Hungary

$18,772.7
9.7M
Ranking
51/ 82
Original Score

* As some Indicators can be skipped where data is unavailable, the maximum overall and Domain scores are not identical for each country. Country rankings are generated from ratios of the maximum scores and the achieved scores.

105/ 368
Executive partner
Central European Institute of Asian Studies
Index Year
2022
Layer Scores

The Indicators have been classified by the stage of the influence process at which they occur. Some Indicators correspond to exposure to PRC influence, e.g. the presence of Confucius Institutes. Others test for pressure – such as visa denials to academics or journalists. Finally, some Indicators capture the effect of PRC influence, such as national policy changes in favor of PRC interests.
The individual Layer scores for each country are tallied and displayed via rankings.

Exposure

33%

Exposure assesses the conditions that make the target country vulnerable to PRC's influence, e.g. in terms of economic dependence, or the receiving of some form of benefit.

Pressure

2%

Pressure measures the actions that the PRC directly or indirectly exerts over the target country in order to change the behavior of people in the target country, e.g. in terms of threatening economic punishment to provoke/prevent a political decision.

Effect

30%

Effect evaluates the degree of accommodations the target country makes to the PRC, and the actual effects and impacts on the target country.

In 2021, Hungary had a GDP per capita of US$18,773 and a total population of 9.70 million people, with the Chinese population comprising 19,655 people, or 0.2% of the total population.

Hungary established diplomatic relations with the People's Republic of China in 1949. Hungary was ranked 85th in Reporters Without Borders' 2022 World Press Freedom Index, and Partly Free in Freedom House's 2022 Global Freedom Status, with a score of 69/100.

Domain Scores
Country Percentage
Index Average

Percentage scores do not suggest some degree out of a “completely influenced” level of 100%. The percentages express the country’s score out of the total achievable amount based on the Indicators for each Domain.

  • Media
    20.0% / 30.1%
  • Academia
    44.4% / 34%
  • Economy
    27.3% / 33.6%
  • Society
    12.5% / 23.6%
  • Military
    0.0% / 23.4%
  • Law Enforcement
    18.2% / 30.2%
  • Technology
    40.9% / 40.8%
  • Domestic Politics
    37.5% / 37.2%
  • Foreign Policy
    63.9% / 41%

Media

The Media Domain evaluates how PRC entities influence public debate and media coverage about the PRC in the Index country.

1.
Exposure

In my country, there are media organizations that belong to the World Chinese Media (世界华文媒体) network.

Yes

Answer ( 1 / 4 )

More

Skipped

2 countries chose this answer

0/ No

42 countries chose this answer

1/ Few, but insignificant

19 countries chose this answer

2/ More than a few, but insignificant

4 countries chose this answer

3/ Few, but significant

13 countries chose this answer

4/ More than a few, and significant

2 countries chose this answer

80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

Supporting Evidence

新导报, 中华时报, 世界中国

  1. https://www.worldchinesemedia.com/

    Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Kristína Kironská

    Hide
    2.
    Exposure

    In my country, there are journalists or media organizations which are members of the Belt and Road Media Cooperation Alliance/Union, the Belt and Road News Alliance, or other Belt and Road media networks that connected to PRC (e.g. Belt and Road Media Community, Belt and Road Journalists Network, Belt and Road News Network, or B&R TV Networks).

    Yes

    Answer ( 1 / 4 )

    More

    Skipped

    1 countries chose this answer

    0/ No

    39 countries chose this answer

    1/ Few, but insignificant

    23 countries chose this answer

    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

    4 countries chose this answer

    3/ Few, but significant

    14 countries chose this answer

    4/ More than a few, and significant

    1 countries chose this answer

    81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

    Supporting Evidence

    D1 TV (B&R TV Networks)

    1. http://en.videochina.org.cn/2017/0417/4741.shtml

      Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Kristína Kironská

      Hide
      3.
      Exposure

      In my country, there are journalists, media organizations or online influencers who have attended all-expenses paid media tours in PRC.

      Skip

      More

      Skipped

      11 countries chose this answer

      0/ No

      15 countries chose this answer

      1/ Few, but insignificant

      15 countries chose this answer

      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

      5 countries chose this answer

      3/ Few, but significant

      23 countries chose this answer

      4/ More than a few, and significant

      13 countries chose this answer

      71 countries answered this indicator; 11 countries skipped this indicator

      Supporting Evidence

      NA

        Supplementary Notes

        Expert comment: For instance, I know from someone (working for a Chinese company operating in Hungary) that they invited journalist to travel to China, and that was not unique at all. I know that CASS (at least before Covid) organized conferences relatively regularly on China-CEE relations and paid all the costs for those researchers who they invited to attend (I was one of them till a certain point - that is when I formulated criticism/touched upon political topics in my research). I heard stories that politicians travelled to China under similar circumstances, etc. All in all, there is no media link I could add here, but we may add "personal experience”, “rumours”, etc

          Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Kristína Kironská

          Hide
          4.
          Exposure

          In my country, there are journalists, media organizations or online influencers who have received trainings from PRC state-owned media or PRC-connected entities.

          No

          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

          More

          Skipped

          3 countries chose this answer

          0/ No

          37 countries chose this answer

          1/ Few, but insignificant

          16 countries chose this answer

          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

          2 countries chose this answer

          3/ Few, but significant

          14 countries chose this answer

          4/ More than a few, and significant

          10 countries chose this answer

          79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

          Supporting Evidence

          Not Found

            Supplementary Notes

            There is no evidence to suggest otherwise.

              Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Kristína Kironská

              Hide
              5.
              Exposure

              In my country, PRC state-media (including print, radio, and video) is broadcasted or distributed in a local language.

              Yes

              Answer ( 1 / 4 )

              More

              Skipped

              1 countries chose this answer

              0/ No

              24 countries chose this answer

              1/ Few, but insignificant

              22 countries chose this answer

              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

              7 countries chose this answer

              3/ Few, but significant

              18 countries chose this answer

              4/ More than a few, and significant

              10 countries chose this answer

              81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

              Supporting Evidence

              CRI

              1. https://hungarian.cri.cn/

                Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Kristína Kironská

                Hide
                6.
                Exposure

                In my country, there are local media outlets wholly or partly owned by PRC citizens or corporations.

                Yes

                Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                More

                Skipped

                2 countries chose this answer

                0/ No

                44 countries chose this answer

                1/ Few, but insignificant

                19 countries chose this answer

                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                3 countries chose this answer

                3/ Few, but significant

                14 countries chose this answer

                4/ More than a few, and significant

                0 countries chose this answer

                80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                Supporting Evidence

                Klasszik Rádió

                1. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-china-radio-partners-idUSKCN0SR1KS20151102
                2. https://www.direkt36.hu/en/kemjatszmakat-hozott-budapestre-orban-kinai-nyitasa/

                  Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Kristína Kironská

                  Hide
                  7.
                  Exposure

                  In my country, there are media outlets that have delivered cheap or free contents provided by PRC state-fund media.

                  Yes

                  Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                  More

                  Skipped

                  3 countries chose this answer

                  0/ No

                  22 countries chose this answer

                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                  21 countries chose this answer

                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                  6 countries chose this answer

                  3/ Few, but significant

                  23 countries chose this answer

                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                  7 countries chose this answer

                  79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                  Supporting Evidence

                  Not Found

                  1. https://www.mynewsdesk.com/gbtimes/pressreleases/gbmm-starts-cooperation-with-hungarian-klasszik-radio-793612

                    Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Kristína Kironská

                    Hide
                    8.
                    Exposure

                    In my country, there are regular PRC state-media or government advertisements inserted within local newspapers, online news websites or social media.

                    No

                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                    More

                    Skipped

                    1 countries chose this answer

                    0/ No

                    38 countries chose this answer

                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                    13 countries chose this answer

                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                    7 countries chose this answer

                    3/ Few, but significant

                    15 countries chose this answer

                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                    8 countries chose this answer

                    81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                    Supporting Evidence

                    Not Found

                      Supplementary Notes

                      There is no evidence to suggest otherwise.

                        Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Kristína Kironská

                        Hide
                        9.
                        Pressure

                        In my country, there are journalists who have had pressure exerted on them by the PRC, including (but not limited to) public denouncement, revocation of journalist ID, denial of visa.

                        No

                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                        More

                        Skipped

                        1 countries chose this answer

                        0/ No

                        57 countries chose this answer

                        4/ Yes

                        24 countries chose this answer

                        81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                        Supporting Evidence

                        Not Found

                          Supplementary Notes

                          There is no evidence to suggest otherwise.

                            Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Kristína Kironská

                            Hide
                            10.
                            Effect

                            In my country, there are incidents of media outlets censoring views critical of the PRC government.

                            Yes

                            Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                            More

                            Skipped

                            4 countries chose this answer

                            0/ No

                            51 countries chose this answer

                            1/ Few, but insignificant

                            11 countries chose this answer

                            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                            3 countries chose this answer

                            3/ Few, but significant

                            9 countries chose this answer

                            4/ More than a few, and significant

                            4 countries chose this answer

                            78 countries answered this indicator; 4 countries skipped this indicator

                            Hide
                            11.
                            Effect

                            In my country, there are media personalities (including reporters, journalists or commentators) or celebrities who deny the existence of human rights abuses in the PRC (e.g. a media personality that doubts there are re-education camps for Uyghurs in Xinjiang).

                            No

                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                            More

                            Skipped

                            2 countries chose this answer

                            0/ No

                            44 countries chose this answer

                            1/ Few, but insignificant

                            18 countries chose this answer

                            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                            4 countries chose this answer

                            3/ Few, but significant

                            9 countries chose this answer

                            4/ More than a few, and significant

                            5 countries chose this answer

                            80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                            Supporting Evidence

                            NA

                                Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Kristína Kironská

                                Hide

                                Academia

                                The Academia Domain measures how the PRC state attempts to restrict academic freedom by influencing or interfering with the Index country’s academic and educational activities.

                                1.
                                Exposure

                                In my country, universities have established research partnerships with PRC-connected entities. (e.g. Huawei, Tencent or Alibaba)

                                Yes

                                Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                More

                                0/ No

                                9 countries chose this answer

                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                11 countries chose this answer

                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                6 countries chose this answer

                                3/ Few, but significant

                                31 countries chose this answer

                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                25 countries chose this answer

                                82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                Hide
                                2.
                                Exposure

                                In my country, there are Confucius Institutes/Classrooms.

                                Yes

                                Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                More

                                0/ No

                                5 countries chose this answer

                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                14 countries chose this answer

                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                5 countries chose this answer

                                3/ Few, but significant

                                31 countries chose this answer

                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                27 countries chose this answer

                                82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                Supporting Evidence

                                There are 5 institutes: Confucius Institute at Eötvös Loránd University, Confucius Institute at University of Szeged, Confucius Institute at University of Miskolc, Confucius Institute for Traditional Chinese Medicine at University of Pecs, Confucius Institute at University of Debrecen

                                1. https://academytracker.ceias.eu/map/eu/Hungary
                                2. https://academytracker.ceias.eu/articles/5aMALRe9KxDWaNjuLvd9or
                                3. https://www.digmandarin.com/confucius-institutes-around-the-world.html

                                  Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Kristína Kironská

                                  Hide
                                  3.
                                  Exposure

                                  My country plans to include, or does include, Chinese as a foreign language in K12 or primary education, and receives free or subsidized (e.g. offered below market price) educational books and teachers from PRC.

                                  Yes

                                  Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                  More

                                  Skipped

                                  1 countries chose this answer

                                  0/ No

                                  46 countries chose this answer

                                  4/ Yes

                                  35 countries chose this answer

                                  81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                  Supporting Evidence

                                  There is one bilingual primary school in Hungary.

                                  1. https://www.globaltimes.cn/content/1151338.shtml

                                    Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Kristína Kironská

                                    Hide
                                    4.
                                    Exposure

                                    In my country, one or more think tanks and academic research centers belong to PRC-affiliated networks/associations (such as: the Silk Road Think Tank Association, Silk Road Think Tank Network [SiLKS], Belt and Road Studies Network, University Alliance of the Silk Road, University Consortium of the 21st Century Maritime Silk Road).

                                    Yes

                                    Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                    More

                                    Skipped

                                    2 countries chose this answer

                                    0/ No

                                    40 countries chose this answer

                                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                                    17 countries chose this answer

                                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                    7 countries chose this answer

                                    3/ Few, but significant

                                    14 countries chose this answer

                                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                                    2 countries chose this answer

                                    80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                    Supporting Evidence

                                    China-CEE Institute (owned by CASS)

                                    1. https://china-cee.eu/structure
                                    2. http://www.china.org.cn/world/2017-04/25/content_40686852.htm

                                      Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Kristína Kironská

                                      Hide
                                      5.
                                      Exposure

                                      In my country, think tanks and academic research centers have received financial support from PRC-connected individuals or entities.

                                      Skip

                                      More

                                      Skipped

                                      10 countries chose this answer

                                      0/ No

                                      21 countries chose this answer

                                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                                      11 countries chose this answer

                                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                      11 countries chose this answer

                                      3/ Few, but significant

                                      19 countries chose this answer

                                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                                      10 countries chose this answer

                                      72 countries answered this indicator; 10 countries skipped this indicator

                                      Supporting Evidence

                                      Not Found

                                        Supplementary Notes

                                        Not sure, since there is no data avalable on this.

                                          Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Kristína Kironská

                                          Hide
                                          6.
                                          Exposure

                                          In my country, experts participate in PRC talent recruitment programs such as the Thousand Talents Program or Changjiang Scholars program.

                                          No

                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                          More

                                          Skipped

                                          3 countries chose this answer

                                          0/ No

                                          47 countries chose this answer

                                          1/ Few, but insignificant

                                          11 countries chose this answer

                                          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                          6 countries chose this answer

                                          3/ Few, but significant

                                          10 countries chose this answer

                                          4/ More than a few, and significant

                                          5 countries chose this answer

                                          79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                                          Supporting Evidence

                                          There is no evidence for this claim

                                              Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Kristína Kironská

                                              Hide
                                              7.
                                              Exposure

                                              In my country, scholars have taken trips to the PRC paid for by PRC-connected individuals or entities.

                                              Yes

                                              Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                                              More

                                              Skipped

                                              13 countries chose this answer

                                              0/ No

                                              17 countries chose this answer

                                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                                              15 countries chose this answer

                                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                              11 countries chose this answer

                                              3/ Few, but significant

                                              12 countries chose this answer

                                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                                              14 countries chose this answer

                                              69 countries answered this indicator; 13 countries skipped this indicator

                                              Supporting Evidence

                                              Not Found

                                              1. https://u-szeged.hu/sztehirek/2019-november/szte-ajtk-gtk

                                              Supplementary Notes

                                              Not sure, since there is no data avalable on this.

                                                Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Kristína Kironská

                                                Hide
                                                8.
                                                Pressure

                                                In my country, organized PRC-connected student groups, such as Chinese Students and Scholars Associations (CSSAs), are involved in attempts to censor staff or students (e.g. by harassing students protesting human rights abuses in the PRC, or formally complaining about the identification of Taiwan as a country in lecture slides).

                                                Skip

                                                More

                                                Skipped

                                                1 countries chose this answer

                                                0/ No

                                                64 countries chose this answer

                                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                6 countries chose this answer

                                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                3 countries chose this answer

                                                3/ Few, but significant

                                                5 countries chose this answer

                                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                3 countries chose this answer

                                                81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                NA

                                                  Supplementary Notes

                                                  Not sure, since there is no data avalable on this.

                                                    Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Kristína Kironská

                                                    Hide
                                                    9.
                                                    Pressure

                                                    In my country, scholars or academics have been denied visas to travel to the PRC after expressing opinions or producing scholarship that is critical of the PRC.

                                                    No

                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                    More

                                                    Skipped

                                                    7 countries chose this answer

                                                    0/ No

                                                    64 countries chose this answer

                                                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                    1 countries chose this answer

                                                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                    0 countries chose this answer

                                                    3/ Few, but significant

                                                    6 countries chose this answer

                                                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                    4 countries chose this answer

                                                    75 countries answered this indicator; 7 countries skipped this indicator

                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                    There is no evidence for this claim

                                                        Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Kristína Kironská

                                                        Hide
                                                        10.
                                                        Effect

                                                        In my country, PRC-connected entities have been involved in school or university curriculum design, such as courses about East Asian history, modern politics, etc.

                                                        No

                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                        More

                                                        Skipped

                                                        2 countries chose this answer

                                                        0/ No

                                                        64 countries chose this answer

                                                        4/ Yes

                                                        16 countries chose this answer

                                                        80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                        Not Found

                                                          Supplementary Notes

                                                          There is no evidence to suggest otherwise.

                                                            Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Kristína Kironská

                                                            Hide
                                                            11.
                                                            Effect

                                                            In my country, there are confirmed reports of teachers or professors avoiding the discussion of sensitive political issues (e.g. Uyghur re-education camps, Taiwan independence, Tiananmen Square Massacre).

                                                            No

                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                            More

                                                            Skipped

                                                            5 countries chose this answer

                                                            0/ No

                                                            65 countries chose this answer

                                                            1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                            1 countries chose this answer

                                                            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                            1 countries chose this answer

                                                            3/ Few, but significant

                                                            6 countries chose this answer

                                                            4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                            4 countries chose this answer

                                                            77 countries answered this indicator; 5 countries skipped this indicator

                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                            There is no evidence for this claim

                                                                Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Kristína Kironská

                                                                Hide

                                                                Economy

                                                                The Economy Domain measures the PRC’s economic leverage in the Index country, and how this is used to influence economic policy or corporate behavior in ways that favor the PRC.

                                                                1.
                                                                Exposure

                                                                The PRC is my country's number one trading partner (for trade in goods only).

                                                                No

                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                More

                                                                0/ No

                                                                51 countries chose this answer

                                                                4/ Yes

                                                                31 countries chose this answer

                                                                82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                NA

                                                                  Supplementary Notes

                                                                  There is no evidence to suggest otherwise.

                                                                    Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Kristína Kironská

                                                                    Hide
                                                                    2.
                                                                    Exposure

                                                                    PRC-connected entities own more than 50% of my country’s sovereign debt.

                                                                    No

                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                    More

                                                                    Skipped

                                                                    1 countries chose this answer

                                                                    0/ No

                                                                    77 countries chose this answer

                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                    4 countries chose this answer

                                                                    81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                    NA

                                                                      Supplementary Notes

                                                                      There is no evidence to suggest otherwise.

                                                                        Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Kristína Kironská

                                                                        Hide
                                                                        3.
                                                                        Exposure

                                                                        The PRC is the top customer for my country’s extractive industries.

                                                                        No

                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                        More

                                                                        0/ No

                                                                        62 countries chose this answer

                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                        20 countries chose this answer

                                                                        82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                        NA

                                                                          Supplementary Notes

                                                                          There is no evidence to suggest otherwise.

                                                                            Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Kristína Kironská

                                                                            Hide
                                                                            4.
                                                                            Exposure

                                                                            In my country, PRC-related entities own, operate or substantially control critical infrastructure (e.g. ports, power plants, digital data centers, etc) or sensitive sectors (biotech, raw materials, etc.)

                                                                            No

                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                            More

                                                                            0/ No

                                                                            36 countries chose this answer

                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                            46 countries chose this answer

                                                                            82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                            Not yet - but with the 5G development it might change.

                                                                              Supplementary Notes

                                                                              There is no evidence to suggest otherwise.

                                                                                Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Kristína Kironská

                                                                                Hide
                                                                                5.
                                                                                Exposure

                                                                                My country joined (or applied to join) the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB).

                                                                                Yes

                                                                                Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                More

                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                27 countries chose this answer

                                                                                4/ Yes

                                                                                55 countries chose this answer

                                                                                82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                NA

                                                                                1. https://www.aiib.org/en/about-aiib/governance/members-of-bank/index.html

                                                                                  Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Kristína Kironská

                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                  6.
                                                                                  Exposure

                                                                                  In my country, major businesses are members of the Silk Road Chamber of International Commerce, or of the Belt and Road Industrial and Commercial Alliance, or of the Belt and Road General Chamber of Commerce.

                                                                                  Yes

                                                                                  Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                  More

                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                  41 countries chose this answer

                                                                                  4/ Yes

                                                                                  41 countries chose this answer

                                                                                  82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                  Hungarian Chamber of Commerce and Industry (HCCI) is a member of SRCIC.

                                                                                  1. https://srcic.org/silk-road-members/?page=1

                                                                                    Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Kristína Kironská

                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                    7.
                                                                                    Pressure

                                                                                    My country has been the target of PRC economic coercion (e.g. trade or investment sanctions) that was specifically tailored at products or services that are highly dependent on the PRC market.

                                                                                    No

                                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                    More

                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                    64 countries chose this answer

                                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                                    18 countries chose this answer

                                                                                    82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                    NA

                                                                                      Supplementary Notes

                                                                                      There is no evidence to suggest otherwise.

                                                                                        Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Kristína Kironská

                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                        8.
                                                                                        Pressure

                                                                                        In my country, local businesses have been harassed, threatened, or boycotted, due to their activities or statements in support of causes deemed unacceptable by the PRC government (e.g. Taiwanese independence, Hong Kong democracy, Tibet or Xinjiang issues, etc).

                                                                                        No

                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                        More

                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                        2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                        65 countries chose this answer

                                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                                        15 countries chose this answer

                                                                                        80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                        NA

                                                                                          Supplementary Notes

                                                                                          There is no evidence to suggest otherwise.

                                                                                            Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Kristína Kironská

                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                            9.
                                                                                            Effect

                                                                                            My country has free-trade agreement(s) with the PRC (either bilateral or as part of regional agreement(s)) that primarily deals with trade in goods or services, including digital goods or services.

                                                                                            No

                                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                            More

                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                            51 countries chose this answer

                                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                                            31 countries chose this answer

                                                                                            82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                            NA

                                                                                              Supplementary Notes

                                                                                              There is no evidence to suggest otherwise.

                                                                                                Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Kristína Kironská

                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                10.
                                                                                                Effect

                                                                                                In my country, central or local governments have relaxed or removed regulatory restrictions, or have established special economic zones (or free trade zones, industrial parks, etc.) to attract investments or economic participation from the PRC.

                                                                                                Yes

                                                                                                Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                More

                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                47 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                4/ Yes

                                                                                                35 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                Fidesz has been subsidising multinational companies - incl. Chinese - for quite some time, and has been particularly keen to entice electronics and automotive manufacturers, with each job created receiving significant public subsidies.

                                                                                                1. https://lefteast.org/chinese-capital-hungarian-accumulation-regime/
                                                                                                2. https://www.chinadaily.com.cn/a/202207/04/WS62c23d8aa310fd2b29e6a1c2.html

                                                                                                  Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Kristína Kironská

                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                  11.
                                                                                                  Effect

                                                                                                  In my country, PRC-connected entities requisitioned infrastructure or land for failure to repay debts in a timely manner.

                                                                                                  No

                                                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                  2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                  76 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                  4/ Yes

                                                                                                  4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                  80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                  NA

                                                                                                    Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                    There is no evidence to suggest otherwise.

                                                                                                      Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Kristína Kironská

                                                                                                      Hide

                                                                                                      Society

                                                                                                      The Society Domain measures the extent and effectiveness of the PRC’s efforts to advance its soft power in the Index country, including its influence over the actions and views of local organizations and citizens.

                                                                                                      1.
                                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                                      In my country, there are local groups or organizations with words like “Promotion of Peaceful Reunification” in their name, and they regularly publicize their views on Taiwan, Hong Kong, Tibet and Xinjiang issues.

                                                                                                      Yes

                                                                                                      Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                      1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                      49 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                      12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                      7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                      3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                      9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                      4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                      81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                      "Kína Békés Egyesítését Előmozdító Magyarországi Egyesület", "Magyarországi Kínaiak Békét és Egységet Előmozdító Társasága"

                                                                                                      1. https://kisebbsegkutato.tk.hu/adatbazis/migr
                                                                                                      2. http://www.helyicivil.hu/r/magyarorszagi-kinaiak-a-szebb-magyar-kinai-jovoert-kereskedelmi-egyesulet-budapest/budapest-xiii-ker-egyesulet-alapitvany
                                                                                                      3. http://www.helyicivil.hu/r/magyarorszagi-kinaiak-beket-es-egyseget-elomozdito-tarsasaga-budapest/budapest-xiii-ker-egyesulet-alapitvany

                                                                                                        Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Kristína Kironská

                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                        2.
                                                                                                        Exposure

                                                                                                        In my country, there are members and member organizations of United World Chinese Association (世界华人协会).

                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                        1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                        62 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                                                        19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                        81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                        NA

                                                                                                          Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                          There is no evidence to suggest otherwise.

                                                                                                            Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Kristína Kironská

                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                            3.
                                                                                                            Exposure

                                                                                                            In my country, labor unions cooperate on exchanges or official visits to the All-China Federation of Trade Unions (ACFTU) in the PRC.

                                                                                                            Yes

                                                                                                            Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                            1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                            68 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                                                            13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                            81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                            Not Found

                                                                                                            1. https://www.vg.hu/vilaggazdasag-magyar-gazdasag/2007/09/kinai-magyar-szakszervezeti-egyuttmukodes

                                                                                                              Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Kristína Kironská

                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                              4.
                                                                                                              Exposure

                                                                                                              In my country, there are local reports of personnel linked to the UFWD who make appearances at Chinese diaspora community events and activities (e.g. Lunar New Year events, Dragon Boat festival tournaments, etc).

                                                                                                              No

                                                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                              2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                              50 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                              9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                              5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                              3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                              9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                              7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                              80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                              NA

                                                                                                                Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                There is no evidence to suggest otherwise.

                                                                                                                  Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Kristína Kironská

                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                  5.
                                                                                                                  Exposure

                                                                                                                  In my country, there are PRC-connected professional associations that are closely engaged with their counterparts locally, such as All-China Journalists Association (中华全国新闻工作者协会), China Artists Association (中国艺术家协会), China Writers Association (中国作家协会) or All-China Women Federation (全国妇联).

                                                                                                                  No

                                                                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                  2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                  33 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                  25 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                  8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                  8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                  6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                  80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                  NA

                                                                                                                    Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                    There is no evidence to suggest otherwise.

                                                                                                                      Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Kristína Kironská

                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                      6.
                                                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                                                      In my country, PRC-connected individuals or entities donate money or provide other types of support to religious communities and charities.

                                                                                                                      No

                                                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                      1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                      46 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                                                                      35 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                      81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                      NA

                                                                                                                        Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                        There is no evidence to suggest otherwise.

                                                                                                                          Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Kristína Kironská

                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                          7.
                                                                                                                          Exposure

                                                                                                                          In my country, the PRC government or PRC-connected entities distribute entertainment products (including: drama and TV shows) or related hardwares (e.g. OTT streaming players hosting PRC media channels) freely or at a cheap price.

                                                                                                                          No

                                                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                                          2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                          38 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                          1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                          21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                          4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                          3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                          11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                          4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                          6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                          80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                          NA

                                                                                                                            Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                            There is no evidence to suggest otherwise.

                                                                                                                              Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Kristína Kironská

                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                              8.
                                                                                                                              Effect

                                                                                                                              Cultural products (such as films and TV shows) produced by my country’s production studios typically portray the PRC in a positive light.

                                                                                                                              No

                                                                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                              7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                              60 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                              4/ Yes

                                                                                                                              15 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                              75 countries answered this indicator; 7 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                              NA

                                                                                                                                Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                There is no evidence to suggest otherwise.

                                                                                                                                  Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Kristína Kironská

                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                  9.
                                                                                                                                  Effect

                                                                                                                                  In my country, celebrities regularly publish or share propaganda narratives from the PRC.

                                                                                                                                  No

                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                  67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                  10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                  0 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                  3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                  2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                  82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                  NA

                                                                                                                                    Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                    There is no evidence to suggest otherwise.

                                                                                                                                      Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Kristína Kironská

                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                      10.
                                                                                                                                      Effect

                                                                                                                                      In my country, the national or local governments regularly publish or share propaganda narratives from the PRC (e.g. statements from the PRC government or embassies).

                                                                                                                                      Skip

                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                                      2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                      54 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                      12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                      2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                      3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                      7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                      5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                      80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                      Not Found

                                                                                                                                        Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                        Not directly, but they certainly borrow elements.

                                                                                                                                          Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Kristína Kironská

                                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                                          11.
                                                                                                                                          Effect

                                                                                                                                          In my country, a majority of citizens have positive views of the PRC government.

                                                                                                                                          No

                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                                                          7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                          50 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                          4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                          25 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                          75 countries answered this indicator; 7 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                          But very close: This indicator "Ugyanolyan rossz véleménnyel vannak a magyarok Ukrajnáról, mint Oroszországról " shows that 51% of Hungarians have positive view to China(see below URL1). However, other indicator "Ki szereti Kínát?" shows that around 25% of Hungarians have positive view to China(see below URL2).

                                                                                                                                          1. https://444.hu/2022/05/09/ugyanolyan-rossz-velemennyel-vannak-a-magyarok-ukrajnarol-mint-oroszorszagrol
                                                                                                                                          2. https://merce.hu/2021/01/20/ki-szereti-kinat

                                                                                                                                            Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Kristína Kironská

                                                                                                                                            Hide

                                                                                                                                            Military

                                                                                                                                            The Military Domain gauges the bilateral military relationship between the PRC and the Index country, including PRC efforts to influence local military personnel.

                                                                                                                                            1.
                                                                                                                                            Exposure

                                                                                                                                            My country currently imports (or receives in-kind donation of) military or law-enforcement equipment or components of equipment from the PRC.

                                                                                                                                            No

                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                            36 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                            46 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                            82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                            NA

                                                                                                                                              Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                              There is no evidence to suggest otherwise.

                                                                                                                                                Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Kristína Kironská

                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                2.
                                                                                                                                                Exposure

                                                                                                                                                My country currently exports military or law-enforcement equipment or components of equipment to the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                No

                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                                1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                74 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                NA

                                                                                                                                                  Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                  There is no evidence to suggest otherwise.

                                                                                                                                                    Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Kristína Kironská

                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                    3.
                                                                                                                                                    Exposure

                                                                                                                                                    My country co-develops or co-produces military or law-enforcement equipment with the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                    No

                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                                    1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                    66 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                    15 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                    81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                    NA

                                                                                                                                                      Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                      There is no evidence to suggest otherwise.

                                                                                                                                                        Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Kristína Kironská

                                                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                                                        4.
                                                                                                                                                        Exposure

                                                                                                                                                        In my country, there are reports that the PRC has expressed intentions or has taken actions to establish basing.

                                                                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                                                        2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                                        67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                        13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                        80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                        NA

                                                                                                                                                          Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                          There is no evidence to suggest otherwise.

                                                                                                                                                            Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Kristína Kironská

                                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                                            5.
                                                                                                                                                            Exposure

                                                                                                                                                            In my country, the People’s Liberation Army (PLA) has participated in a humanitarian relief/disaster assistance (HADR) effort.

                                                                                                                                                            No

                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                                                            2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                            61 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                            19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                            80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                            NA

                                                                                                                                                              Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                              There is no evidence to suggest otherwise.

                                                                                                                                                                Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Kristína Kironská

                                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                                6.
                                                                                                                                                                Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                In my country, People’s Liberation Army (PLA) military personnel are permanently or rotationally deployed (excluding defense attaches and peacekeepers).

                                                                                                                                                                No

                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                77 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                NA

                                                                                                                                                                  Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                  There is no evidence to suggest otherwise.

                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Kristína Kironská

                                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                                    7.
                                                                                                                                                                    Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                    In my country, members of the military have received professional military education from the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                    No

                                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                    48 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                    34 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                    82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                    NA

                                                                                                                                                                      Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                      There is no evidence to suggest otherwise.

                                                                                                                                                                        Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Kristína Kironská

                                                                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                                                                        8.
                                                                                                                                                                        Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                        In my country, members of the military have received peacekeeping training from the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                        2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                        67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                        13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                        80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                        NA

                                                                                                                                                                          Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                          There is no evidence to suggest otherwise.

                                                                                                                                                                            Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Kristína Kironská

                                                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                                                            9.
                                                                                                                                                                            Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                            In my country, high-ranking retired or current military and/or intelligence officers have received direct or deferred benefits from PRC-connected individuals or entities openly or covertly (e.g. have been appointed to lucrative positions as board members or consultants with PRC-invested firms, casinos, energy companies, etc.) during or in retirement from public service.

                                                                                                                                                                            No

                                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                            4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                            67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                            11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                            78 countries answered this indicator; 4 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                            NA

                                                                                                                                                                              Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                              There is no evidence to suggest otherwise.

                                                                                                                                                                                Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Kristína Kironská

                                                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                10.
                                                                                                                                                                                Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                In my country, high-ranking retired or current military and/or intelligence officials advocate for more coordination with the People’s Liberation Army (PLA).

                                                                                                                                                                                No

                                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                68 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                NA

                                                                                                                                                                                  Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                  There is no evidence to suggest otherwise.

                                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Kristína Kironská

                                                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                    11.
                                                                                                                                                                                    Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                    My country cooperates with the People’s Liberation Army (PLA) on military exchange exercises, including drills and war games.

                                                                                                                                                                                    No

                                                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                    51 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                    31 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                    82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                    NA

                                                                                                                                                                                      Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                      There is no evidence to suggest otherwise.

                                                                                                                                                                                        Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Kristína Kironská

                                                                                                                                                                                        Hide

                                                                                                                                                                                        Law Enforcement

                                                                                                                                                                                        The Law Enforcement Domain measures law enforcement cooperation between the PRC and the Index country, as well as the nature and extent of PRC-related criminal activity in the Index country.

                                                                                                                                                                                        1.
                                                                                                                                                                                        Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                        My country currently maintains an extradition treaty, legal mutual assistance or other similar arrangements with the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                                        Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                        32 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                        50 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                        82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                        There is no extradition treaty between China and Hungary but mutual legal assistance in civil and commercial matters exist since 1997.

                                                                                                                                                                                        1. http://www.moj.gov.cn/pub/sfbgw/flfggz/flfggzflty/fltymsssfxzty/201812/t20181225_151362.html

                                                                                                                                                                                          Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Kristína Kironská

                                                                                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                          2.
                                                                                                                                                                                          Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                          In my country, law enforcement authorities have signed cooperation agreements with the PRC on combatting terrorism.

                                                                                                                                                                                          No

                                                                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                          1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                          55 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                          4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                          26 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                          81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                          No evidence exists to support otherwise

                                                                                                                                                                                              Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Kristína Kironská

                                                                                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                              3.
                                                                                                                                                                                              Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                              In my country, PRC-connected gangs (such as Triad, 三合会) are known to be operating in my country.

                                                                                                                                                                                              No

                                                                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                              1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                              52 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                              4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                              29 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                              81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                              NA

                                                                                                                                                                                                Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                There is no evidence that suggests otherwise.

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Kristína Kironská

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                  4.
                                                                                                                                                                                                  Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                                  In my country, there are reports of economic espionage targeting the private sector that were suspected to benefit PRC-connected entities.

                                                                                                                                                                                                  No

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                  2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                  49 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                  7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                  3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                  12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                  9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                  80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                  NA

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                    There is no evidence that suggest otherwise.

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Kristína Kironská

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                      5.
                                                                                                                                                                                                      Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                                      In my country, there are reports of cyber attacks targeting government, critical infrastructure, or enterprises that were suspected to be initiated from the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                                                      No

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                      3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                      37 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                      9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                      4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                      3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                      14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                      15 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                      79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                      NA

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                        There is no evidence that suggest otherwise.

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Kristína Kironská

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                          6.
                                                                                                                                                                                                          Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                                          In my country, triads are known to have threatened or used violence to coerce, intimidate or punish Chinese dissidents.

                                                                                                                                                                                                          No

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                          2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                          67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                          1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                          5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                          3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                          3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                          3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                          4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                          2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                          80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                          NA

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                            There is no evidence that suggest otherwise.

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Kristína Kironská

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                              7.
                                                                                                                                                                                                              Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                              My country has deployed video or internet surveillance systems from the PRC for law enforcement.

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                              1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                              30 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                              4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                              51 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                              81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                              According to ChinaTechMap, Hungarian police purchased surveillance equipment for law enforcement.

                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. https://www.sourcesecurity.com/news/dahua-technology-headquarters-visited-delegation-hungarian-co-4261-ga.1595239790.html
                                                                                                                                                                                                              2. https://dailynewshungary.com/questionable-face-recognition-cameras-to-be-installed-in-hungary/

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Kristína Kironská

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                8.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                In my country, representatives of the PRC police force have had joint patrols with local law enforcement.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                71 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                NA

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  There is no evidence that suggests otherwise.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Kristína Kironská

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    9.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    My government has detained people at the request of the PRC for committing a crime involving engagements with social movements or resistance activities in Hong Kong, Xinjiang or for other human rights or civic rights issues.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    68 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    No arrests have been made, but demonstrations "against" China are dispersed / not allowed.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      There is no evidence that suggests otherwise.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Kristína Kironská

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        10.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        My country has deported Taiwan citizens to the PRC to face prosecution.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        71 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        NA

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          There is no evidence that suggests otherwise.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Kristína Kironská

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            11.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            My country has extradited or has deported individuals to the PRC, although such decisions had attracted criticisms from politicians, government employees or from local or foreign NGOs.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            61 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            NA

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              There is no evidence that suggests otherwise.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Kristína Kironská

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Hide

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Technology

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                The Technology Domain gauges the PRC’s influence over the technology sector in the Index country, including the activity and financial leverage of PRC companies, use of PRC hardware, and bilateral research partnerships.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                In my country, PRC-connected entities (such as China Mobile, China Unicom or China Telecom) or their subsidiaries provide telecom services.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                52 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                30 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                NA

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  There is no evidence to suggest otherwise.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Kristína Kironská

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    In my country, telecoms have signed agreements to adopt hardwares or technical specifications of 4G or 5G cellular networks that are produced or developed by Huawei, ZTE or other PRC enterprises.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    16 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    27 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    30 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Huawei and ZTE are important partners of Hungary-based telecom companies, and the Hungarian government announced that Huawei will develop 5G network in Hungary.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. https://chinaobservers.eu/hungary-china-relations-is-it-time-for-a-change/
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-hungary-telecoms-huawei-idUSKBN1XF12U
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    3. https://www.businesswire.com/news/home/20110504007597/en/ZTE-Selected-as-Telenor%E2%80%99s-New-Main-Value-Added-Service-VAS-Supplier-in-the-Nordic-Region

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Kristína Kironská

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      3.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      In my country, telecoms have adopted hardware or technical specifications by PRC-connected entities in internet/wifi/telecommunication service infrastructure projects, in addition to 4G/5G cellular network.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      24 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      23 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      74 countries answered this indicator; 8 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      4.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      In my country, PRC-connected entities are authorized vendors to supply tech-related equipment or services to our government, military or security services.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      28 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      53 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Dahua provided surveillance equipment to Hungarian police.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. https://dailynewshungary.com/questionable-face-recognition-cameras-to-be-installed-in-hungary/
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2. https://www.sourcesecurity.com/news/dahua-technology-headquarters-visited-delegation-hungarian-co-4261-ga.1595239790.html

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Kristína Kironská

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        5.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        In my country, central or local governments have collaboration (such as data collection or exchange agreement, or adoption of related hardwares) with the PRC government or PRC-connected entities on facial, voice recognition or other applications involving biometrics achieved by AI.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        42 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. https://dailynewshungary.com/questionable-face-recognition-cameras-to-be-installed-in-hungary/

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        There is no evidence to suggest otherwise.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Kristína Kironská

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          6.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          In my country, one or more cities have procured, or have signed contracts with PRC-connected entities to establish “smart city” systems.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          35 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          25 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. https://bbj.hu/business/industry/deals/itm-huawei-sign-mou-on-long-term-cooperation

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Kristína Kironská

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            7.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            In my country, financial institutions use the China Cross-Border Interbank Payment System (CIPS) clearing and settlement services system.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            63 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            18 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            中国银行匈牙利分行

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. http://www.cips.com.cn/

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Kristína Kironská

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              8.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              In my country, PRC-connected venture capital invests in technology start-ups.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              32 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              18 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              NA

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                There is no evidence to suggest otherwise.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Kristína Kironská

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  9.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  In my country, companies have publicly announced that they had signed MOUs to collaborate on technological development (such as collaborations in A.I., Blockchain, Cloud Computing, Big Data) with PRC-connected entities.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  31 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  NA

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    There is no evidence to suggest otherwise.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Kristína Kironská

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      10.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      In my country, PRC-connected entities are shareholders or developers of the top five popular social media/messaging apps, based on usage.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      44 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      36 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      However, TikTok is popular among youngsters.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        There is no evidence to suggest otherwise.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Kristína Kironská

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          11.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          In my country, the central or local government(s) has collaborated with the PRC on endorsing the use of BeiDou satellite navigation system.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          64 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          17 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          NA

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            There is no evidence to suggest otherwise.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Kristína Kironská

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Hide

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Domestic Politics

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              The Domestic Politics Domain evaluates PRC efforts to influence the political landscape in the Index country, and the footprint of PRC security companies.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              In my country, politicians or government employees at the sub-national level are signing agreements with the PRC government or state-owned enterprises.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              20 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              23 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              There are city-company agreements/cooperations in cities where big Chinese MNEs invested (e.g. Miskolc, Komarom, Cegléd).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. https://lefteast.org/chinese-capital-hungarian-accumulation-regime/

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Kristína Kironská

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                In my country, local municipalities have sister-city ties (友好城市) with municipalities in the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                23 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. https://hu.wikipedia.org/wiki/Magyar_v%C3%A1rosok_testv%C3%A9rv%C3%A1rosainak_list%C3%A1ja#K%C3%ADna

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Kristína Kironská

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  3.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  In my country, politicians or government employees have taken trips to the PRC paid for by PRC-connected individuals or entities.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Skip

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  22 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  16 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  16 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  73 countries answered this indicator; 9 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  NA

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    expert note: I haven’t included evidence/links to media articles because there are no articles on these issues (to my knowledge), however I know about these from private sources, own experience (I am dealing with China for a bit more than 20 years, spent some time in public administration, work as a researchers for many years, etc. - I simply hear/see/experience things).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Kristína Kironská

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      4.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      In my country, politicians or government employees visit the PRC and have meetings with PRC officials and think tanks.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      25 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      32 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      PM Orbán visited China with delegations in 2017 and 2018, since 2020 delegations have stopped as a result of the pandemic, therefore it is difficult to assess since.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. https://hirado.hu/2017/05/12/szeretik-a-magyar-termekeket-kinaban/
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2. https://www.origo.hu/itthon/20181103-orban-viktor-sanghaji-expo.html

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Kristína Kironská

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        5.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        In my country, law enforcement and judicial related training offered the PRC-connected individuals or entities has been accepted by national or subnational governments.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        46 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        16 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          There is no evidence to suggest otherwise.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Kristína Kironská

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            6.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            In my country, there are reports of politicians or political parties receiving campaign donations that originate in the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            60 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            0 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            78 countries answered this indicator; 4 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            NA

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              There is no evidence to suggest otherwise.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Kristína Kironská

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                7.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                In my country, groups with reported links to the United Front Work Department (UFWD) have hosted fundraisings or have provided other forms of support for government employees, politicians or parties.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                64 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                NA

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  There is no evidence to suggest otherwise.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Kristína Kironská

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    8.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    In my country, groups with reported links to the United Front Work Department (UFWD) have made public statements opposing the candidacy of a local political candidate or party, claiming them being “anti-China”.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    78 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    0 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    0 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    NA

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      There is no evidence to suggest otherwise.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Kristína Kironská

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        9.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        In my country, politicians or government employees have publicly expressed positive views of the PRC government.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        37 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        10.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        In my country, politicians or government employees have received direct or deferred benefits from PRC-connected individuals or entities openly or covertly (e.g. have been appointed to lucrative positions as board members or consultants with PRC-invested firms, casinos, energy companies, etc.) during or in retirement from public office.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        40 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        0 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        18 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        73 countries answered this indicator; 9 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        NA

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          There is no evidence to suggest otherwise.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Kristína Kironská

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            11.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            In my country, security services (安保/保安) offered by private PRC companies are contracted by national or subnational governments.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            NA

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              There is no evidence to suggest otherwise.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Kristína Kironská

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Hide

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Foreign Policy

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                The Foreign Policy Domain gauges PRC efforts to achieve diplomatic objectives by influencing key actors in the Index country.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                My country’s legislature has a joint parliamentary friendship group, committee or other forms of sub-organizations with PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                25 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                57 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Representatives of a political party in my country’s national legislature have met officially with representatives of the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                20 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                40 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. https://www.bpxv.hu/hirek/61084

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Kristína Kironská

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  3.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  The PRC provides training to diplomats or civil servants on governance from my country (such as at 国家行政学院 or 中央党校).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  39 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    There is no evidence to suggest otherwise.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Kristína Kironská

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      4.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      In my country, politicians or government employees have been pressured by PRC diplomats to change their political or diplomatic stances.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      41 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. https://telex.hu/belfold/2021/06/06/kinai-nagykovetseg-sajtoszovivo-reakcio-a-szombati-fudan-ellenes-tuntetesre

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Kristína Kironská

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        5.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Citizens of my country have been detained in PRC or denied exit visas, and believed to be suffering from unfair legal treatments for political reasons, a.k.a. “hostage diplomacy”.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        61 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Except for a Canadian-Hungarian citizen, Michael Kovrig, but he was kept hostage because of his Canadian nationality and the Huawei case.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. https://www.bbc.com/news/world-us-canada-58687071

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        There is no evidence to suggest otherwise.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Kristína Kironská

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          6.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          The head of state, head of government or foreign minister of my country has denied Taiwan’s right to participate as a member, observer or guest in WHO.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          65 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          7.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          My country publicly supported the appointment of a PRC official to be the head of a United Nations agency (such as the FAO or ICAO) or other intergovernmental organizations (such as INTERPOL).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Skip

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          62 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          73 countries answered this indicator; 9 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Could not be verified.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Kristína Kironská

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              8.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              My government has shown support of PRC's territorial claims (such as on the South China Sea arbitration ruling issued by the UNCLOS Arbitral Tribunal in July 2016; except claims over Taiwan, which are indirectly covered in indicator 6.)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Support

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              0/ My country has rejected PRC’s claim

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              24 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2/ My country has remained silent

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              36 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              4/ My country has adhered to PRC’s claim

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              The EU remained silent on Chinese meddling in the South China Sea because of Budapest’s veto.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. https://www.politico.eu/article/viktor-orban-hungary-eu-israeli-palestinian-conflict-veto-dysfunction/

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Kristína Kironská

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                9.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                My country has shown one of the following stances on PRC’s treatment of its Uyghur population.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Skip

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                0/ My country has denounced PRC

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                31 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2/ My country has remained silent

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                32 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                4/ My country has voiced support to PRC’s stance

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                17 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Although Budapest supported the EU sanctions after human rights concerns as regards Xinjiang, but called them "pointless", and hosted China's defence minister for an official visit days after the EU sanctions decision.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. https://www.reuters.com/world/asia-pacific/hungary-blocks-eu-statement-criticising-china-over-hong-kong-diplomats-say-2021-04-16/

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Kristína Kironská

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  10.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  My country has shown one of the following stances on PRC’s treatment of its Tibet population.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Silence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  0/ My country has denounced PRC

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2/ My country has remained silent

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  46 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  4/ My country has voiced support to PRC’s stance

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Pro-Tibet demonstrations organised in Hungary are not allowed or are dispersed.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Kristína Kironská

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      11.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      My government has not publicly criticized the PRC’s imposition of the National Security Law on Hong Kong.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Support

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      0/ My country has denounced PRC

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      24 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2/ My country has remained silent

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      36 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      4/ My country has voiced support to PRC’s stance

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Hungary did not support the EU statement condemning China because the government said it would have been pointless.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. https://www.rferl.org/a/hungary-criticized-eu-statements-china/31290741.html

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Kristína Kironská

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Hide
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