4. http://english.cas.cn/Special_Reports/70_Birthday_Wishes/201911/t20191101_222208.shtml

                                    Answered by Tatiana Sedova, and has been reviewed by Ani Kintsurashvili

                                    Hide
                                    2.
                                    Exposure

                                    In my country, there are Confucius Institutes/Classrooms.

                                    Yes

                                    Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                    More

                                    0/ No

                                    5 countries chose this answer

                                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                                    14 countries chose this answer

                                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                    5 countries chose this answer

                                    3/ Few, but significant

                                    31 countries chose this answer

                                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                                    27 countries chose this answer

                                    82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                    Supporting Evidence

                                    The Kazakh side is willing to strengthen Kazakhstan-China cultural and people-to-people exchanges, cement cooperation in the fields of youth, education, and culture, and welcome the opening of more Confucius Institutions in Kazakhstan.

                                    1. http://www.chinaembassy-fi.org/eng/zxxx/t1814903.htm
                                    2. https://www.kaznu.kz/en/19134/page/
                                    3. https://moderndiplomacy.eu/2021/09/15/the-effectiveness-of-confucius-institutes-in-promoting-chinese-soft-power-in-kazakhstan/
                                    4. http://www.ieeip.cn/bbx/1071727-1123792.html?id=27381&newsid=712457
                                    5. https://astanatimes.com/2018/05/astanas-confucius-institute-promotes-cultural-ties-launches-courses-for-children/
                                    6. https://www.kstu.kz/confucius-institute-of-kstu/?lang=en

                                      Answered by Tatiana Sedova and 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Ani Kintsurashvili

                                      Hide
                                      3.
                                      Exposure

                                      My country plans to include, or does include, Chinese as a foreign language in K12 or primary education, and receives free or subsidized (e.g. offered below market price) educational books and teachers from PRC.

                                      Yes

                                      Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                      More

                                      Skipped

                                      1 countries chose this answer

                                      0/ No

                                      46 countries chose this answer

                                      4/ Yes

                                      35 countries chose this answer

                                      81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                      Supporting Evidence

                                      The article is talking about sending Chinese language books to at least 3 schools, 1 one which is considered to be one of the leading in the country and named after the first president of Kazakhstan – Nursultan Nazarbayev. Source: Link

                                      1. https://kapital.kz/gosudarstvo/80963/posol-stvo-knr-podarilo-stolichnym-shkol-nikam-uchebniki-kitayskogo-yazyka.html

                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Ani Kintsurashvili

                                        Hide
                                        4.
                                        Exposure

                                        In my country, one or more think tanks and academic research centers belong to PRC-affiliated networks/associations (such as: the Silk Road Think Tank Association, Silk Road Think Tank Network [SiLKS], Belt and Road Studies Network, University Alliance of the Silk Road, University Consortium of the 21st Century Maritime Silk Road).

                                        Yes

                                        Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                        More

                                        Skipped

                                        2 countries chose this answer

                                        0/ No

                                        40 countries chose this answer

                                        1/ Few, but insignificant

                                        17 countries chose this answer

                                        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                        7 countries chose this answer

                                        3/ Few, but significant

                                        14 countries chose this answer

                                        4/ More than a few, and significant

                                        2 countries chose this answer

                                        80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                        Supporting Evidence

                                        Al-Farabi Kazakh National University, Atyrau Institute of Oil and Gas, Caspian University are the members of the University Alliance of the Silk Road Link Relevant Chinese think tanks jointly launched the Belt and Road Studies Network (BRSN) with Kazakhstan’s Nazarbayev University Link The members of University Alliance of the Silk Road: Al-Farabi Kazakh National University, Atyrau Institute of Oil and Gas, Caspian University, K.Zhubanov Aktobe Regional State University, Kazakh Academy of Transport and Communications, L.N.Gumilyov Eurasian University, Nazarbayev University Link

                                        1. http://uasr.xjtu.edu.cn/
                                        2. http://www.beltandroadforum.org/english/n100/2019/0427/c36-1312.html
                                        3. http://uasr.xjtu.edu.cn/About_UASR/Members.htm

                                          Answered by Tatiana Sedova, and has been reviewed by Ani Kintsurashvili

                                          Hide
                                          5.
                                          Exposure

                                          In my country, think tanks and academic research centers have received financial support from PRC-connected individuals or entities.

                                          Yes

                                          Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                          More

                                          Skipped

                                          10 countries chose this answer

                                          0/ No

                                          21 countries chose this answer

                                          1/ Few, but insignificant

                                          11 countries chose this answer

                                          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                          11 countries chose this answer

                                          3/ Few, but significant

                                          19 countries chose this answer

                                          4/ More than a few, and significant

                                          10 countries chose this answer

                                          72 countries answered this indicator; 10 countries skipped this indicator

                                          Supporting Evidence

                                          China has allocated a quarter of a million grants to educate students from countries adjacent to the Silk Road project (countries of South Asia, Southeast Asia, etc.). Now about 18 thousand Kazakhstani students are studying in China, mainly in the specialty of Chinese language and commerce. Kaukenova conducted a survey among students at the China Center to learn about the perspectives of a generation interested in the Chinese language. Some of the respondents have motivation and knowledge of China and the language, but also have problems with research skills, Link Kurultai of the Association of Kazakhstani Students in China (KSAC) - The Kurultai of Kazakhstani Students in China is a joint event of the Center for International Programs of the Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Kazakhstan and the Embassy of the Republic of Kazakhstan in China, aimed at uniting, patriotic education and development of self-organization of Kazakhstani youth in China. Currently, there is a single student organization of Kazakhstani students "Kazakhstan Students Association in China" (KSAC), which unites about 12 thousand Kazakhstani students studying at universities in China. Link Link

                                          1. https://cabar.asia/ru/v-kazahstane-eksperty-obsudili-problemy-i-perspektivy-kitaevedeniya
                                          2. https://forbes.kz/news/2016/05/13/newsid_111695
                                          3. https://www.inform.kz/ru/bolee-250-kazahstanskih-studentov-sobralis-na-kurultay-v-kitae_a3533015

                                          Supplementary Notes

                                          [Second respondent]: Based on the provided evidence it looks like it can actually be from none to significant. “China has allocated a quarter of a million grants to educate students from countries adjacent to the Silk Road project,” says the article. ¼ of a million grants is a big number but it remains unclear which portion of it was dedicated specifically to Kazakhstan. The answer to this question especially raises a concern to me given that the answer to the previous question about think tanks and academic research centers affiliation with PRC networks/associations was rated as “few but significant.” In my view, there is high chances for these 2 questions to be interconnected, so the supporting evidence necessitates further elaboration.

                                            Answered by Tatiana Sedova and 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Ani Kintsurashvili

                                            Hide
                                            6.
                                            Exposure

                                            In my country, experts participate in PRC talent recruitment programs such as the Thousand Talents Program or Changjiang Scholars program.

                                            No

                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                            More

                                            Skipped

                                            3 countries chose this answer

                                            0/ No

                                            47 countries chose this answer

                                            1/ Few, but insignificant

                                            11 countries chose this answer

                                            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                            6 countries chose this answer

                                            3/ Few, but significant

                                            10 countries chose this answer

                                            4/ More than a few, and significant

                                            5 countries chose this answer

                                            79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                                            Supporting Evidence

                                            No Evidence found

                                              Supplementary Notes

                                              The Chinese Academy of Sciences launched the Alliance of International Science Organizations in the Belt and Road Region with 37 national scientific institutions in the Belt and Road Region and international organizations, including the National Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Kazakhstan. Link

                                              1. http://www.beltandroadforum.org/english/n100/2019/0427/c36-1312.html

                                              Answered by Tatiana Sedova, and has been reviewed by Ani Kintsurashvili

                                              Hide
                                              7.
                                              Exposure

                                              In my country, scholars have taken trips to the PRC paid for by PRC-connected individuals or entities.

                                              Yes

                                              Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                              More

                                              Skipped

                                              13 countries chose this answer

                                              0/ No

                                              17 countries chose this answer

                                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                                              15 countries chose this answer

                                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                              11 countries chose this answer

                                              3/ Few, but significant

                                              12 countries chose this answer

                                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                                              14 countries chose this answer

                                              69 countries answered this indicator; 13 countries skipped this indicator

                                              Supporting Evidence

                                              Embassy of the People's Republic of China in the Republic of Kazakhstan has allocated 23 grants of the Chief Ambassador to the teaching staff and students who will be able to pass a short-term internship in Xinjiang Agricultural University, Northwest Agriculture and Forestry University and China Agricultural University. Link

                                              1. https://kazatu.edu.kz/en/about-the-university/international-cooperation-and-multilingual-education-development-center/kazakh-chinese-center-of-science-and-education/

                                                Answered by Tatiana Sedova and 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Ani Kintsurashvili

                                                Hide
                                                8.
                                                Pressure

                                                In my country, organized PRC-connected student groups, such as Chinese Students and Scholars Associations (CSSAs), are involved in attempts to censor staff or students (e.g. by harassing students protesting human rights abuses in the PRC, or formally complaining about the identification of Taiwan as a country in lecture slides).

                                                No

                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                More

                                                Skipped

                                                1 countries chose this answer

                                                0/ No

                                                64 countries chose this answer

                                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                6 countries chose this answer

                                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                3 countries chose this answer

                                                3/ Few, but significant

                                                5 countries chose this answer

                                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                3 countries chose this answer

                                                81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                Not Found

                                                    Answered by Tatiana Sedova, and has been reviewed by Ani Kintsurashvili

                                                    Hide
                                                    9.
                                                    Pressure

                                                    In my country, scholars or academics have been denied visas to travel to the PRC after expressing opinions or producing scholarship that is critical of the PRC.

                                                    Skip

                                                    More

                                                    Skipped

                                                    7 countries chose this answer

                                                    0/ No

                                                    64 countries chose this answer

                                                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                    1 countries chose this answer

                                                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                    0 countries chose this answer

                                                    3/ Few, but significant

                                                    6 countries chose this answer

                                                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                    4 countries chose this answer

                                                    75 countries answered this indicator; 7 countries skipped this indicator

                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                    Not Found

                                                      Supplementary Notes

                                                      The first link Link says that Consulate General of China commented on the refusal to issue individual visas to Kazakhstanis, however it is not specified whether there were scholars among those Kazakhstanis. Also the complaint of Kazakh students who were going to study in China and could not apply for a visa Link

                                                      1. https://tengrinews.kz/kazakhstan_news/genkonsul-kitaya-prokommentiroval-otkaz-vyidache-300882/
                                                      2. https://rus.azattyq.org/a/studenty-viza-v-kitay-problemy/28656058.html

                                                      Answered by Tatiana Sedova, and has been reviewed by Ani Kintsurashvili

                                                      Hide
                                                      10.
                                                      Effect

                                                      In my country, PRC-connected entities have been involved in school or university curriculum design, such as courses about East Asian history, modern politics, etc.

                                                      No

                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                      More

                                                      Skipped

                                                      2 countries chose this answer

                                                      0/ No

                                                      64 countries chose this answer

                                                      4/ Yes

                                                      16 countries chose this answer

                                                      80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                      Not Found

                                                          Answered by Tatiana Sedova, and has been reviewed by Ani Kintsurashvili

                                                          Hide
                                                          11.
                                                          Effect

                                                          In my country, there are confirmed reports of teachers or professors avoiding the discussion of sensitive political issues (e.g. Uyghur re-education camps, Taiwan independence, Tiananmen Square Massacre).

                                                          No

                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                          More

                                                          Skipped

                                                          5 countries chose this answer

                                                          0/ No

                                                          65 countries chose this answer

                                                          1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                          1 countries chose this answer

                                                          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                          1 countries chose this answer

                                                          3/ Few, but significant

                                                          6 countries chose this answer

                                                          4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                          4 countries chose this answer

                                                          77 countries answered this indicator; 5 countries skipped this indicator

                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                          Not Found

                                                              Answered by Tatiana Sedova, and has been reviewed by Ani Kintsurashvili

                                                              Hide

                                                              Economy

                                                              The Economy Domain measures the PRC’s economic leverage in the Index country, and how this is used to influence economic policy or corporate behavior in ways that favor the PRC.

                                                              1.
                                                              Exposure

                                                              The PRC is my country's number one trading partner (for trade in goods only).

                                                              No

                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                              More

                                                              0/ No

                                                              51 countries chose this answer

                                                              4/ Yes

                                                              31 countries chose this answer

                                                              82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                              China is Kazakhstan’s second-largest trading partner after Russia. In 2019, Sino-Kazakh trade turnover exceeded $8 billion and in 2020, it comprised 18.1% of Kazakhstan’s total trade. By the end of 2020, mutual trade between the countries increased by 4% and came to $15.4 billion.

                                                              1. https://media.neliti.com/media/publications/321090-main-features-of-china-kazakhstan-econom-51fb23d6.pdf
                                                              2. https://astanatimes.com/2021/04/positive-dynamics-observed-in-trade-between-kazakhstan-and-china/

                                                                Answered by Tatiana Sedova, and has been reviewed by Ani Kintsurashvili

                                                                Hide
                                                                2.
                                                                Exposure

                                                                PRC-connected entities own more than 50% of my country’s sovereign debt.

                                                                No

                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                More

                                                                Skipped

                                                                1 countries chose this answer

                                                                0/ No

                                                                77 countries chose this answer

                                                                4/ Yes

                                                                4 countries chose this answer

                                                                81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                Not Found

                                                                    Answered by Tatiana Sedova, and has been reviewed by Ani Kintsurashvili

                                                                    Hide
                                                                    3.
                                                                    Exposure

                                                                    The PRC is the top customer for my country’s extractive industries.

                                                                    No

                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                    More

                                                                    0/ No

                                                                    62 countries chose this answer

                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                    20 countries chose this answer

                                                                    82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                    No evidence found.

                                                                    1. https://crudeaccountability.org/clear-as-oil-transparency-of-chinese-projects-in-kazakhstan/
                                                                    2. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=R3dWcjWxfCo&list=RDCMUCtR71EdAkg0NcVHCQtw2PIw&start_radio=1&rv=R3dWcjWxfCo&t=0

                                                                    Supplementary Notes

                                                                    Russia is the TOP CUSTOMER. But there's environmental and social harms that have economic consequences beyond the sale of hydrocarbons. See attached links.

                                                                      Answered by Tatiana Sedova and 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Ani Kintsurashvili

                                                                      Hide
                                                                      4.
                                                                      Exposure

                                                                      In my country, PRC-related entities own, operate or substantially control critical infrastructure (e.g. ports, power plants, digital data centers, etc) or sensitive sectors (biotech, raw materials, etc.)

                                                                      Yes

                                                                      Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                      More

                                                                      0/ No

                                                                      36 countries chose this answer

                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                      46 countries chose this answer

                                                                      82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                      The FPRK (the Trade Union Federation of the Republic of Kazakhstan) submitted a list of 204 Chinese companies, operating in Kazakhstan, of which 24 have local trade unions that are member organisations of sectoral federations affiliated to the FPRK. Trade unions are under great pressure in the oil and gas industry where there are many joint ventures with Chinese shareholders. Link

                                                                      1. https://www.ituc-csi.org/IMG/pdf/belt_and_road_initiative_in_central_asia.pdf

                                                                        Answered by Tatiana Sedova, and has been reviewed by Ani Kintsurashvili

                                                                        Hide
                                                                        5.
                                                                        Exposure

                                                                        My country joined (or applied to join) the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB).

                                                                        Yes

                                                                        Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                        More

                                                                        0/ No

                                                                        27 countries chose this answer

                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                        55 countries chose this answer

                                                                        82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                        Not Found

                                                                        1. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Asian_Infrastructure_Investment_Bank#Members

                                                                          Answered by Tatiana Sedova, and has been reviewed by Ani Kintsurashvili

                                                                          Hide
                                                                          6.
                                                                          Exposure

                                                                          In my country, major businesses are members of the Silk Road Chamber of International Commerce, or of the Belt and Road Industrial and Commercial Alliance, or of the Belt and Road General Chamber of Commerce.

                                                                          Yes

                                                                          Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                          More

                                                                          0/ No

                                                                          41 countries chose this answer

                                                                          4/ Yes

                                                                          41 countries chose this answer

                                                                          82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                          In September 2013, the first half of the BRI – the “Silk Road Economic Belt” (SREB) – was launched in Kazakhstan by Xi Jinping. Drawing upon the historical legacy of the ancient silk routes, the SREB envisions renewed cross-continental trade between China and Europe as an engine of growth and connectivity. Link Chamber of Commerce and Industry of Kazakhstan "Silk Road" is the member of the Silk Road Chamber of International Commerce, Link

                                                                          1. https://www.bertelsmann-stiftung.de/en/our-projects/germany-and-asia/news/asia-policy-brief-chinas-footprint-in-central-asia
                                                                          2. http://www.srcic.com/silk-road-members/

                                                                            Answered by Tatiana Sedova, and has been reviewed by Ani Kintsurashvili

                                                                            Hide
                                                                            7.
                                                                            Pressure

                                                                            My country has been the target of PRC economic coercion (e.g. trade or investment sanctions) that was specifically tailored at products or services that are highly dependent on the PRC market.

                                                                            No

                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                            More

                                                                            0/ No

                                                                            64 countries chose this answer

                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                            18 countries chose this answer

                                                                            82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                            Not Found

                                                                                Answered by Tatiana Sedova, and has been reviewed by Ani Kintsurashvili

                                                                                Hide
                                                                                8.
                                                                                Pressure

                                                                                In my country, local businesses have been harassed, threatened, or boycotted, due to their activities or statements in support of causes deemed unacceptable by the PRC government (e.g. Taiwanese independence, Hong Kong democracy, Tibet or Xinjiang issues, etc).

                                                                                No

                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                More

                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                65 countries chose this answer

                                                                                4/ Yes

                                                                                15 countries chose this answer

                                                                                80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                Not Found

                                                                                    Answered by Tatiana Sedova, and has been reviewed by Ani Kintsurashvili

                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                    9.
                                                                                    Effect

                                                                                    My country has free-trade agreement(s) with the PRC (either bilateral or as part of regional agreement(s)) that primarily deals with trade in goods or services, including digital goods or services.

                                                                                    Yes

                                                                                    Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                    More

                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                    51 countries chose this answer

                                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                                    31 countries chose this answer

                                                                                    82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                    China does not have a bilateral FTA signed with Kazakhstan, but with the EAEU. China signed a free trade agreement (FTA) with the Eurasian Economic Union (EAEU) in Astana, Kazakhstan, as indicated by us would occur earlier in the week. Thus, even though China does not have a bilateral agreement with Kazakhstan, they keep close economic ties through EAEU. Link

                                                                                    1. https://www.china-briefing.com/news/chinas-fta-eaeu-will-improve-market-access-eu/

                                                                                      Answered by Tatiana Sedova, and has been reviewed by Ani Kintsurashvili

                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                      10.
                                                                                      Effect

                                                                                      In my country, central or local governments have relaxed or removed regulatory restrictions, or have established special economic zones (or free trade zones, industrial parks, etc.) to attract investments or economic participation from the PRC.

                                                                                      Yes

                                                                                      Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                      More

                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                      47 countries chose this answer

                                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                                      35 countries chose this answer

                                                                                      82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                      A free trade zone has been mooted by Astana in order to stimulate development in the region, based on the successful model of Khorgos. Link Link

                                                                                      1. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-china-silkroad-horgos-idUSKBN18V15Z
                                                                                      2. https://www.forbes.com/sites/wadeshepard/2016/07/26/an-inside-look-at-icbc-khorgos-china-and-kazakhstans-cross-border-free-trade-zone/

                                                                                        Answered by Tatiana Sedova, and has been reviewed by Ani Kintsurashvili

                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                        11.
                                                                                        Effect

                                                                                        In my country, PRC-connected entities requisitioned infrastructure or land for failure to repay debts in a timely manner.

                                                                                        No

                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                        More

                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                        2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                        76 countries chose this answer

                                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                                        4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                        80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                        Not Found

                                                                                            Answered by Tatiana Sedova, and has been reviewed by Ani Kintsurashvili

                                                                                            Hide

                                                                                            Society

                                                                                            The Society Domain measures the extent and effectiveness of the PRC’s efforts to advance its soft power in the Index country, including its influence over the actions and views of local organizations and citizens.

                                                                                            1.
                                                                                            Exposure

                                                                                            In my country, there are local groups or organizations with words like “Promotion of Peaceful Reunification” in their name, and they regularly publicize their views on Taiwan, Hong Kong, Tibet and Xinjiang issues.

                                                                                            No

                                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                            More

                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                            1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                            49 countries chose this answer

                                                                                            1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                            12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                            7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                            3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                            9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                            4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                            4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                            81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                            Not Found

                                                                                                Answered by Tatiana Sedova, and has been reviewed by Ani Kintsurashvili

                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                2.
                                                                                                Exposure

                                                                                                In my country, there are members and member organizations of United World Chinese Association (世界华人协会).

                                                                                                No

                                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                More

                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                62 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                4/ Yes

                                                                                                19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                Not Found

                                                                                                    Answered by Tatiana Sedova, and has been reviewed by Ani Kintsurashvili

                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                    3.
                                                                                                    Exposure

                                                                                                    In my country, labor unions cooperate on exchanges or official visits to the All-China Federation of Trade Unions (ACFTU) in the PRC.

                                                                                                    No

                                                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                    1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                    68 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                                                    13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                    81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                    Not Found

                                                                                                        Answered by Tatiana Sedova, and has been reviewed by Ani Kintsurashvili

                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                        4.
                                                                                                        Exposure

                                                                                                        In my country, there are local reports of personnel linked to the UFWD who make appearances at Chinese diaspora community events and activities (e.g. Lunar New Year events, Dragon Boat festival tournaments, etc).

                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                        2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                        50 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                        1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                        9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                        5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                        3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                        9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                        4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                        7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                        80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                        No evidence found.

                                                                                                            Answered by Tatiana Sedova and 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Ani Kintsurashvili

                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                            5.
                                                                                                            Exposure

                                                                                                            In my country, there are PRC-connected professional associations that are closely engaged with their counterparts locally, such as All-China Journalists Association (中华全国新闻工作者协会), China Artists Association (中国艺术家协会), China Writers Association (中国作家协会) or All-China Women Federation (全国妇联).

                                                                                                            Yes

                                                                                                            Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                            2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                            33 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                            1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                            25 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                            8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                            3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                            8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                            4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                            6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                            80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                            The National Art Museum of China and 21 art museums or major fine arts institutions from 18 countries including Russia, the Republic of Korea, Greece, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Viet Nam, Sri Lanka, Ukraine, Lithuania, Bulgaria, Bangladesh, Hungary, Turkey, Moldova, Armenia and Poland, jointly founded the Silk Road International Alliance of Art Museums and Galleries. Link

                                                                                                            1. http://www.beltandroadforum.org/english/n100/2019/0427/c36-1312.html

                                                                                                              Answered by Tatiana Sedova, and has been reviewed by Ani Kintsurashvili

                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                              6.
                                                                                                              Exposure

                                                                                                              In my country, PRC-connected individuals or entities donate money or provide other types of support to religious communities and charities.

                                                                                                              No

                                                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                              1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                              46 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                              4/ Yes

                                                                                                              35 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                              81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                              No evidence found.

                                                                                                                  Answered by Tatiana Sedova and 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Ani Kintsurashvili

                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                  7.
                                                                                                                  Exposure

                                                                                                                  In my country, the PRC government or PRC-connected entities distribute entertainment products (including: drama and TV shows) or related hardwares (e.g. OTT streaming players hosting PRC media channels) freely or at a cheap price.

                                                                                                                  Skip

                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                  2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                  38 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                  21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                  4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                  11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                  6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                  80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                  Not Found

                                                                                                                    Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                    Chinese films and TV programs have seen an upsurge of popularity in Kazakhstan, providing a window for the people there to understand Chinese culture and the lives of Chinese people. Link The popular Chinese TV drama "All is well" has captured viewing audiences in Kazakhstan at a time when large population centers remain at home due to the novel coronavirus outbreak. The 46-episode family series, starring Yao Chen and Ni Dahong, runs Monday to Friday morning in Kazakh on Astana TV. Link

                                                                                                                    1. https://www.chinadaily.com.cn/a/201805/28/WS5b0b6f6fa31001b82571cad8.html
                                                                                                                    2. http://www.xinhuanet.com/english/2020-03/22/c_138905211.htm

                                                                                                                    Answered by Tatiana Sedova and 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Ani Kintsurashvili

                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                    8.
                                                                                                                    Effect

                                                                                                                    Cultural products (such as films and TV shows) produced by my country’s production studios typically portray the PRC in a positive light.

                                                                                                                    No

                                                                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                    7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                    60 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                                                                    15 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                    75 countries answered this indicator; 7 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                    No evidence found.

                                                                                                                        Answered by Tatiana Sedova and 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Ani Kintsurashvili

                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                        9.
                                                                                                                        Effect

                                                                                                                        In my country, celebrities regularly publish or share propaganda narratives from the PRC.

                                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                        67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                        1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                        10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                        0 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                        3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                        3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                        4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                        2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                        82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                        Not Found

                                                                                                                            Answered by Tatiana Sedova, and has been reviewed by Ani Kintsurashvili

                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                            10.
                                                                                                                            Effect

                                                                                                                            In my country, the national or local governments regularly publish or share propaganda narratives from the PRC (e.g. statements from the PRC government or embassies).

                                                                                                                            No

                                                                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                            2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                            54 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                            1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                            12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                            2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                            3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                            7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                            4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                            5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                            80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                            Not Found

                                                                                                                                Answered by Tatiana Sedova, and has been reviewed by Ani Kintsurashvili

                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                11.
                                                                                                                                Effect

                                                                                                                                In my country, a majority of citizens have positive views of the PRC government.

                                                                                                                                No

                                                                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                50 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                25 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                75 countries answered this indicator; 7 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                Kazakh concerns over possible Chinese domination are based not only on economic arguments. They need to be situated in a social context in which fear of China remains very real: the general lack of knowledge about China, and fear of too great a difference in demographic power, might well beimportant factors influencing Kazakh reactions to China’s growing presence. Source: Chinese Economic Presence in Kazakhstan China’s Resolve and Central Asia’s Apprehension - SÉBASTIEN PEYROUSE Link Article about Anti-China sentiments in Kazakhstan Link

                                                                                                                                1. https://forbes.kz/process/expertise/shest_prichin_antikitayskih_nastroeniy_v_kazahstane/
                                                                                                                                2. https://www.taiwannews.com.tw/en/news/3796069

                                                                                                                                Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                [Second respondent]: The negative perception of the PRC government by the Kazakhstani cannot be mentioned without referring to the agricultural reform in Kazakhstan which spurred a wave of mass protests across the country.

                                                                                                                                  Answered by Tatiana Sedova and 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Ani Kintsurashvili

                                                                                                                                  Hide

                                                                                                                                  Military

                                                                                                                                  The Military Domain gauges the bilateral military relationship between the PRC and the Index country, including PRC efforts to influence local military personnel.

                                                                                                                                  1.
                                                                                                                                  Exposure

                                                                                                                                  My country currently imports (or receives in-kind donation of) military or law-enforcement equipment or components of equipment from the PRC.

                                                                                                                                  Yes

                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                  36 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                  4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                  46 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                  82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                  In 2015, Beijing presented Kazakhstan with thirty Jiefang J6 heavy duty trucks and thirty large-load trailers free of charge. The equipment was worth $3.2 million. Link In addition, China is today a major producer and exporter of military equipment. The arsenals of both Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan include Wing Loong-1 military drones made by the Aviation Industry Corporation of China (AVIC). A large share of China’s weapons transfers to Central Asia are labelled donations, sidestepping 2002 legislation that places limits on Chinese arms exports. Link

                                                                                                                                  1. https://carnegie.ru/commentary/81402
                                                                                                                                  2. https://www.wilsoncenter.org/publication/kennan-cable-no-52-russias-shadow-chinas-rising-security-presence-central-asia

                                                                                                                                    Answered by Tatiana Sedova, and has been reviewed by Ani Kintsurashvili

                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                    2.
                                                                                                                                    Exposure

                                                                                                                                    My country currently exports military or law-enforcement equipment or components of equipment to the PRC.

                                                                                                                                    No

                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                    1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                    74 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                    7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                    81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                    Not Found

                                                                                                                                    1. https://perconcordiam.com/chinas-influence-in-central-asia/

                                                                                                                                    Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                    China has purchased military items from Central Asian states, including 40 Shkval torpedoes in 1998 from Kazakhstan.

                                                                                                                                      Answered by Tatiana Sedova, and has been reviewed by Ani Kintsurashvili

                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                      3.
                                                                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                                                                      My country co-develops or co-produces military or law-enforcement equipment with the PRC.

                                                                                                                                      Yes

                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                                      1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                      66 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                      15 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                      81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                      During the sixth meeting of the Chinese-Kazakh business council, Tokayev said that Kazakhstan was strategically interested in “[the] establishment of joint innovation companies, techno[logy] parks and information technology (IT) centers. In our capital we have opened up an international techno[logy] park for IT start-ups, “Astana Hub” and highlighted work on “big data, Internet of Things (IoT), artificial intelligence (AI), cloud technologies and supercomputers” Link IT components are used also for the Military and Law enforcement.

                                                                                                                                      1. https://jamestown.org/program/tracking-the-digital-component-of-the-bri-in-central-asia-part-two-developments-in-kazakhstan/

                                                                                                                                        Answered by Tatiana Sedova, and has been reviewed by Ani Kintsurashvili

                                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                                        4.
                                                                                                                                        Exposure

                                                                                                                                        In my country, there are reports that the PRC has expressed intentions or has taken actions to establish basing.

                                                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                                        2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                        67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                        13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                        80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                        Not Found

                                                                                                                                            Answered by Tatiana Sedova, and has been reviewed by Ani Kintsurashvili

                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                            5.
                                                                                                                                            Exposure

                                                                                                                                            In my country, the People’s Liberation Army (PLA) has participated in a humanitarian relief/disaster assistance (HADR) effort.

                                                                                                                                            No

                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                                            2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                            61 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                            19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                            80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                            Not Found

                                                                                                                                                Answered by Tatiana Sedova, and has been reviewed by Ani Kintsurashvili

                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                6.
                                                                                                                                                Exposure

                                                                                                                                                In my country, People’s Liberation Army (PLA) military personnel are permanently or rotationally deployed (excluding defense attaches and peacekeepers).

                                                                                                                                                No

                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                77 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                Not Found

                                                                                                                                                    Answered by Tatiana Sedova, and has been reviewed by Ani Kintsurashvili

                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                    7.
                                                                                                                                                    Exposure

                                                                                                                                                    In my country, members of the military have received professional military education from the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                    Yes

                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                    48 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                    34 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                    82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                    Between 2003 and 2009, 65 members of the Kazakh military took courses in Chinese institutions. Link

                                                                                                                                                    1. https://jamestown.org/program/military-cooperation-between-china-and-central-asia-breakthrough-limits-and-prospects/

                                                                                                                                                      Answered by Tatiana Sedova, and has been reviewed by Ani Kintsurashvili

                                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                                      8.
                                                                                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                                                                                      In my country, members of the military have received peacekeeping training from the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                      Yes

                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                                                      2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                      67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                      13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                      80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                      Between 1990 and 2005, only 15 Kazakh officers were sent to China for training. Yet this cooperation has grown– between 2003 and 2009, 65 members of the Kazakh military took courses in Chinese institutions. Link On the occasion of the 93rd anniversary of the founding of the People's Liberation Army (PLA) of China, the ambassador said the two sides have conducted military exchanges, competitions and training, and closely cooperated on the fight against terrorism, separatism and extremism, as well as "color revolutions" in the region. Link Participation of the PLA in the Fanfare for Peace Military Tattoos - 20th-29th Aug. 2014 - in China - 9 military bands from China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia and Tajikistan, 660 people in total - The opening ceremony and marching performance in China's National Indoor Stadium, a parade and a pageant performance at the Olympic Center, and the closing ceremony of the military tattoo and of the Peace Mission-2014 joint counter-terrorism exercise in Zhurihe Training Base in Inner Mongolia Link

                                                                                                                                                      1. https://jamestown.org/program/military-cooperation-between-china-and-central-asia-breakthrough-limits-and-prospects/
                                                                                                                                                      2. http://www.xinhuanet.com/english/2020-08/01/c_139257481.htm
                                                                                                                                                      3. http://www.china-un.ch/eng/dbtyw/cjjk_1/cjjzzdh/t1683060.htm

                                                                                                                                                        Answered by Tatiana Sedova, and has been reviewed by Ani Kintsurashvili

                                                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                                                        9.
                                                                                                                                                        Exposure

                                                                                                                                                        In my country, high-ranking retired or current military and/or intelligence officers have received direct or deferred benefits from PRC-connected individuals or entities openly or covertly (e.g. have been appointed to lucrative positions as board members or consultants with PRC-invested firms, casinos, energy companies, etc.) during or in retirement from public service.

                                                                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                                                        4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                                        67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                        11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                        78 countries answered this indicator; 4 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                        Not Found

                                                                                                                                                            Answered by Tatiana Sedova, and has been reviewed by Ani Kintsurashvili

                                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                                            10.
                                                                                                                                                            Effect

                                                                                                                                                            In my country, high-ranking retired or current military and/or intelligence officials advocate for more coordination with the People’s Liberation Army (PLA).

                                                                                                                                                            No

                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                                                            1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                            68 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                            13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                            81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                            Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                Answered by Tatiana Sedova, and has been reviewed by Ani Kintsurashvili

                                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                                11.
                                                                                                                                                                Effect

                                                                                                                                                                My country cooperates with the People’s Liberation Army (PLA) on military exchange exercises, including drills and war games.

                                                                                                                                                                Yes

                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                51 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                31 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                It was not until August 2003, in eastern Kazakhstan and Xinjiang, that the first multilateral military exercises took place, involving thousands of Chinese, Russian, Kazakh, Kyrgyz, and Tajik military personnel. All member states, except Uzbekistan, participated. In 2006, the East anti-Terror exercises in Uzbekistan were held, in which all the security services were involved. In 2010, exercises held on the Matybulak polygon in the Semirechie region of Kazakhstan, where a number of military experts from China and Russia have already prepared the simulations. Link Chen Bingde (R), chief of the General Staff of the Chinese People's Liberation Army, meets with Saken Zhasuzakov, first deputy defense minister and chief of the staff of Kazakhstan's Armed Forces, in Almaty, Kazakhstan, Sept. 9, 2010. Chen visited Almaty on Thursday to attend the opening ceremony of the "Peace Mission - 2010" anti-terrorism military exercise, which is launched under the framework of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization in south Kazakhstan from Sept. 9 to 25. Link Since 2002, the military and other security forces of Kazakhstan and China have engaged in some two dozen bilateral and multilateral military exercises Link

                                                                                                                                                                1. https://jamestown.org/program/kazakhstan-china-military-exchanges-continue/
                                                                                                                                                                2. http://en.people.cn/90001/90776/90883/7135744.html
                                                                                                                                                                3. https://jamestown.org/program/military-cooperation-between-china-and-central-asia-breakthrough-limits-and-prospects/

                                                                                                                                                                  Answered by Tatiana Sedova, and has been reviewed by Ani Kintsurashvili

                                                                                                                                                                  Hide

                                                                                                                                                                  Law Enforcement

                                                                                                                                                                  The Law Enforcement Domain measures law enforcement cooperation between the PRC and the Index country, as well as the nature and extent of PRC-related criminal activity in the Index country.

                                                                                                                                                                  1.
                                                                                                                                                                  Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                  My country currently maintains an extradition treaty, legal mutual assistance or other similar arrangements with the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                  No

                                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                  32 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                  4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                  50 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                  82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                  No evidence found.

                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by Tatiana Sedova, and has been reviewed by Ani Kintsurashvili

                                                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                                                      2.
                                                                                                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                      In my country, law enforcement authorities have signed cooperation agreements with the PRC on combatting terrorism.

                                                                                                                                                                      Yes

                                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                      1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                      55 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                      26 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                      81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                      Sino-Kazakhstan Joint Declaration on Further Deepening Comprehensive Strategic Partnership mentions law enforcement cooperation Link Joint Declaration on New Stage of Comprehensive Strategic Partnership Between the People's Republic of China and the Republic of Kazakhstan Link Agreement between the Government of the Republic of Kazakhstan and the Government of the People's Republic of China on cooperation in the fight against crime Link

                                                                                                                                                                      1. https://www.internationalwaterlaw.org/documents/regionaldocs/China-Kazakhstan_declaration_7_Sept_2013-CIWL_unofficial_translation.pdf
                                                                                                                                                                      2. https://www.fmprc.gov.cn/mfa_eng/wjdt_665385/2649_665393/t1293114.shtml
                                                                                                                                                                      3. https://www.gov.kz/memleket/entities/qriim/documents/details/143603?lang=ru

                                                                                                                                                                      Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                      China to advance cooperation on law enforcement with SCO member countrieshttp://english.www.gov.cn/state_council/state_councilors/2019/05/17/content_281476665309822.htm On the occasion of the 93rd anniversary of the founding of the People's Liberation Army (PLA) of China, the ambassador said the two sides have conducted military exchanges, competitions and training, and closely cooperated on the fight against terrorism, separatism and extremism, as well as "color revolutions" in the region. Link Chen Bingde (R), chief of the General Staff of the Chinese People's Liberation Army, meets with Saken Zhasuzakov, first deputy defense minister and chief of the staff of Kazakhstan's Armed Forces, in Almaty, Kazakhstan, Sept. 9, 2010. Chen visited Almaty on Thursday to attend the opening ceremony of the "Peace Mission - 2010" anti-terrorism military exercise, which is launched under the framework of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization in south Kazakhstan from Sept. 9 to 25. Link

                                                                                                                                                                      1. http://www.xinhuanet.com/english/2020-08/01/c_139257481.htm
                                                                                                                                                                      2. http://en.people.cn/90001/90776/90883/7135744.html

                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by Tatiana Sedova, and has been reviewed by Ani Kintsurashvili

                                                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                                                      3.
                                                                                                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                      In my country, PRC-connected gangs (such as Triad, 三合会) are known to be operating in my country.

                                                                                                                                                                      No

                                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                      1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                      52 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                      29 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                      81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                      Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                          Answered by Tatiana Sedova, and has been reviewed by Ani Kintsurashvili

                                                                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                                                                          4.
                                                                                                                                                                          Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                          In my country, there are reports of economic espionage targeting the private sector that were suspected to benefit PRC-connected entities.

                                                                                                                                                                          No

                                                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                          2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                          49 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                          1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                          7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                          3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                          3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                          12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                          4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                          9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                          80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                          Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                              Answered by Tatiana Sedova, and has been reviewed by Ani Kintsurashvili

                                                                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                                                                              5.
                                                                                                                                                                              Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                              In my country, there are reports of cyber attacks targeting government, critical infrastructure, or enterprises that were suspected to be initiated from the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                              Yes

                                                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                              3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                              37 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                              9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                              4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                              3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                              14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                              15 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                              79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                              October 2020. U.S. government officials revealed that suspected Chinese hackers were behind a series of attacks on entities in Russia, India, Ukraine, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, and Malaysia. Link

                                                                                                                                                                              1. https://www.csis.org/programs/strategic-technologies-program/significant-cyber-incidents

                                                                                                                                                                              Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                              We assume there might be more attacks, but the information is not public.

                                                                                                                                                                                Answered by Tatiana Sedova, and has been reviewed by Ani Kintsurashvili

                                                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                6.
                                                                                                                                                                                Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                In my country, triads are known to have threatened or used violence to coerce, intimidate or punish Chinese dissidents.

                                                                                                                                                                                No

                                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by Tatiana Sedova, and has been reviewed by Ani Kintsurashvili

                                                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                    7.
                                                                                                                                                                                    Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                    My country has deployed video or internet surveillance systems from the PRC for law enforcement.

                                                                                                                                                                                    Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                    1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                    30 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                    51 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                    81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                    In 2019, Tokayev visited the offices of Hangzhou Hikvision Digital Technology Company during a trip to China, and afterwards spoke glowingly of the company’s surveillance capabilities. Tokayev instructed Kazakhstan’s development planners to follow China’s example and deepen the collection of citizens’ personal identification information. He especially noted Chinese progress in areas such facial recognition, the usage of biometric and medical data, and the collection of employment and credit history—information which, if systematically collected and stored, would allow the government to track its citizens at a granular level—and held up these advances as a model for Kazakhstan. Link

                                                                                                                                                                                    1. https://jamestown.org/program/tracking-the-digital-component-of-the-bri-in-central-asia-part-two-developments-in-kazakhstan/

                                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by Tatiana Sedova, and has been reviewed by Ani Kintsurashvili

                                                                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                      8.
                                                                                                                                                                                      Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                      In my country, representatives of the PRC police force have had joint patrols with local law enforcement.

                                                                                                                                                                                      No

                                                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                      71 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                      11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                      82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                      Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                          Answered by Tatiana Sedova, and has been reviewed by Ani Kintsurashvili

                                                                                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                          9.
                                                                                                                                                                                          Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                          My government has detained people at the request of the PRC for committing a crime involving engagements with social movements or resistance activities in Hong Kong, Xinjiang or for other human rights or civic rights issues.

                                                                                                                                                                                          Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                          1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                          68 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                          4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                          13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                          81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                          When 67-year-old pensioner Qalida Akytkhan decided to join a small protest outside the Chinese Consulate in Almaty, it was three years after three of her sons were detained at a so-called "reeducation camp" in China's northwestern Xinjiang region. Link Authorities are still intent on demonstrating fealty to Beijing by thwarting grassroots activism critical of the Chinese government. Serik Azhibai is the latest object of that harassment. On August 3, Azhibai was arrested by police after holding a one-man picket outside China’s consulate in Almaty. The purpose of the demonstration was to demand the expulsion of Beijing’s ambassador, Zhang Xiao, who has provoked ill-will among citizens and officials alike with remarks perceived as disrespecting Kazakhs and their nation’s sovereignty. Link

                                                                                                                                                                                          1. https://www.rferl.org/a/kazakhstan-protests-china-xinjiang-rights-abuses/31186209.html
                                                                                                                                                                                          2. https://eurasianet.org/kazakhstan-squeezes-china-critics-as-xinjiang-anxieties-spread

                                                                                                                                                                                            Answered by Tatiana Sedova, and has been reviewed by Ani Kintsurashvili

                                                                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                            10.
                                                                                                                                                                                            Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                            My country has deported Taiwan citizens to the PRC to face prosecution.

                                                                                                                                                                                            No

                                                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                            2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                            71 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                            9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                            80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                            Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                Answered by Tatiana Sedova, and has been reviewed by Ani Kintsurashvili

                                                                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                11.
                                                                                                                                                                                                Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                My country has extradited or has deported individuals to the PRC, although such decisions had attracted criticisms from politicians, government employees or from local or foreign NGOs.

                                                                                                                                                                                                Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                61 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                Kazakh authorities detained Sayragul Sauytbai, an ethnic Kazakh woman with Chinese citizenship, for “illegal border crossing” and put her on trial. If convicted, she could be deported back to China. She has applied for asylum in Kazakhstan. Link

                                                                                                                                                                                                1. https://www.hrw.org/news/2018/07/30/kazakhstan-shouldnt-deport-asylum-seeker-china

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answered by Tatiana Sedova, and has been reviewed by Ani Kintsurashvili

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Hide

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Technology

                                                                                                                                                                                                  The Technology Domain gauges the PRC’s influence over the technology sector in the Index country, including the activity and financial leverage of PRC companies, use of PRC hardware, and bilateral research partnerships.

                                                                                                                                                                                                  1.
                                                                                                                                                                                                  Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                  In my country, PRC-connected entities (such as China Mobile, China Unicom or China Telecom) or their subsidiaries provide telecom services.

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                  52 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                  4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                  30 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                  82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Kazakhstan national telecommunications operator Kazakhtelecom and China Mobile have signed a cooperation memorandum during the Mobile World Congress Shanghai 2019. Link China Telecom has signed up a Kazakh telecom firm to deliver a fast high-capacity route from Hong Kong to Europe, dubbed a new Silk Road. Link China Mobile backs 5G development centre in Kazakhstan; Huawei launches NFV facility Link

                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. https://www.telecompaper.com/news/kazakhtelecom-china-mobile-sign-cooperation-memorandum--1298825
                                                                                                                                                                                                  2. https://www.datacenterdynamics.com/en/news/china-telecom-signs-with-kazakh-firm-for-new-link-to-europe/
                                                                                                                                                                                                  3. https://www.commsupdate.com/articles/2015/01/21/china-mobile-backs-5g-development-centre-in-kazakhstan-huawei-launches-nfv-facility/

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by Tatiana Sedova, and has been reviewed by Ani Kintsurashvili

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                    2.
                                                                                                                                                                                                    Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                    In my country, telecoms have signed agreements to adopt hardwares or technical specifications of 4G or 5G cellular networks that are produced or developed by Huawei, ZTE or other PRC enterprises.

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                    16 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                    5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                    4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                    3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                    27 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                    30 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                    82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                    "One of the main breakthroughs during this period was the development of a 4G LTE communication standard and the construction of networks of a new standard around the world, in Kazakhstan we started this project in 2013. At one time it was a big breakthrough both for our company and for the entire telecommunications market. In Kazakhstan, we were the first who managed to implement a project on coverage with a fourth generation communication network throughout the country. It was a great achievement "- Zhang Qingguo, General Director of Huawei Technologies Kazakhstan LLP, in an interview with Kursiv.kz. "we are the leader in 5G service delivery. In Kazakhstan, last year (2019), we successfully tested a new generation network together with Kazakhtelecom. I think the deployment of the first commercial zones of the 5G network will begin this year and will start in Nur-Sultan and Almaty. In particular, in the special economic zone." Source: Link

                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. https://www.huawei.com/kz/news/kz/2020/huawei-news-article-intervyu-generalnogo-direktora-huawei-v-kazakhstane-kursiv-08042020

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by Tatiana Sedova, and has been reviewed by Ani Kintsurashvili

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                      3.
                                                                                                                                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                      In my country, telecoms have adopted hardware or technical specifications by PRC-connected entities in internet/wifi/telecommunication service infrastructure projects, in addition to 4G/5G cellular network.

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                      8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                      14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                      10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                      3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                      3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                      24 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                      23 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                      74 countries answered this indicator; 8 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                      4.
                                                                                                                                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                      In my country, PRC-connected entities are authorized vendors to supply tech-related equipment or services to our government, military or security services.

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                      1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                      28 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                      53 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                      81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                      5.
                                                                                                                                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                      In my country, central or local governments have collaboration (such as data collection or exchange agreement, or adoption of related hardwares) with the PRC government or PRC-connected entities on facial, voice recognition or other applications involving biometrics achieved by AI.

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                      3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                      42 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                      9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                      2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                      3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                      19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                      7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                      79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                      A major local provider of the “Sergek” surveillance systems undergirding these developments is Korkem Telecom, which partners with the Chinese company Zhejiang Dahua Technology (浙江大华技术, Zhejiang Dahua jishu). The aforementioned Hikvision has also maintained direct sales offices in Kazakhstan since 2015, although according to its 2020 Annual Report the company has invested relatively little in developing its subsidiary business there (Hikvision, accessed May 4). Although Kazakhstan’s opaque government does not readily provide details about the sources of procurement for its new surveillance systems, media reports assert that Kazakhstan’s video surveillance systems mainly use Chinese products (Central.asia-news.com, December 11, 2019). As in other countries, the pace of adopting smart technologies for public health surveillance was also sped up during the coronavirus pandemic. Link In recent years, facial recognition, biometric-identification, artificial intelligence (AI) and video surveillance technologies have been rapidly emerging domestically, including in close cooperation with several Chinese companies, such as Hikvision and Dahua Technology. Link

                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. https://jamestown.org/program/kazakhstan-experiments-with-surveillance-technology-to-battle-coronavirus-pandemic/
                                                                                                                                                                                                      2. https://jamestown.org/program/tracking-the-digital-component-of-the-bri-in-central-asia-part-two-developments-in-kazakhstan/

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answered by Tatiana Sedova, and has been reviewed by Ani Kintsurashvili

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                        6.
                                                                                                                                                                                                        Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                        In my country, one or more cities have procured, or have signed contracts with PRC-connected entities to establish “smart city” systems.

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                        1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                        35 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                        1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                        13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                        4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                        3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                        25 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                        4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                        4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                        81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Both now and in the future, we would like to take an active part in the implementation of national projects under the state program "Digital Kazakhstan", infrastructure projects throughout the country, provision of broadband Internet access in cities and villages, implementation of platforms such as "Smart city ”, and, of course, the deployment of 5G networks in Kazakhstan. Link Increased cooperation with China since 2018, when the Kazakhstani government launched its national strategy “Digital Kazakhstan” and Smart City projects to re-shape urban areas with the help of advanced information communication technology (ICT). Additionally, in October 2019, following his first official visit to China, President Kassym-Jomart Tokayev specifically instructed his Cabinet to adopt the Chinese experience of mass digitalization (Kursiv.kz, October 8, 2019). One of the agreements signed between the two parties during Tokayev’s time in Beijing was cooperation on the Tianhe-2 Supercomputer, which Kazakhstan would reportedly use to oversee all of its government cyber systems, provide computing power for its “Government for Citizens” State Corporation, as well as power Kazakhstan’s facial-recognition technologies. Link

                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. https://jamestown.org/program/kazakhstan-experiments-with-surveillance-technology-to-battle-coronavirus-pandemic/
                                                                                                                                                                                                        2. https://www.huawei.com/kz/news/kz/2020/huawei-news-article-intervyu-generalnogo-direktora-huawei-v-kazakhstane-kursiv-08042020

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answered by Tatiana Sedova, and has been reviewed by Ani Kintsurashvili

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                          7.
                                                                                                                                                                                                          Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                          In my country, financial institutions use the China Cross-Border Interbank Payment System (CIPS) clearing and settlement services system.

                                                                                                                                                                                                          No

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                          1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                          63 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                          4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                          18 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                          81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answered by Tatiana Sedova, and has been reviewed by Ani Kintsurashvili

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                              8.
                                                                                                                                                                                                              Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                              In my country, PRC-connected venture capital invests in technology start-ups.

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                              1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                              32 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                              18 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                              8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                              3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                              12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                              11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                              81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Kazakhstan and China have opened up an international technology park for IT start-ups. Link

                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. https://techcrunch.com/sponsor/unlisted/why-kazakhstan-could-be-an-interesting-market-for-your-startup/

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answered by Tatiana Sedova, and has been reviewed by Ani Kintsurashvili

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                9.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                In my country, companies have publicly announced that they had signed MOUs to collaborate on technological development (such as collaborations in A.I., Blockchain, Cloud Computing, Big Data) with PRC-connected entities.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 2 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                31 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                The China Banking and Insurance Regulatory Commission signed the MOUs on supervisory cooperation with the Central Bank of Armenia, National Bank of Serbia, National Bank of Georgia, Astana Financial Services Authority (Kazakhstan), China Customs signed relevant AEO mutual recognition cooperation documents with the State Revenue Committee of the Ministry of Finance of Kazakhstan. Link In July 2018, the Mayor's Office of Nur-Sultan announced that at the Forum of Mayors of Silk Road Countries, an agreement was reached on the creation and operation of a laboratory for DNA diagnostics on the basis of Nazarbayev University. A memorandum of cooperation and mutual understanding was signed between the management company of the SEZ "Astana - Technopolis" and the Chinese company Microread Kazakhstan. Link At the KADEX-2016 business platform, the Kazakh company Kaztechnology, with the support of the Ministry of Defense of the Republic of Kazakhstan, signed two contracts with the PRC. A technology and equipment transfer memorandum was signed with Norinco Corp for the production of large caliber ammunition. Link

                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. http://www.beltandroadforum.org/english/n100/2019/0427/c36-1312.html
                                                                                                                                                                                                                2. http://russian.news.cn/2019-12/05/c_138606020.htm
                                                                                                                                                                                                                3. https://informburo.kz/novosti/kadex-2016-kitay-peredast-kazahstanu-tehnologii-proizvodstva-krupnokalibernyh-boepripasov.html

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answered by Tatiana Sedova, and has been reviewed by Ani Kintsurashvili

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  10.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  In my country, PRC-connected entities are shareholders or developers of the top five popular social media/messaging apps, based on usage.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  44 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  36 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  TikTok is one of the top five popular social media apps in Kazakhstan. Link (accessed on 6/7/2021)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. https://app.sensortower.com/android/rankings/top/mobile/kazakhstan/social?date=2021-06-12&locale=zh-CN

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by Tatiana Sedova, and has been reviewed by Ani Kintsurashvili

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    11.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    In my country, the central or local government(s) has collaborated with the PRC on endorsing the use of BeiDou satellite navigation system.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    64 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    17 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answered by Tatiana Sedova, and has been reviewed by Ani Kintsurashvili

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Hide

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Domestic Politics

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        The Domestic Politics Domain evaluates PRC efforts to influence the political landscape in the Index country, and the footprint of PRC security companies.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        In my country, politicians or government employees at the sub-national level are signing agreements with the PRC government or state-owned enterprises.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        20 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        23 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        No Direct Evidence Found.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Since the Chinese are present in these provinces, they might have close ties and agreements with the local government. The presence of trade unions in Chinese oil and gas companies differs a lot depending on the region. A trade union is present in all four Chinese companies in Mangystau province, in 6 of 9 companies in Kyzyl-Orda province, 9 of 15 companies in Aktobe province, but only in 1 of 15 Chinese enterprises in Atyrau province. Link In Kazakhstan, together with foreign investors, they plan to launch five projects worth $ 127 million, "including a project worth $ 26 million in the Almaty region with the participation of Chinese capital". Link

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. https://www.ituc-csi.org/IMG/pdf/belt_and_road_initiative_in_central_asia.pdf
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2. https://russian.eurasianet.org/%D0%BA%D0%B8%D1%82%D0%B0%D0%B9-%D0%BF%D1%80%D0%B8%D0%BE%D1%82%D0%BA%D1%80%D1%8B%D0%B2%D0%B0%D0%B5%D1%82-%D1%81%D0%B2%D0%BE%D0%B9-%D1%80%D1%8B%D0%BD%D0%BE%D0%BA-%D0%B4%D0%BB%D1%8F-%D1%86%D0%B5%D0%BD%D1%82%D1%80%D0%B0%D0%BB%D1%8C%D0%BD%D0%BE%D0%B0%D0%B7%D0%B8%D0%B0%D1%82%D1%81%D0%BA%D0%B8%D1%85-%D1%8D%D0%BA%D1%81%D0%BF%D0%BE%D1%80%D1%82%D0%B5%D1%80%D0%BE%D0%B2

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answered by Tatiana Sedova, and has been reviewed by Ani Kintsurashvili

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          In my country, local municipalities have sister-city ties (友好城市) with municipalities in the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 2 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          23 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Aktau has an official sister city - Karamay in China, Shymkent - Baiyin (China), Nur-Sultan (Astana) - Beijing (China), Almaty - Urumqi (China) Link

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. https://tumba.kz/zhizn-regiona/11-zhizn-regiona/43012-Est_li_pobratimy_u_Aktau_i_drugih_gorodov_Kazahstan.html

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answered by Tatiana Sedova, and has been reviewed by Ani Kintsurashvili

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            3.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            In my country, politicians or government employees have taken trips to the PRC paid for by PRC-connected individuals or entities.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            22 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            16 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            16 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            73 countries answered this indicator; 9 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            For example, according to the Vremya newspaper, the management of the Kazakhstan branch of Huawei requires employees to establish close ties (give gifts, organize joint dinners, fishing, travel to China) with employees of government agencies and national companies responsible for procurement of goods and services. Link

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. https://inbusiness.kz/ru/author_news/kakie-riski-dlya-kazahstana-neset-sotrudnichestvo-s-kitaem

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answered by Tatiana Sedova, and has been reviewed by Ani Kintsurashvili

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              4.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              In my country, politicians or government employees visit the PRC and have meetings with PRC officials and think tanks.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              25 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              32 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              5.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              In my country, law enforcement and judicial related training offered the PRC-connected individuals or entities has been accepted by national or subnational governments.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              46 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              16 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Stronger Legal Cooperation for Sound and Steady Development of the Belt and Road Initiative --Speech by State Councilor and Foreign Minister Wang Yi, where he speaks about Belt and Road Initiative countries (incl. Kazakhtan) and mentions: "I hereby announce the Chinese government’s decision to fund the “Belt and Road Legal Cooperation Research and Training Program” to boost such cooperation." Link

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. https://www.fmprc.gov.cn/mfa_eng/zxxx_662805/t1573636.shtml

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answered by Tatiana Sedova, and has been reviewed by Ani Kintsurashvili

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                6.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                In my country, there are reports of politicians or political parties receiving campaign donations that originate in the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                60 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                0 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                78 countries answered this indicator; 4 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by Tatiana Sedova, and has been reviewed by Ani Kintsurashvili

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    7.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    In my country, groups with reported links to the United Front Work Department (UFWD) have hosted fundraisings or have provided other forms of support for government employees, politicians or parties.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    64 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answered by Tatiana Sedova, and has been reviewed by Ani Kintsurashvili

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        8.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        In my country, groups with reported links to the United Front Work Department (UFWD) have made public statements opposing the candidacy of a local political candidate or party, claiming them being “anti-China”.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        78 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        0 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        0 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answered by Tatiana Sedova, and has been reviewed by Ani Kintsurashvili

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            9.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            In my country, politicians or government employees have publicly expressed positive views of the PRC government.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            37 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answered by Tatiana Sedova, and has been reviewed by Ani Kintsurashvili

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                10.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                In my country, politicians or government employees have received direct or deferred benefits from PRC-connected individuals or entities openly or covertly (e.g. have been appointed to lucrative positions as board members or consultants with PRC-invested firms, casinos, energy companies, etc.) during or in retirement from public office.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                40 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                0 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                18 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                73 countries answered this indicator; 9 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                No evidence found.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by Tatiana Sedova, and has been reviewed by Ani Kintsurashvili

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    11.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    In my country, security services (安保/保安) offered by private PRC companies are contracted by national or subnational governments.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answered by Tatiana Sedova, and has been reviewed by Ani Kintsurashvili

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Hide

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Foreign Policy

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        The Foreign Policy Domain gauges PRC efforts to achieve diplomatic objectives by influencing key actors in the Index country.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        My country’s legislature has a joint parliamentary friendship group, committee or other forms of sub-organizations with PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        25 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        57 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Representatives of a political party in my country’s national legislature have met officially with representatives of the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        20 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        40 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Chinese president meets Kazakh PM in Astana, Chinese president meets Kazakh parliament speaker in Astana, Chinese, Kazakh presidents sign joint declaration in Astana, Chinese, Kazakh presidents hold talks in Astana Link President Kassym-Jomart Tokayev of Kazakhstan Meets with Wang Yi Link

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. http://www.xinhuanet.com/english/special/xjp201309/
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2. https://www.fmprc.gov.cn/mfa_eng/zxxx_662805/t1814903.shtml

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answered by Tatiana Sedova, and has been reviewed by Ani Kintsurashvili

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          3.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          The PRC provides training to diplomats or civil servants on governance from my country (such as at 国家行政学院 or 中央党校).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          39 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          No evidence found.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answered by Tatiana Sedova, and has been reviewed by Ani Kintsurashvili

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              4.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              In my country, politicians or government employees have been pressured by PRC diplomats to change their political or diplomatic stances.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              41 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              No evidence Found.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answered by Tatiana Sedova, and has been reviewed by Ani Kintsurashvili

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  5.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Citizens of my country have been detained in PRC or denied exit visas, and believed to be suffering from unfair legal treatments for political reasons, a.k.a. “hostage diplomacy”.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  61 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Leaked documents show how China tracked and detained Kazakhs, Uyghurs Link Diplomatic visa issues were also tightened: Since 2016, China and Kazakhstan have been waging a kind of visa war. The so-called "people's diplomacy" (contacts between students, businessmen, tourists), suffered from this "war". At the beginning of the year, China unilaterally tightened the requirements for issuing tourist and business visas for citizens of Kazakhstan, while the relatives of diplomats accredited in China continued to issue short-term visas of the S2 type with a stay only for 30 days. Link

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. https://central.asia-news.com/en_GB/articles/cnmi_ca/features/2020/02/19/feature-01
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2. https://carnegie.ru/commentary/78318

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by Tatiana Sedova, and has been reviewed by Ani Kintsurashvili

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    6.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    The head of state, head of government or foreign minister of my country has denied Taiwan’s right to participate as a member, observer or guest in WHO.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    65 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Kazakhstan backs Beijing's “One China” policy, supporting the official Chinese position on Taiwan and Tibet, while China supports Kazakhstan's bid to become a member of the WTO. Link

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. http://www.mrglobalization.com/globalisation-winners/381-kazakhstan-and-china-

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by Tatiana Sedova, and has been reviewed by Ani Kintsurashvili

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      7.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      My country publicly supported the appointment of a PRC official to be the head of a United Nations agency (such as the FAO or ICAO) or other intergovernmental organizations (such as INTERPOL).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      62 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      73 countries answered this indicator; 9 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Kazakhstan is also ready for closer communication and cooperation with China within the frameworks of the United Nations and the Shanghai Cooperation Organization. Link

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. https://www.fmprc.gov.cn/mfa_eng/zxxx_662805/t1761094.shtml

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answered by Tatiana Sedova, and has been reviewed by Ani Kintsurashvili

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        8.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        My government has shown support of PRC's territorial claims (such as on the South China Sea arbitration ruling issued by the UNCLOS Arbitral Tribunal in July 2016; except claims over Taiwan, which are indirectly covered in indicator 6.)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Silence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        0/ My country has rejected PRC’s claim

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        24 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2/ My country has remained silent

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        36 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        4/ My country has adhered to PRC’s claim

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Not Found.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answered by Tatiana Sedova, and has been reviewed by Ani Kintsurashvili

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            9.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            My country has shown one of the following stances on PRC’s treatment of its Uyghur population.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Support

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            0/ My country has denounced PRC

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            31 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2/ My country has remained silent

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            32 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            4/ My country has voiced support to PRC’s stance

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            17 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            In these articles, China thanks Kazakhstan for its support for putting pressure on Xinjiang. Link Link Central Asia is also a crucial juncture in China’s national security strategy. Prominent scholars like Wang Jisi at Peking University argue that China must “march west” and pay attention to this region to maintain stability in its restive frontier regions of Tibet and Xinjiang. Collectively, Kazakhstan and neighboring Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan share a 2,050-mile border with Xinjiang. Link

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-china-kazakhstan-idUSKCN1RA01A
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2. https://www.arabnews.com/node/1474461/world
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            3. https://www.washingtonpost.com/politics/2019/10/16/why-are-there-anti-china-protests-central-asia/

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            FYI In Xinjiang, Kazakh citizens are actively protected by the Kazakh government. Kazakhstan made its strongest and most public comment on the issue with a statement from the Foreign Ministry commenting that in mid-May during the latest “Kazakhstan-Chinese consultations on consular matters” the two sides discussed the “protection of the rights and interests of the citizens of the two countries, and also the mutual trips of residents of Kazakhstan and China.” Link

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. https://thediplomat.com/2018/06/carefully-kazakhstan-confronts-china-about-kazakhs-in-xinjiang-re-education-camps/

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answered by Tatiana Sedova, and has been reviewed by Ani Kintsurashvili

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            10.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            My country has shown one of the following stances on PRC’s treatment of its Tibet population.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Support

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            0/ My country has denounced PRC

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2/ My country has remained silent

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            46 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            4/ My country has voiced support to PRC’s stance

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Kazakhstan backs Beijing's “One China” policy, supporting the official Chinese position on Taiwan and Tibet, while China supports Kazakhstan's bid to become a member of the WTO.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. http://www.mrglobalization.com/globalisation-winners/381-kazakhstan-and-china-

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answered by Tatiana Sedova, and has been reviewed by Ani Kintsurashvili

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              11.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              My government has not publicly criticized the PRC’s imposition of the National Security Law on Hong Kong.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Support

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              0/ My country has denounced PRC

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              24 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2/ My country has remained silent

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              36 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              4/ My country has voiced support to PRC’s stance

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Kazakhstan abides by the principle of non-interference in internal affairs and believes that issues regarding Xinjiang and Hong Kong are purely China's internal affairs. Kazakhstan is willing to further strengthen cooperation with China within the frameworks of the SCO and CICA to jointly safeguard regional security and stability. Link

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. http://to.china-embassy.org/eng/zgxw/t1847950.htm

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answered by Tatiana Sedova, and has been reviewed by Ani Kintsurashvili

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Hide
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