Chile

$16,502.84
19.21M
Ranking
30/ 82
Original Score

* As some Indicators can be skipped where data is unavailable, the maximum overall and Domain scores are not identical for each country. Country rankings are generated from ratios of the maximum scores and the achieved scores.

143/ 392
Executive partner
Fundación Andrés Bello - Centro de Investigación Chino Latinoamericano
Index Year
2021
Layer Scores

The Indicators have been classified by the stage of the influence process at which they occur. Some Indicators correspond to exposure to PRC influence, e.g. the presence of Confucius Institutes. Others test for pressure – such as visa denials to academics or journalists. Finally, some Indicators capture the effect of PRC influence, such as national policy changes in favor of PRC interests.
The individual Layer scores for each country are tallied and displayed via rankings.

Exposure

42%

Exposure assesses the conditions that make the target country vulnerable to PRC's influence, e.g. in terms of economic dependence, or the receiving of some form of benefit.

Pressure

15%

Pressure measures the actions that the PRC directly or indirectly exerts over the target country in order to change the behavior of people in the target country, e.g. in terms of threatening economic punishment to provoke/prevent a political decision.

Effect

35%

Effect evaluates the degree of accommodations the target country makes to the PRC, and the actual effects and impacts on the target country.

In 2021, Chile had a GDP per capita of US$16,503 and a total population of 19,210,000 people.

Chile established diplomatic relations with the People's Republic of China in 1970. Chile was ranked 82nd in Reporters Without Borders' 2022 World Press Freedom Index, and Free in Freedom House's 2022 Global Freedom Status, with a score of 94/100.

Domain Scores
Country Percentage
Index Average

Percentage scores do not suggest some degree out of a “completely influenced” level of 100%. The percentages express the country’s score out of the total achievable amount based on the Indicators for each Domain.

  • Media
    45.0% / 30.1%
  • Academia
    31.8% / 34%
  • Economy
    54.5% / 33.6%
  • Society
    29.5% / 23.6%
  • Military
    18.2% / 23.4%
  • Law Enforcement
    18.2% / 30.2%
  • Technology
    36.4% / 40.8%
  • Domestic Politics
    50.0% / 37.2%
  • Foreign Policy
    45.5% / 41%

Media

The Media Domain evaluates how PRC entities influence public debate and media coverage about the PRC in the Index country.

1.
Exposure

In my country, there are media organizations that belong to the World Chinese Media (世界华文媒体) network.

Yes

Answer ( 1 / 4 )

More

Skipped

2 countries chose this answer

0/ No

42 countries chose this answer

1/ Few, but insignificant

19 countries chose this answer

2/ More than a few, but insignificant

4 countries chose this answer

3/ Few, but significant

13 countries chose this answer

4/ More than a few, and significant

2 countries chose this answer

80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

Supporting Evidence

Few media outlets were found to be part of the 世界华文媒体. Nevertheless, they were all in Chinese without a clear translation in Spanish, which drops its potential influence at minimum. "智华新闻社" the agency that provides content for ChileCn, is often referenced by the Chinese embassy in Chile an few other outlets, which may be an indicator of a close relation. It is recommended to take note of the potential of influence according to the language the outlet or organization disseminates its content in.

  1. http://www.chilecn.com/
  2. https://web.archive.org/web/20191207061742/http://www.xiaorenwu.cl/

    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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    2.
    Exposure

    In my country, there are journalists or media organizations which are members of the Belt and Road Media Cooperation Alliance/Union, the Belt and Road News Alliance, or other Belt and Road media networks that connected to PRC (e.g. Belt and Road Media Community, Belt and Road Journalists Network, Belt and Road News Network, or B&R TV Networks).

    No

    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

    More

    Skipped

    1 countries chose this answer

    0/ No

    39 countries chose this answer

    1/ Few, but insignificant

    23 countries chose this answer

    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

    4 countries chose this answer

    3/ Few, but significant

    14 countries chose this answer

    4/ More than a few, and significant

    1 countries chose this answer

    81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

    Supporting Evidence

    We didn’t find Journalists or Chilean organizations named within Belt and Road Media Cooperation Alliance documents. The 2019 report only includes Chile as an example of a country that was interested in investing on tech infrastructure with Chinese companies. There is not enough information In any official source we found.

    1. http://upload.videochina.org.cn/2019/0524/1558682852252.pdf

      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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      3.
      Exposure

      In my country, there are journalists, media organizations or online influencers who have attended all-expenses paid media tours in PRC.

      Yes

      Answer ( 3 / 4 )

      More

      Skipped

      11 countries chose this answer

      0/ No

      15 countries chose this answer

      1/ Few, but insignificant

      15 countries chose this answer

      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

      5 countries chose this answer

      3/ Few, but significant

      23 countries chose this answer

      4/ More than a few, and significant

      13 countries chose this answer

      71 countries answered this indicator; 11 countries skipped this indicator

      Supporting Evidence

      As for this methodology in the case of Chile, it is difficult to confirm this with documents as media outlets do not share financial information about trips and budget for them. One could check the yearly reports to check if there is any information about travel costs, but they wouldn’t specify who those expenses were paid to. Having worked in one of Chile’s main newspapers I can ensure that sometimes, when a company, organization or government invites a journalist to an event, they share expenses with the media company, such as accommodation or airfares. Nevertheless, this happens not only with China but with every country that wishes have a spot on the news. This es less common with authorities because they have to publish all their financial movements.

      1. https://www.latercera.com/revista-que-pasa/17-9307-9-consorcio-chino-financio-viaje-de-periodistas-con-golborne-a-asia

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        4.
        Exposure

        In my country, there are journalists, media organizations or online influencers who have received trainings from PRC state-owned media or PRC-connected entities.

        Skip

        More

        Skipped

        3 countries chose this answer

        0/ No

        37 countries chose this answer

        1/ Few, but insignificant

        16 countries chose this answer

        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

        2 countries chose this answer

        3/ Few, but significant

        14 countries chose this answer

        4/ More than a few, and significant

        10 countries chose this answer

        79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

        Supporting Evidence

        Universidad Católica has a wide history of collaboration with the Tsinghua university. One of their training programs is focused on sending professors and master students at the communications faculty to Tsinghua University to a co-training program. Tsinghua is a public university linked to the central government. Nevertheless, there isn’t much proof of whether these trainings have a direct influence in the candidate’s reporting. I do remember one case, when participating at the Conexión China meeting for Diario Financiero. A journalist who had just came back from China argued that she wanted to tell only the Chinese government official version because they showed her how to report China while she was there. There are no records of this meeting but the general invitation.

        1. http://comunicaciones.uc.cl/acuerdo-universidad-tsinghua-beijing/
        2. https://www.latercera.com/noticia/china-entregara-becas-para-estudiar-el-idioma-en-el-pais-y-de-perfeccionamiento/
        3. https://www.uchile.cl/noticias/149865/universidad-de-tsinghua-construira-en-chile-centro-para-america-latina

        Supplementary Notes

        No evidence was found for sponsored training of Chilean journalists by PRC entities, although the researchers are fairly certain it happens.

          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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          5.
          Exposure

          In my country, PRC state-media (including print, radio, and video) is broadcasted or distributed in a local language.

          Yes

          Answer ( 3 / 4 )

          More

          Skipped

          1 countries chose this answer

          0/ No

          24 countries chose this answer

          1/ Few, but insignificant

          22 countries chose this answer

          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

          7 countries chose this answer

          3/ Few, but significant

          18 countries chose this answer

          4/ More than a few, and significant

          10 countries chose this answer

          81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

          Supporting Evidence

          Xinhua, People’s daily and other State-Run Media Outlets are disseminated In Spanish through social media, but they don’t have any operations in Chile. Despite the former, articles written by State Run media have been published within local media Outlets (please check this example: Link and Chilean correspondents who work for State Run media such as Xinhua disseminate news regarding China and Chile’s relations. None of the five mayor cable providers (Claro, Movistar, Direct TV, VTR and Entel) has any Chinese state-media channels within their offer. Chinese media channel are reached through a digital TV devise, Social Media, paid content in media outlets and correspondents. Content published by these free or open media outlets often have propaganda or disinformation attributes.

          1. https://www.pauta.cl/internacional/la-ofensiva-mediatica-china-traves-del-grupo-de-medios-de-china
          2. http://spanish.xinhuanet.com/2020-03/29/c_138927699.htm
          3. http://spanish.xinhuanet.com/2019-10/12/c_138465807.htm
          4. https://www.cooperativa.cl/noticias/corporativo/efecto-china/efecto-china-noticias/china-registra-230-millones-de-viajes-durante-las-vacaciones-del-primero/2021-05-05/101302.html?=efectochina

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            6.
            Exposure

            In my country, there are local media outlets wholly or partly owned by PRC citizens or corporations.

            Yes

            Answer ( 1 / 4 )

            More

            Skipped

            2 countries chose this answer

            0/ No

            44 countries chose this answer

            1/ Few, but insignificant

            19 countries chose this answer

            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

            3 countries chose this answer

            3/ Few, but significant

            14 countries chose this answer

            4/ More than a few, and significant

            0 countries chose this answer

            80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

            Supporting Evidence

            Some Chinese organizations such as the Trade Chamber of Chilean and Chinese affairs (CHICIT) run magazines or radio programs in which they disseminate their work and views. Nevertheless, these outlets have limited distribution and are mostly private. The only exception of a further dissemination attempts is the Observatorio Asia Pacífico from the The National Library of the Chilean Congress, which has developed some agreements to hold these documents and share them. As information is so limited it is difficult to deliberate whether the impact of these outlets is significant.

            1. https://www.chicit.cl/sitio/?page_id=2106
            2. https://www.bcn.cl/observatorio/asiapacifico/noticias/nueva-revista-shangbao

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              7.
              Exposure

              In my country, there are media outlets that have delivered cheap or free contents provided by PRC state-fund media.

              Yes

              Answer ( 3 / 4 )

              More

              Skipped

              3 countries chose this answer

              0/ No

              22 countries chose this answer

              1/ Few, but insignificant

              21 countries chose this answer

              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

              6 countries chose this answer

              3/ Few, but significant

              23 countries chose this answer

              4/ More than a few, and significant

              7 countries chose this answer

              79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

              Supporting Evidence

              There are free sections in many media outlets that are paid and written by the Grupo de Medios de China (China Media Group) a State-Run propaganda and media institution that installs narratives in local Public Opinion. They do so by interviewing key supporters of the PRC, publishing op-eds and re-posting news from main PRC state-run media, such as the Global Times, CGTN or Xinhua. Some of these sections are Conexión China at La Tercera (one of the country’s main newspapers) and Efecto China at Radio Cooperativa (a notable Radio Station). These sections often lead to disinformation publications (stating that China is a democracy), direct attacks to the US or rival countries or they glorify China’s actions. Some of them have also questioned Human Rights Issues in the country. There is a methodological need to confirm whether their presence has a specific impact on the general Public Opinion. For example, measuring Social Media reactions or running polls.

              1. https://www.latercera.com/conexion-china/noticia/de-la-usach-a-beijing-el-chileno-que-estudia-un-doctorado-en-la-universidad-capital-de-economia-y-negocios-de-china/BJPC6T2OXBF3VMBLUZQQEYRCHI/
              2. https://cooperativa.cl/noticias/corporativo/efecto-china/efecto-china-opinion/comprender-por-que-prospera-la-democracia-al-estilo-chino-a-traves-de-la/2021-03-16/222457.html?=efectochina
              3. https://tv.emol.com/detail/20200214191414669/xiaoming-song-analiza-problemas-generados-por-coronavirus

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                8.
                Exposure

                In my country, there are regular PRC state-media or government advertisements inserted within local newspapers, online news websites or social media.

                Yes

                Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                More

                Skipped

                1 countries chose this answer

                0/ No

                38 countries chose this answer

                1/ Few, but insignificant

                13 countries chose this answer

                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                7 countries chose this answer

                3/ Few, but significant

                15 countries chose this answer

                4/ More than a few, and significant

                8 countries chose this answer

                81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                Supporting Evidence

                Inserts are often paid by Chinese institutions in local media Outlet. The most polemic cases of this are the inserts published at El Mercurio (Chile’s oldest and biggest newspaper company), because they seem like news but are really paid advertisements. Sometimes they even pay for entire sections to publish their view on sensitive topics, to commemorate important dates (such as the 70th year anniversary of the PRC) or new year’s greetings from Xi Jinping. It is important to add that these inserts look like media articles. The authors of these articles vary, but one may find: President of Joy Vio, Tang Jie, Former ambassador of China in Chile Xu Bu or President at Tianqi Lithium Corp, Jiang Weiping. There is a methodological need to confirm whether their presence has a specific impact on the general Public Opinion. For example, measuring Social Media reactions or running polls.

                1. https://digital.elmercurio.com/2021/03/16/A/C63UD2VJ
                2. http://www.edicionesespeciales.elmercurio.com/destacadas/detalle/index.asp?idnoticia=201512172098337&idcuerpo=

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                  9.
                  Pressure

                  In my country, there are journalists who have had pressure exerted on them by the PRC, including (but not limited to) public denouncement, revocation of journalist ID, denial of visa.

                  No

                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                  More

                  Skipped

                  1 countries chose this answer

                  0/ No

                  57 countries chose this answer

                  4/ Yes

                  24 countries chose this answer

                  81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                  Supporting Evidence

                  there have been no accusations of bans, exerted pressure or revocation of ID’s in Chile or related to Chilean journalists. Chilean journalists don’t often polemize around China or its government. Chile is a country with a high level of press freedom. I believe that the lack of evidence could drive to methodology issues. It would be good to have an alternative to support these cases of lack of information.

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                      10.
                      Effect

                      In my country, there are incidents of media outlets censoring views critical of the PRC government.

                      No

                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                      More

                      Skipped

                      4 countries chose this answer

                      0/ No

                      51 countries chose this answer

                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                      11 countries chose this answer

                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                      3 countries chose this answer

                      3/ Few, but significant

                      9 countries chose this answer

                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                      4 countries chose this answer

                      78 countries answered this indicator; 4 countries skipped this indicator

                      Supporting Evidence

                      The only form of information control detected is that when a Chinese authority accepts an interview or to be mentioned in an article, they only agree to give their statement without any questionings or counter-questions.

                      1. http://cl.chineseembassy.org/chn/sgxw/t1636865.htm
                      2. https://www.pauta.cl/internacional/la-ofensiva-mediatica-china-traves-del-grupo-de-medios-de-china

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                        11.
                        Effect

                        In my country, there are media personalities (including reporters, journalists or commentators) or celebrities who deny the existence of human rights abuses in the PRC (e.g. a media personality that doubts there are re-education camps for Uyghurs in Xinjiang).

                        Yes

                        Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                        More

                        Skipped

                        2 countries chose this answer

                        0/ No

                        44 countries chose this answer

                        1/ Few, but insignificant

                        18 countries chose this answer

                        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                        4 countries chose this answer

                        3/ Few, but significant

                        9 countries chose this answer

                        4/ More than a few, and significant

                        5 countries chose this answer

                        80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                        Supporting Evidence

                        Most defenders of the PRC’s policies are either members of the Communist Party or Chinese-born academics. Carol Kariola, member of parliament, has denied China as an authoritarian government and Daniel Jadue, current candidate for Chile’s presidency, has put China as an example and avoided to talk about human right’s abuses.

                        1. https://www.bcn.cl/observatorio/asiapacifico/noticias/regresiva-derechoshumanos-china
                        2. https://www.emol.com/noticias/Internacional/2019/09/02/959971/China-Hong-Kong.html
                        3. https://www.latercera.com/la-tercera-pm/noticia/el-mensaje-de-daniel-jadue-a-los-emprendedores-muchos-hablan-desde-el-prejuicio-al-pc/EBH4NJSNJRA5ZPJNESHH5B45V4/

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                          Academia

                          The Academia Domain measures how the PRC state attempts to restrict academic freedom by influencing or interfering with the Index country’s academic and educational activities.

                          1.
                          Exposure

                          In my country, universities have established research partnerships with PRC-connected entities. (e.g. Huawei, Tencent or Alibaba)

                          Yes

                          Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                          More

                          0/ No

                          9 countries chose this answer

                          1/ Few, but insignificant

                          11 countries chose this answer

                          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                          6 countries chose this answer

                          3/ Few, but significant

                          31 countries chose this answer

                          4/ More than a few, and significant

                          25 countries chose this answer

                          82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                          Supporting Evidence

                          As seen in the provided links, some of Chile’s main universities have established partnerships with Chinese companies. This is something that is also done with western companies such as Amazon.

                          1. https://vrid.udec.cl/node/663
                          2. https://www.uchile.cl/noticias/171960/huawei-didi-y-supcon-expusieron-sus-proyectos-con-la-u-de-chile
                          3. http://ingenieria.uchile.cl/noticias/165607/fcfm-y-huawei-firman-convenio-de-colaboracion-para-capacitaciones
                          4. https://portales.inacap.cl/noticias/destacadas/2019/alianza-byd-inacap-reconoce-a-futuros-mecanicos-en-electromovilidad-en-el-transporte-publico

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                            2.
                            Exposure

                            In my country, there are Confucius Institutes/Classrooms.

                            Yes

                            Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                            More

                            0/ No

                            5 countries chose this answer

                            1/ Few, but insignificant

                            14 countries chose this answer

                            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                            5 countries chose this answer

                            3/ Few, but significant

                            31 countries chose this answer

                            4/ More than a few, and significant

                            27 countries chose this answer

                            82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                            Supporting Evidence

                            Not Found

                            1. https://asialink.americaeconomia.com/sociedad/presidenta-chilena-encabeza-celebracion-de-10-anos-de-instituto-confucio

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                              3.
                              Exposure

                              My country plans to include, or does include, Chinese as a foreign language in K12 or primary education, and receives free or subsidized (e.g. offered below market price) educational books and teachers from PRC.

                              Yes

                              Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                              More

                              Skipped

                              1 countries chose this answer

                              0/ No

                              46 countries chose this answer

                              4/ Yes

                              35 countries chose this answer

                              81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                              Supporting Evidence

                              Since 2006, under the framework of the program "English Opens Doors", inside the Chilean Ministry of Education, there was a project that gave students from the public and subsidized school system the chance to learn Mandarin as a foreign language. However, there is no public information that the program continued after 2018. Moreover, having studied both in a public and in a subsidized schools around that time, I never got any information of the school providing these opportunities. The program existed up to 2018 and there is no evidence of it continuing afterward. Furthermore, the program was a partial foreign language training program for a group of public schools, not a countrywide K12 education mandate. If the indicator refers to a countrywide program, the answer should remain "NO", if a partial program directed at a group of public schools does serve as evidence, then the answer can be changed to "YES" since the evidence provided is within the timeframe of the study.

                              1. https://www.bcn.cl/observatorio/asiapacifico/noticias/karina-pina-proyecto-ensenanza-chino-mandarin

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                                4.
                                Exposure

                                In my country, one or more think tanks and academic research centers belong to PRC-affiliated networks/associations (such as: the Silk Road Think Tank Association, Silk Road Think Tank Network [SiLKS], Belt and Road Studies Network, University Alliance of the Silk Road, University Consortium of the 21st Century Maritime Silk Road).

                                No

                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                More

                                Skipped

                                2 countries chose this answer

                                0/ No

                                40 countries chose this answer

                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                17 countries chose this answer

                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                7 countries chose this answer

                                3/ Few, but significant

                                14 countries chose this answer

                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                2 countries chose this answer

                                80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                Supporting Evidence

                                There aren’t any Chilean institutions related to the provided network/association list. The closest connection of Chilean institutions related to Chinese academic institutions is the newly inaugurated Tsinghua Latin American Centre in Santiago de Chile.

                                1. http://www.brsn.net/list/zhikujigou_en/index.html
                                2. http://uasr.xjtu.edu.cn/About_UASR/Members.htm
                                3. http://www.ucmsr.com/public/uploads/20210419/b5fd69b2c44ada0d8faf70e6870e1bd0.pdf

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                                  5.
                                  Exposure

                                  In my country, think tanks and academic research centers have received financial support from PRC-connected individuals or entities.

                                  Yes

                                  Answer ( 2 / 4 )

                                  More

                                  Skipped

                                  10 countries chose this answer

                                  0/ No

                                  21 countries chose this answer

                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                  11 countries chose this answer

                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                  11 countries chose this answer

                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                  19 countries chose this answer

                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                  10 countries chose this answer

                                  72 countries answered this indicator; 10 countries skipped this indicator

                                  Supporting Evidence

                                  There is the case of a donation to Concepcion University by Datang Telecom (part of state own China Information and Communication Technologies Group Corp: Link). The donation of 5G equipment and a logistics software platform for smart agriculture, amounted around USD$300,000. Together with Harbin Institute of Technology, Concepcion University and Datang established a joint lab in Chile (the China-Chile Joint Information and Communication Technology Laboratory: Link). There are also cooperation projects between Chilean authorities and Chinese institutions. In link #2 you can find the case of the National Natural Science Foundation of China, but for that project each side supposed to cover only the activities and expenses of its national researchers.

                                  1. https://fi.udec.cl/19539-2/
                                  2. https://www.conicyt.cl/pci/2019/04/concurso-para-proyectos-de-investigacion-conjunta-en-chile-y-china-2019/#tab-01

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                                    6.
                                    Exposure

                                    In my country, experts participate in PRC talent recruitment programs such as the Thousand Talents Program or Changjiang Scholars program.

                                    No

                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                    More

                                    Skipped

                                    3 countries chose this answer

                                    0/ No

                                    47 countries chose this answer

                                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                                    11 countries chose this answer

                                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                    6 countries chose this answer

                                    3/ Few, but significant

                                    10 countries chose this answer

                                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                                    5 countries chose this answer

                                    79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                                    Supporting Evidence

                                    we didn’t find relevant links which might indicate local scholars or experts having participated in the named programs. The researcher found no public record indicating that scholars from (or working in) Chile took trips to China paid by PRC-connected individuals or entities. Nevertheless, a search in mandarin-sites might add new data regarding this.

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                                        7.
                                        Exposure

                                        In my country, scholars have taken trips to the PRC paid for by PRC-connected individuals or entities.

                                        Yes

                                        Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                                        More

                                        Skipped

                                        13 countries chose this answer

                                        0/ No

                                        17 countries chose this answer

                                        1/ Few, but insignificant

                                        15 countries chose this answer

                                        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                        11 countries chose this answer

                                        3/ Few, but significant

                                        12 countries chose this answer

                                        4/ More than a few, and significant

                                        14 countries chose this answer

                                        69 countries answered this indicator; 13 countries skipped this indicator

                                        Supporting Evidence

                                        the researcher found some examples of academic exchange between Chilean and Chinese institutions. These cases seem to be more an exception than a widespread practice.

                                        1. https://www.redchilechina.org/noticias01.html
                                        2. https://www.ucentral.cl/noticias/fac-derecho-y-humanidades/academico-de-la-facdeh-condecorado-por-el-ministerio-de-relaciones

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                                          8.
                                          Pressure

                                          In my country, organized PRC-connected student groups, such as Chinese Students and Scholars Associations (CSSAs), are involved in attempts to censor staff or students (e.g. by harassing students protesting human rights abuses in the PRC, or formally complaining about the identification of Taiwan as a country in lecture slides).

                                          No

                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                          More

                                          Skipped

                                          1 countries chose this answer

                                          0/ No

                                          64 countries chose this answer

                                          1/ Few, but insignificant

                                          6 countries chose this answer

                                          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                          3 countries chose this answer

                                          3/ Few, but significant

                                          5 countries chose this answer

                                          4/ More than a few, and significant

                                          3 countries chose this answer

                                          81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                          Supporting Evidence

                                          Far from the main nationalities of foreign students enrolled in Chile, Chinese students in 2019 were just 97, a small number compared with other nationalities (e.g., the same year #7 was Argentina with 1,000 students in Chile). Moreover, no organizations of coordinated Chinese Students in Chile were found. There haven’t been testimonies of these Chinese students complaining about their teachers’ lessons.

                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                              9.
                                              Pressure

                                              In my country, scholars or academics have been denied visas to travel to the PRC after expressing opinions or producing scholarship that is critical of the PRC.

                                              No

                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                              More

                                              Skipped

                                              7 countries chose this answer

                                              0/ No

                                              64 countries chose this answer

                                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                                              1 countries chose this answer

                                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                              0 countries chose this answer

                                              3/ Few, but significant

                                              6 countries chose this answer

                                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                                              4 countries chose this answer

                                              75 countries answered this indicator; 7 countries skipped this indicator

                                              Supporting Evidence

                                              No known cases of Chilean scholars being rejected for critical opinions to the PRC appear on news.

                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                  Hide
                                                  10.
                                                  Effect

                                                  In my country, PRC-connected entities have been involved in school or university curriculum design, such as courses about East Asian history, modern politics, etc.

                                                  No

                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                  More

                                                  Skipped

                                                  2 countries chose this answer

                                                  0/ No

                                                  64 countries chose this answer

                                                  4/ Yes

                                                  16 countries chose this answer

                                                  80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                  there are not reported cases of this issue.

                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                      Hide
                                                      11.
                                                      Effect

                                                      In my country, there are confirmed reports of teachers or professors avoiding the discussion of sensitive political issues (e.g. Uyghur re-education camps, Taiwan independence, Tiananmen Square Massacre).

                                                      No

                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                      More

                                                      Skipped

                                                      5 countries chose this answer

                                                      0/ No

                                                      65 countries chose this answer

                                                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                      1 countries chose this answer

                                                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                      1 countries chose this answer

                                                      3/ Few, but significant

                                                      6 countries chose this answer

                                                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                      4 countries chose this answer

                                                      77 countries answered this indicator; 5 countries skipped this indicator

                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                      While there are not published reports confirming that teachers or professors avoid these topics, nonetheless there aren’t any discussions of the named issues at all. Universities in general avoid discussing sensitive political issues involving the One China principle or Human Rights in China. For example, Universidad Católica often does activities with the Chinese embassy and invites the ambassador to explain China’s perspective on this issue, without anyone to counter his opinion. Moreover, Yun Tso Lee, a Taiwanese-Chinese academic has defended China’s position in the media.

                                                      1. https://www.bcn.cl/observatorio/asiapacifico/noticias/regresiva-derechoshumanos-china
                                                      2. http://derecho.uc.cl/cn/noticias/28161-embajador-de-china-expuso-sobre-escenario-post-pandemia

                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                                        Economy

                                                        The Economy Domain measures the PRC’s economic leverage in the Index country, and how this is used to influence economic policy or corporate behavior in ways that favor the PRC.

                                                        1.
                                                        Exposure

                                                        The PRC is my country's number one trading partner (for trade in goods only).

                                                        Yes

                                                        Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                        More

                                                        0/ No

                                                        51 countries chose this answer

                                                        4/ Yes

                                                        31 countries chose this answer

                                                        82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                        China is Chile’s main economic partner, accounting for over 30% of the country’s trade and 40% of its copper exports. Therefore, Chile is highly dependent on China's economic activity.

                                                        1. https://www.latercera.com/pulso/noticia/pese-a-crisis-china-saca-ventaja-y-consolida-su-posicion-como-principal-socio-comercial-de-chile/4V2ERLXRANCIZFEWHPPKYFQH54/
                                                        2. https://www.subrei.gob.cl/estudios-y-documentos/minuta-mensual/detalle-minuta/2021/informe-mensual-de-comercio-exterior---marzo-2021

                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                          Hide
                                                          2.
                                                          Exposure

                                                          PRC-connected entities own more than 50% of my country’s sovereign debt.

                                                          No

                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                          More

                                                          Skipped

                                                          1 countries chose this answer

                                                          0/ No

                                                          77 countries chose this answer

                                                          4/ Yes

                                                          4 countries chose this answer

                                                          81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                          retirement funds and banks account own most of the country’s debt. Less than half of the country’s debt is in USD and less than 10% in Euros. Most of it is in the local UF.

                                                          1. https://www.pauta.cl/economia/quienes-son-los-duenos-de-la-deuda-publica-emitida-por-el-fisco-chileno#:~:text=Los%20fondos%20de%20pensiones%2C%20con,bonos%20emitidos%20en%20moneda%20local

                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                                            3.
                                                            Exposure

                                                            The PRC is the top customer for my country’s extractive industries.

                                                            Yes

                                                            Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                            More

                                                            0/ No

                                                            62 countries chose this answer

                                                            4/ Yes

                                                            20 countries chose this answer

                                                            82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                            Chile exports to China account for over 30% of its total exports. Copper is the main mineral bought by the PRC, but it is also a main destination for other minerals, agricultural produce (such as cherries), or seafood. Nevertheless, US remains as the main destination for other products.

                                                            1. https://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:yFOz1Ba5cL4J:https://www.df.cl/noticias/economia-y-politica/macro/china-lidera-por-lejos-el-ranking-de-los-destinos-de-exportaciones-chilenas/2020-01-08/182322.html+&cd=1&hl=en&ct=clnk&gl=cl
                                                            2. https://www.latercera.com/pulso/noticia/no-es-china-el-principal-destino-de-las-exportaciones-chilenas-no-cobre-en-la-ultima-decada-es-eeuu/UESJIOGSLNHVFJA3OSMRWANJXU/

                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                                              4.
                                                              Exposure

                                                              In my country, PRC-related entities own, operate or substantially control critical infrastructure (e.g. ports, power plants, digital data centers, etc) or sensitive sectors (biotech, raw materials, etc.)

                                                              Yes

                                                              Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                              More

                                                              0/ No

                                                              36 countries chose this answer

                                                              4/ Yes

                                                              46 countries chose this answer

                                                              82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                              Chile’s power sector is highly controlled by Chinese public companies, members of SASAC. Huawei also has a data center in Chile. Also, Tianqi has invested and owns a significant part of Soquimich, a company that is focused on Lithium mining, but is facing severe financial problems.

                                                              1. https://www.fne.gob.cl/en/fne-aprueba-sin-condiciones-la-compra-de-cge-por-parte-de-state-grid/
                                                              2. https://www.bnamericas.com/es/noticias/china-intensifica-presencia-en-segmento-chileno-de-distribucion
                                                              3. https://www.df.cl/noticias/df-mas/por-dentro/tianqi-el-aliado-chino-de-julio-ponce-en-problemas-puso-en-prenda-sus/2020-10-23/180820.html

                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                Hide
                                                                5.
                                                                Exposure

                                                                My country joined (or applied to join) the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB).

                                                                Yes

                                                                Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                More

                                                                0/ No

                                                                27 countries chose this answer

                                                                4/ Yes

                                                                55 countries chose this answer

                                                                82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                Chile signed its incorporation in 2017 and this was promulgated in 2020.

                                                                1. https://www.senado.cl/appsenado/templates/tramitacion/index.php?boletin_ini=12603-10
                                                                2. https://www.diariooficial.interior.gob.cl/publicaciones/2020/10/05/42772/01/1825820.pdf

                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                  Hide
                                                                  6.
                                                                  Exposure

                                                                  In my country, major businesses are members of the Silk Road Chamber of International Commerce, or of the Belt and Road Industrial and Commercial Alliance, or of the Belt and Road General Chamber of Commerce.

                                                                  No

                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                  More

                                                                  0/ No

                                                                  41 countries chose this answer

                                                                  4/ Yes

                                                                  41 countries chose this answer

                                                                  82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                  Chile does not appear on any of the lists.

                                                                  1. http://www.srcic.com/silk-road-members/?page=1
                                                                  2. https://www.bricaistanbul.com/overview/brica-members/

                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                    Hide
                                                                    7.
                                                                    Pressure

                                                                    My country has been the target of PRC economic coercion (e.g. trade or investment sanctions) that was specifically tailored at products or services that are highly dependent on the PRC market.

                                                                    No

                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                    More

                                                                    0/ No

                                                                    64 countries chose this answer

                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                    18 countries chose this answer

                                                                    82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                    There is no evidence of direct economic coercion from the PRC government against Chilean products or services. A recent situation involving Chilean cherries, with is one of the most successful agricultural Chilean products sold in the Chinese market, does not account to a direct coercion from Chinese authorities. Chilean authorities are careful to comply with Chinese diplomatic bases to avoid any economic conflict or coercion from China’s side. Nevertheless, there have been internal accusations of threats to do so, but they have stayed merely as uncomfortable conversations.

                                                                    1. https://dialogochino.net/en/agriculture/40247-pandemic-puts-a-dampener-on-chiles-cherry-sales-to-china/
                                                                    2. https://www.pauta.cl/economia/bloomberg/demanda-china-de-salmon-chileno-es-practicamente-cero

                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                      Hide
                                                                      8.
                                                                      Pressure

                                                                      In my country, local businesses have been harassed, threatened, or boycotted, due to their activities or statements in support of causes deemed unacceptable by the PRC government (e.g. Taiwanese independence, Hong Kong democracy, Tibet or Xinjiang issues, etc).

                                                                      Yes

                                                                      Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                      More

                                                                      Skipped

                                                                      2 countries chose this answer

                                                                      0/ No

                                                                      65 countries chose this answer

                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                      15 countries chose this answer

                                                                      80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                      During the Hong Kong demonstrations in 2019, a Taiwanese restaurant was attacked in Chile. Moreover, a Chinese citizen living in China was persecuted by his co-nationals after criticizing this act in a WeChat group for Chinese citizens in Chile. Human Rights activists, such as former Tiananmen’s demonstrator leader Fengsuo Zhou publicly criticized these attacks. Not all these events are widely reported in the news. (See images attached)

                                                                      1. https://www.lacuarta.com/cronica/noticia/historica-pelea-hong-kong-china-llego-meiggs/401913/
                                                                      2. https://www.cnnchile.com/pais/gobierno-taiwan-condena-ataque-restaurante-pollo-chang_20190825/

                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                        Hide
                                                                        9.
                                                                        Effect

                                                                        My country has free-trade agreement(s) with the PRC (either bilateral or as part of regional agreement(s)) that primarily deals with trade in goods or services, including digital goods or services.

                                                                        Yes

                                                                        Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                        More

                                                                        0/ No

                                                                        51 countries chose this answer

                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                        31 countries chose this answer

                                                                        82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                        Hide
                                                                        10.
                                                                        Effect

                                                                        In my country, central or local governments have relaxed or removed regulatory restrictions, or have established special economic zones (or free trade zones, industrial parks, etc.) to attract investments or economic participation from the PRC.

                                                                        No

                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                        More

                                                                        0/ No

                                                                        47 countries chose this answer

                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                        35 countries chose this answer

                                                                        82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                        Chile has a very strict no-discrimination investment system, in which all competitors must comply with the same regulations and rules.

                                                                        1. https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2020-12-14/chilean-lawmakers-push-for-restrictions-on-chinese-buying-spree
                                                                        2. https://www.fne.gob.cl/en/fne-aprueba-sin-condiciones-la-compra-de-cge-por-parte-de-state-grid/

                                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                          Hide
                                                                          11.
                                                                          Effect

                                                                          In my country, PRC-connected entities requisitioned infrastructure or land for failure to repay debts in a timely manner.

                                                                          No

                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                          More

                                                                          Skipped

                                                                          2 countries chose this answer

                                                                          0/ No

                                                                          76 countries chose this answer

                                                                          4/ Yes

                                                                          4 countries chose this answer

                                                                          80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                          none of the mentioned cases has been denounced in Chile.

                                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                                                              Society

                                                                              The Society Domain measures the extent and effectiveness of the PRC’s efforts to advance its soft power in the Index country, including its influence over the actions and views of local organizations and citizens.

                                                                              1.
                                                                              Exposure

                                                                              In my country, there are local groups or organizations with words like “Promotion of Peaceful Reunification” in their name, and they regularly publicize their views on Taiwan, Hong Kong, Tibet and Xinjiang issues.

                                                                              No

                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                              More

                                                                              Skipped

                                                                              1 countries chose this answer

                                                                              0/ No

                                                                              49 countries chose this answer

                                                                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                              12 countries chose this answer

                                                                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                              7 countries chose this answer

                                                                              3/ Few, but significant

                                                                              9 countries chose this answer

                                                                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                              4 countries chose this answer

                                                                              81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                              none formal organizations advocating for China’s perspective on Taiwan, Hong Kong, Tiber or Xinjiang were found. Ambassadors, on the other hand, have publicly pushed for these topics in Chile. Also, there is a joint declaration in which Chile publicly supports China’s perspective on the topic.

                                                                              1. https://rpjweb.srcei.cl/RPJ/Consulta/apps/consulta_lista_rpj.php
                                                                              2. http://spanish.xinhuanet.com/2019-04/24/c_138004749.htm

                                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                Hide
                                                                                2.
                                                                                Exposure

                                                                                In my country, there are members and member organizations of United World Chinese Association (世界华人协会).

                                                                                No

                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                More

                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                62 countries chose this answer

                                                                                4/ Yes

                                                                                19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                The official list of members does not publicize any representative in Chile.

                                                                                1. http://www.uwca.net/member.html

                                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                                                                  3.
                                                                                  Exposure

                                                                                  In my country, labor unions cooperate on exchanges or official visits to the All-China Federation of Trade Unions (ACFTU) in the PRC.

                                                                                  No

                                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                  More

                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                  1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                  68 countries chose this answer

                                                                                  4/ Yes

                                                                                  13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                  81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                  Only one event has been publicized by the Central Unica de Trabajadores (CUT) and Chinese labor unions. A widespread cooperation or exchange doesn’t appear to be happening. After searching at the ACFTU page, not any relevant results were found.

                                                                                  1. https://cut.cl/cutchile/2019/07/17/cut-realizara-conversatorio-sobre-automatizacion-con-dirigentes-sindicales-chinos/
                                                                                  2. https://www.acftu.org/

                                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                    4.
                                                                                    Exposure

                                                                                    In my country, there are local reports of personnel linked to the UFWD who make appearances at Chinese diaspora community events and activities (e.g. Lunar New Year events, Dragon Boat festival tournaments, etc).

                                                                                    No

                                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                    More

                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                    2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                    50 countries chose this answer

                                                                                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                    9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                    5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                    3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                    9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                    7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                    80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                    Except for this meeting between President Bachelet and the highest representative of the UFWD at the time, researchers found no other public info about UFWD members activities in Chile. Even though there are activities currently being held in Chile to celebrate Chinese festivities, such as the light festival or the Chinese Lunar Year, these events are openly organized by institutions such as the Confucius centers or the embassy, and therefore the seek to promote Chinese culture and perspective.

                                                                                    1. https://www.minrel.gob.cl/foreign-minister-accompanies-president-to-meeting-with-sun-chunlan/minrel_old/2015-11-12/110007.html

                                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                      5.
                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                      In my country, there are PRC-connected professional associations that are closely engaged with their counterparts locally, such as All-China Journalists Association (中华全国新闻工作者协会), China Artists Association (中国艺术家协会), China Writers Association (中国作家协会) or All-China Women Federation (全国妇联).

                                                                                      Yes

                                                                                      Answer ( 2 / 4 )

                                                                                      More

                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                      2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                      33 countries chose this answer

                                                                                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                      25 countries chose this answer

                                                                                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                      8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                      3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                      8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                      6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                      80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                      Chinese nationals living in Chile, especially the ones who came after 2008, often have close ties with the PRC. In that sense, they sometimes represent and participate of events in Chile and China. Such organizations are, for example, the Women’s federation or the Chilean Chinese Entrepreneurs Association. Nevertheless, these organizations are not well known locally, and therefore their local impact is limited.

                                                                                      1. http://www.chinanews.com/hr/2013/07-26/5086770.shtml
                                                                                      2. http://www.chileychina.org/zhiliqiaotuan/84.html

                                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                                                                        6.
                                                                                        Exposure

                                                                                        In my country, PRC-connected individuals or entities donate money or provide other types of support to religious communities and charities.

                                                                                        Yes

                                                                                        Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                        More

                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                        1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                        46 countries chose this answer

                                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                                        35 countries chose this answer

                                                                                        81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                        most donations conducted by the PRC during 2020 were related to medical equipment or protection implements. Even though these donations weren’t directed to charities, they are important to understand the relation between China and China. Therefore, we decided to consider those donations, related to the PRC, as charities, because the final beneficiary is a subject of charity. By instance, the person to which the masks were given.

                                                                                        1. https://www.minsal.cl/15-toneladas-de-elementos-de-proteccion-personal-y-ventiladores-llegan-a-chile/
                                                                                        2. https://www.telesurtv.net/news/comunidad-china-chile-realizo-donacion-policia--20200428-0059.html
                                                                                        3. http://spanish.xinhuanet.com/2020-04/22/c_138997929.htm

                                                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                                                                          7.
                                                                                          Exposure

                                                                                          In my country, the PRC government or PRC-connected entities distribute entertainment products (including: drama and TV shows) or related hardwares (e.g. OTT streaming players hosting PRC media channels) freely or at a cheap price.

                                                                                          No

                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                          More

                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                          2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                          38 countries chose this answer

                                                                                          1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                          21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                          4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                          3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                          11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                          4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                          6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                          80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                          there aren’t any TV shows distributed through PRC connected entities. Netflix has some Chinese shows running, but there are just as many as the Japanese or Korean ones. TV Boxes, such as the Xiaomi Mi Box (USD$ 100), are popular among the Chinese communities and have gained popularity in the Chilean audience. Nevertheless, they will only show Chinese content if its not configurated to the local community. Users in Chile can visit the Chinese webpage of “IQiyi service” (movies / tv series) which has a version in Spanish. If a user downloads the “IQiyi App” (at least on Android) it can access content with Spanish subtitles for free (with adds).”

                                                                                          1. https://www.mercadolibre.cl/xiaomi-mi-box-s-mdz-22-ab-de-voz-4k-8gb-negro-con-2gb-de-memoria-ram/p/MLC13877783#searchVariation=MLC13877783&position=1&search_layout=stack&type=product&tracking_id=2c01c64a-d77e-4c2d-a8b4-2d8dd9f86dcf
                                                                                          2. https://www.netflix.com/search?q=china
                                                                                          3. http://www.iq.com/

                                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                                                                            8.
                                                                                            Effect

                                                                                            Cultural products (such as films and TV shows) produced by my country’s production studios typically portray the PRC in a positive light.

                                                                                            No

                                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                            More

                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                            7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                            60 countries chose this answer

                                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                                            15 countries chose this answer

                                                                                            75 countries answered this indicator; 7 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                            There are no Chilean productions so far portraying the PRC in a positive or a negative way. They don’t even mention the PRC. The only exception to this would be the content related to Pablo Neruda, (such as the 2016 movie), as we went to the PRC several times (1951-1957), and had a high esteem of Mao Zedong. There are no Chilean productions so far portraying the PRC in a positive or a negative way. There is film project set on the Pacific War between Chile and Peru around the 1880’s, about Chinese slaves liberated by the Chilean army. This is a coproduction in development since 2018, with financing from Chilean and Chinese companies (no much details were found about the Chinese producers), but apparently COVID-19 paused the production. There was another project from 2017, but there is no information if the project went beyond a short trailer (link #4) The movie project called “El Color de las Cerezas” (The Color of Cherries), tells the story of a Chinese man who falls in love with a young woman at a Chilean farm.

                                                                                            1. https://www.latercera.com/conexion-china/noticia/la-profunda-amistad-unio-los-poetas-pablo-neruda-ai-qing/956915/
                                                                                            2. https://www.latercera.com/la-tercera-pm/noticia/el-principe-rojo-el-proyecto-de-cine-que-busca-filmar-a-pinera-con-xi-jinping/314182/
                                                                                            3. https://v.qq.com/x/page/p08611hcixr.html
                                                                                            4. https://www.imdb.com/title/tt10284138/?ref_=tt_mv_close
                                                                                            5. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CU1M1NMGBoI&t=250s
                                                                                            6. https://www.simfruit.cl/auge-de-las-cerezas-llega-al-cine-con-pelicula-donde-un-chino-se-enamora-de-una-chilena/

                                                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                                                                              9.
                                                                                              Effect

                                                                                              In my country, celebrities regularly publish or share propaganda narratives from the PRC.

                                                                                              No

                                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                              More

                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                              67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                              10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                              0 countries chose this answer

                                                                                              3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                              3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                              2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                              82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                              celebrities rarely mention the PRC in any way. They also don’t give their opinions on sensitive topics. It is more common for Chilean celebrities to have an opinion on Israel and Palestine than on China. Journalists do not defend the government either.

                                                                                              1. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2XWgsr9It_o

                                                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                                                                                10.
                                                                                                Effect

                                                                                                In my country, the national or local governments regularly publish or share propaganda narratives from the PRC (e.g. statements from the PRC government or embassies).

                                                                                                Yes

                                                                                                Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                                                More

                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                54 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                In Chile there is a good relation between Chinese authorities and local government. This impacts the views that these local leaders communicate to the members of those communities. Propaganda during Covid-19 was direct and clear. China donated masks and protection equipment to local governments, and these municipalities held events in which they commented on China’s attempts to control and eradicate the virus. Local newspapers (many sponsored by their municipalities) published articles with the motto “China has defeated the virus” and some comments on the Chinese way. This was the same slogan that the “safety flyers” delivered by the embassy to local Chinese business had. Moreover, there are initiatives in which the Chinese embassy or the Confucius institute take advantage of the public attention to transmit propaganda statements as: the Chinese development strategy can be replicated by Chile. Also, sometimes, when a cultural event is held, Chinese representatives may ask to show “Chinese government” videos on the outdoor screens if there is an interlude between events or shows.

                                                                                                1. https://www.bcn.cl/observatorio/asiapacifico/noticias/vitacura-plaza-republica-popular-china
                                                                                                2. https://www.cnnchile.com/coronavirus/lishui-mascarillas-santiago-coronavirus_20200406/
                                                                                                3. https://www.df.cl/noticias/opinion/columnistas/conexion-a-china-la-relacion-chile-china-ante-el-coronavirus/2020-02-03/192137.html

                                                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                                                                                  11.
                                                                                                  Effect

                                                                                                  In my country, a majority of citizens have positive views of the PRC government.

                                                                                                  Yes

                                                                                                  Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                  7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                  50 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                  4/ Yes

                                                                                                  25 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                  75 countries answered this indicator; 7 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                  According to CADEM's 2019 survey, 77% of Chileans have a good image of China (notes 5 to 7), 16pts more than the positive image they have of the United States (61%).

                                                                                                  1. https://www.cadem.cl/encuestas/estudio-no-275-22-de-abril/
                                                                                                  2. https://www.pewresearch.org/global/database/indicator/24/country/CL

                                                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                                                                                    Military

                                                                                                    The Military Domain gauges the bilateral military relationship between the PRC and the Index country, including PRC efforts to influence local military personnel.

                                                                                                    1.
                                                                                                    Exposure

                                                                                                    My country currently imports (or receives in-kind donation of) military or law-enforcement equipment or components of equipment from the PRC.

                                                                                                    No

                                                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                    36 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                                                    46 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                    82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                    This question was answered by the Defense Minister. There are some military uniforms or soft-equipment provided by a Chinese institution. Security cameras and surveillance equipment have been provided by some Chinese private companies to law enforcement agencies but not directly. As in Chile there are two ministries (defense and interior issues) that operate the army and police separately, there should rather be another question in the law enforcement section, so we could provide a direct answer.

                                                                                                    1. https://www.infodefensa.com/latam/2021/03/04/noticia-ejercito-chile-recibira-vestuario-equipo-militar-china-xinxing-import-export.html
                                                                                                    2. https://www.infolobby.cl/Ficha/Audiencia/ad0061594031

                                                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                                                                                      2.
                                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                                      My country currently exports military or law-enforcement equipment or components of equipment to the PRC.

                                                                                                      No

                                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                      1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                      74 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                                                      7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                      81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                      This question was answered by the Defense Minister. In a new version of this study, we recommend giving the researchers at least five months so they can inquire some of these questions to transparency offices (which take three months to answer), and have a stronger backup information for these answers.

                                                                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                                                                                          3.
                                                                                                          Exposure

                                                                                                          My country co-develops or co-produces military or law-enforcement equipment with the PRC.

                                                                                                          No

                                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                          1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                          66 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                          4/ Yes

                                                                                                          15 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                          81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                          Chile does not co-develop any military or law enforcement equipment with the PRC. Please refer to the links above. The FAMAE, Fábricas y Maestranzas del Ejército (in English Army’s Factories and Manufacturers), is an institution that produces and provides military equipment. There weren’t any links with PRC entities to this branch of the Army found.

                                                                                                          1. http://www.famae.cl/pdf/memorias/MEMORIA-ANUAL-2020.pdf
                                                                                                          2. http://www.famae.cl/pdf/CATALOGO_FAMAE.PDF
                                                                                                          3. https://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anexo:Material_b%C3%A9lico_del_Ej%C3%A9rcito_de_Chile

                                                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                                                                                            4.
                                                                                                            Exposure

                                                                                                            In my country, there are reports that the PRC has expressed intentions or has taken actions to establish basing.

                                                                                                            No

                                                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                            2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                            67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                                                            13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                            80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                            There aren’t any foreign military base in Chilean territory. There was a rumor of a US military base authorized in Fuerte Aguayo, Concón, but this turned to be fake news, even though it was quote by foreign Media Outlets. There have been proposals to reform the constitution to make this an impossibility. The only alleged “military base” close to Chile is Neuquen’s Estación de Espacio Lejano which has been rather controversial, because it wasn’t publicized as a military base and because is so close to the Chilean border.

                                                                                                            1. http://www.senado.cl/appsenado/index.php?mo=tramitacion&ac=getDocto&iddocto=7136&tipodoc=mensaje_mocion
                                                                                                            2. https://www.bcn.cl/leychile/navegar?idNorma=30318
                                                                                                            3. https://www.bbc.com/mundo/noticias/2016/03/160317_misteriosa_base_china_patagonia_argentina_lb

                                                                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                                                                                              5.
                                                                                                              Exposure

                                                                                                              In my country, the People’s Liberation Army (PLA) has participated in a humanitarian relief/disaster assistance (HADR) effort.

                                                                                                              No

                                                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                              2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                              61 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                              4/ Yes

                                                                                                              19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                              80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                              There are several MOU and agreements between Chinese institutions and local Disaster/Emergency Agency (ONEMI Oficina Nacional de Emergencia del Ministerio del Interior). Nevertheless, collaborations these are not executed by the PLA but other organizations such as universities and government agencies. This could be added as another question in a new version of the study. According to the Defense Ministry: a) ONEMI cooperates with China in the field of Disaster Risk Management (other than HA / DR). b) There is a cooperation program between ONEMI and the Public Security Research Institute of Tsinghua University. This program seeks to carry out knowledge exchange and cooperation on disaster risk management, including best practices, systems and innovations.

                                                                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                                                                                                  6.
                                                                                                                  Exposure

                                                                                                                  In my country, People’s Liberation Army (PLA) military personnel are permanently or rotationally deployed (excluding defense attaches and peacekeepers).

                                                                                                                  No

                                                                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                  77 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                  4/ Yes

                                                                                                                  5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                  82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                  There isn’t any presence of the PLA in national territory. In 2013, three PLA ships came to Chile and sailed on Chilean waters, it was publicized, but it is not a permanent or rational practice. There are though a lot of signals of a strong institutional relation between the PLA and the Chilean Army but they don’t align with any of the asked questions.

                                                                                                                  1. https://www.bcn.cl/observatorio/asiapacifico/noticias/buques-armada-china-valparaiso-recorreran-chile
                                                                                                                  2. https://www.armada.cl/armada/site/artic/20140108/pags/20140108121516.html

                                                                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                                                                                                    7.
                                                                                                                    Exposure

                                                                                                                    In my country, members of the military have received professional military education from the PRC.

                                                                                                                    Yes

                                                                                                                    Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                    48 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                                                                    34 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                    82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                    According to the Ministry of defense “There are exchanges between Chile and China where Chilean officials have traveled to China to participate in some courses, as well as Chinese officials have come to the Chilean academies. Professional exchanges have been channeled through the Joint Commission for Exchange and Cooperation. Instance where China raises its needs and delivers the invitations for Chileans. Chile has sent officers to the following courses: a) Security and Command Course. b) Symposium of Latin American Senior Officials. The last Chilean participation was in 2019. Since 2020 and due to the pandemic, coordination with China has not been carried out.”

                                                                                                                    1. https://www.infodefensa.com/latam/2017/07/31/noticia-ejercitos-chile-china-exploran-intercambio-conocimientos-manejo-gestion-emergencias.html
                                                                                                                    2. http://www.oas.org/MFCS/CountryDetailMFCS.aspx?Lang=ENG&Country=CL&MFCS=2&Year=2018

                                                                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                                                                                                      8.
                                                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                                                      In my country, members of the military have received peacekeeping training from the PRC.

                                                                                                                      No

                                                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                      2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                      67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                                                                      13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                      80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                      There isn’t any information available about the Chilean Military receiving peacekeeping training in the PRC. This could be looked at within Chinese

                                                                                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                                                                                                          9.
                                                                                                                          Exposure

                                                                                                                          In my country, high-ranking retired or current military and/or intelligence officers have received direct or deferred benefits from PRC-connected individuals or entities openly or covertly (e.g. have been appointed to lucrative positions as board members or consultants with PRC-invested firms, casinos, energy companies, etc.) during or in retirement from public service.

                                                                                                                          No

                                                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                                          4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                          67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                          4/ Yes

                                                                                                                          11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                          78 countries answered this indicator; 4 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                          No evidence on this was found. Besides, it is impossible to track this because once an army member becomes a civilian, their activities become private. Therefore, one could not link their previous role with their current work.

                                                                                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                                                                                                              10.
                                                                                                                              Effect

                                                                                                                              In my country, high-ranking retired or current military and/or intelligence officials advocate for more coordination with the People’s Liberation Army (PLA).

                                                                                                                              Yes

                                                                                                                              Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                              1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                              68 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                              4/ Yes

                                                                                                                              13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                              81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                              There are several instances and agreements. One of these is the Memorándum de Entendimiento sobre Intercambio y Cooperación Militar entre ambos Ministerios de Defensa, from June 8th 2011.

                                                                                                                              1. https://www.defensa.cl/noticias/iii-reunion-de-trabajo-para-la-cooperacion-en-defensa-chile-china/
                                                                                                                              2. https://chile.gob.cl/chile/blog/china/beijing/comandante-en-jefe-del-ejercito-realiza-visita-oficial-a-china
                                                                                                                              3. http://spanish.xinhuanet.com/2017-07/30/c_136485383.htm

                                                                                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                11.
                                                                                                                                Effect

                                                                                                                                My country cooperates with the People’s Liberation Army (PLA) on military exchange exercises, including drills and war games.

                                                                                                                                No

                                                                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                51 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                31 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                This question was answered by the Defense Minister. In a new version of this study, we recommend giving the researchers at least five months so they can inquire some of these questions to transparency offices (which take three months to answer), and have a stronger backup information for these answers.

                                                                                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                                                                                                                    Law Enforcement

                                                                                                                                    The Law Enforcement Domain measures law enforcement cooperation between the PRC and the Index country, as well as the nature and extent of PRC-related criminal activity in the Index country.

                                                                                                                                    1.
                                                                                                                                    Exposure

                                                                                                                                    My country currently maintains an extradition treaty, legal mutual assistance or other similar arrangements with the PRC.

                                                                                                                                    Yes

                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                    32 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                    50 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                    82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                    2.
                                                                                                                                    Exposure

                                                                                                                                    In my country, law enforcement authorities have signed cooperation agreements with the PRC on combatting terrorism.

                                                                                                                                    No

                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                    1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                    55 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                    26 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                    81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                    there aren’t any explicit and published agreements regarding counter-terrorism efforts or training.

                                                                                                                                    1. https://twitter.com/PDI_CHILE/status/1183061335820640257

                                                                                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                                                                                                                      3.
                                                                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                                                                      In my country, PRC-connected gangs (such as Triad, 三合会) are known to be operating in my country.

                                                                                                                                      No

                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                                      1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                      52 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                      29 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                      81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                      The cases in question have not being consider connected to Triads by Chilean authorities, and currently there are no signs of any Triads presence in Chile.

                                                                                                                                      1. https://www.biobiochile.cl/noticias/nacional/region-metropolitana/2020/09/07/desbaratan-banda-con-elaborado-cultivo-indoor-plantaban-guiados-por-un-recetario-y-calendario-chino.shtml
                                                                                                                                      2. https://www.biobiochile.cl/noticias/nacional/chile/2020/08/31/empresario-nexo-chino-y-exfuncionario-del-minrel-arriesgan-5-anos-de-carcel-por-trafico-de-personas.shtml

                                                                                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                                                                                                                        4.
                                                                                                                                        Pressure

                                                                                                                                        In my country, there are reports of economic espionage targeting the private sector that were suspected to benefit PRC-connected entities.

                                                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                                        2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                        49 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                        1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                        7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                        3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                        3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                        12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                        4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                        9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                        80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                        No cases were found.

                                                                                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                                                                                                                            5.
                                                                                                                                            Pressure

                                                                                                                                            In my country, there are reports of cyber attacks targeting government, critical infrastructure, or enterprises that were suspected to be initiated from the PRC.

                                                                                                                                            No

                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                                            3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                            37 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                            1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                            9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                            4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                            3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                            14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                            4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                            15 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                            79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                            There was the arrest of a suspect in Hong Kong in relation to a cyber-attack to Bank of Chile, but there is no talk of Chinese government entities.

                                                                                                                                            1. https://www.24horas.cl/economia/policia-de-hong-kong-detiene-a-sospechoso-por-millonario-ciberataque-a-banco-de-chile-2793449
                                                                                                                                            2. http://www.economiaynegocios.cl/noticias/noticias.asp?id=497084

                                                                                                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                                              6.
                                                                                                                                              Pressure

                                                                                                                                              In my country, triads are known to have threatened or used violence to coerce, intimidate or punish Chinese dissidents.

                                                                                                                                              No

                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                                              2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                              67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                              5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                              3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                              3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                              3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                              2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                              80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                              There was public information about a single incident in a restaurant owned by a Taiwanese, but there is no information that the people involved were related to Triads or that there is any more acts of violence to intimidate critics or Chinese dissidents.

                                                                                                                                              1. https://lavozdechile.com/pollo-chang-el-restaurante-en-santiago-acosado-por-la-mafia-china/

                                                                                                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                7.
                                                                                                                                                Effect

                                                                                                                                                My country has deployed video or internet surveillance systems from the PRC for law enforcement.

                                                                                                                                                Yes

                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                                1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                30 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                51 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                8.
                                                                                                                                                Effect

                                                                                                                                                In my country, representatives of the PRC police force have had joint patrols with local law enforcement.

                                                                                                                                                No

                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                71 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                There is no information about joint patrols with any foreign country in Chile.

                                                                                                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                                                                                                                                    9.
                                                                                                                                                    Effect

                                                                                                                                                    My government has detained people at the request of the PRC for committing a crime involving engagements with social movements or resistance activities in Hong Kong, Xinjiang or for other human rights or civic rights issues.

                                                                                                                                                    No

                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                                    1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                    68 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                    13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                    81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                    There is no information about this type of cases in Chile.

                                                                                                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                                                                                                                                        10.
                                                                                                                                                        Effect

                                                                                                                                                        My country has deported Taiwan citizens to the PRC to face prosecution.

                                                                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                                                        2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                                        71 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                        9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                        80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                        There is no information about this type of cases in Chile.

                                                                                                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                                                                                                                                            11.
                                                                                                                                                            Effect

                                                                                                                                                            My country has extradited or has deported individuals to the PRC, although such decisions had attracted criticisms from politicians, government employees or from local or foreign NGOs.

                                                                                                                                                            No

                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                            61 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                            21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                            82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                            There is no public information on this issue. However, a Chilean government official at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs contacted for this survey indicated (off the record) that there is no information of any Chinese citizen deported from Chile due to an extradition request from China, at least since the judicial system reform in Chile, 20 years ago.

                                                                                                                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                                                                                                                                                Technology

                                                                                                                                                                The Technology Domain gauges the PRC’s influence over the technology sector in the Index country, including the activity and financial leverage of PRC companies, use of PRC hardware, and bilateral research partnerships.

                                                                                                                                                                1.
                                                                                                                                                                Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                In my country, PRC-connected entities (such as China Mobile, China Unicom or China Telecom) or their subsidiaries provide telecom services.

                                                                                                                                                                No

                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                52 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                30 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                Although Huawei has a wide participation in the technological services, Chinese companies have not entered the market. This is mainly due to the lack of available bands for new telecom companies. They have, whatsoever, tried to enter the market, and held meetings with Subsecretary of telecommunications authorities and have inscribe their trademarks locally (Links provided).

                                                                                                                                                                1. https://www.leylobby.gob.cl/instituciones/AN002/audiencias/2018/172639/239756
                                                                                                                                                                2. http://www.economiaynegocios.cl/noticias/noticias.asp?id=435155

                                                                                                                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                                                                                                                                                  2.
                                                                                                                                                                  Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                  In my country, telecoms have signed agreements to adopt hardwares or technical specifications of 4G or 5G cellular networks that are produced or developed by Huawei, ZTE or other PRC enterprises.

                                                                                                                                                                  Yes

                                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                  16 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                  5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                  4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                  27 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                  30 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                  82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                  Some Chilean internet and telecom providers use Huawei devises and infrastructure to deliver these services.

                                                                                                                                                                  1. https://www.entel.cl/empresas/fijo-inalambrico/
                                                                                                                                                                  2. https://www.latercera.com/pulso/noticia/huawei-esta-a-un-paso-del-5g-en-chile/ER3ALGDSDRCZ3H7M4WTOWFEARA/

                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                                                                                                                                                    3.
                                                                                                                                                                    Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                    In my country, telecoms have adopted hardware or technical specifications by PRC-connected entities in internet/wifi/telecommunication service infrastructure projects, in addition to 4G/5G cellular network.

                                                                                                                                                                    Yes

                                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                    8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                    14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                    10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                    3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                    3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                    24 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                    23 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                    74 countries answered this indicator; 8 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                    Huawei is interested in investing a lot in Chile’s Telecom industry. Sources for this can be found primary on News Outlets, Government sites and data banks.

                                                                                                                                                                    1. https://www.latercera.com/pulso/noticia/huawei-afirma-ve-chile-referencia-toda-la-region-latinoamericana/673201/
                                                                                                                                                                    2. https://www.subtel.gob.cl/mtt-y-huawei-inauguran-primer-cloud-data-center-regional-en-chile-con-una-inversion-de-mas-de-usd-100-millones/

                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                                                                                                                                                      4.
                                                                                                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                      In my country, PRC-connected entities are authorized vendors to supply tech-related equipment or services to our government, military or security services.

                                                                                                                                                                      Yes

                                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                      1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                      28 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                      53 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                      81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                      All enterprises are authorized vendors. GAG China is among the list of most common vendors. Moreover, Huawei regularly asks for meetings to understand how to apply for a Public Tender, as they have had trouble getting their offers accepted.

                                                                                                                                                                      1. http://datosabiertos.chilecompra.cl/Home/Proveedor
                                                                                                                                                                      2. https://www.leylobby.gob.cl/instituciones/AE011/audiencias/2020/238543/425612
                                                                                                                                                                      3. https://www.leylobby.gob.cl/instituciones/AE011/audiencias/2017/111436/208189

                                                                                                                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                                                                                                                                                        5.
                                                                                                                                                                        Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                        In my country, central or local governments have collaboration (such as data collection or exchange agreement, or adoption of related hardwares) with the PRC government or PRC-connected entities on facial, voice recognition or other applications involving biometrics achieved by AI.

                                                                                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                        3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                        42 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                        1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                        9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                        2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                        3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                        19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                        4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                        7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                        79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                        There isn’t any projects regarding data recollection regarding facial or voice recognition. The only security project in which a Chinese company might be involved is security cameras’ acquisition by the internal government. Ingesmart, a tech and security provider, represents both US’ companies such as Microsoft and Chinese companies such as Huawei or Lenovo, which might be sub-providers for this project. Passports have Biometric technology from Morpho, a French company.

                                                                                                                                                                        1. https://www.infodefensa.com/latam/2020/04/08/noticia-ingesmart-implementara-chile-sistema-teleproteccion-camaras.html
                                                                                                                                                                        2. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0969476512701157

                                                                                                                                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                                                                                                                                                          6.
                                                                                                                                                                          Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                          In my country, one or more cities have procured, or have signed contracts with PRC-connected entities to establish “smart city” systems.

                                                                                                                                                                          No

                                                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                          1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                          35 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                          1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                          13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                          4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                          3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                          25 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                          4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                          4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                          81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                          Even though there is interest in developing smart cities in Chile, there isn’t any contracts with PRC entities regarding the topic. There are only direct projects for enhancing electromobility or security.

                                                                                                                                                                          1. http://repositorio.uchile.cl/bitstream/handle/2250/176775/Urban%20Studies_Placebo_PDF_Proof.PDF?sequence=1&isAllowed=y
                                                                                                                                                                          2. http://spanish.xinhuanet.com/2021-01/20/c_139681917.htm

                                                                                                                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                                                                                                                                                            7.
                                                                                                                                                                            Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                            In my country, financial institutions use the China Cross-Border Interbank Payment System (CIPS) clearing and settlement services system.

                                                                                                                                                                            No

                                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                            1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                            63 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                            18 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                            81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                            Chile’s banks do not use CIPS and would rather use the Swift Standard. RMB is not a widely used currency either, as most comparisons are made in USD or the national UF.

                                                                                                                                                                            1. https://www.swift.com/swift-resource/40221/download?language=en
                                                                                                                                                                            2. http://www.china.org.cn/world/Off_the_Wire/2015-10/12/content_36802676.htm

                                                                                                                                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                                                                                                                                                              8.
                                                                                                                                                                              Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                              In my country, PRC-connected venture capital invests in technology start-ups.

                                                                                                                                                                              Yes

                                                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 2 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                              1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                              32 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                              18 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                              8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                              3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                              12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                              11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                              81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                              Startups in Chile often look for local capital investors. Moreover, international startups programs try to attract funds from multiple sources. It is more common for Chinese tech startups or companies to locate in Chile, such as Didi or Mobike. The second of these went bankrupt due to the pandemic in 2020.

                                                                                                                                                                              1. https://web.archive.org/web/20210508214114/https://www.startupchile.org/asian-partners/
                                                                                                                                                                              2. https://www.df.cl/noticias/df-lab/innovacion-y-startups/la-nueva-estrategia-de-la-aceleradora-magical-startups-levantar-capital/2020-05-08/105601.html

                                                                                                                                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                                                                                                                                                                9.
                                                                                                                                                                                Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                In my country, companies have publicly announced that they had signed MOUs to collaborate on technological development (such as collaborations in A.I., Blockchain, Cloud Computing, Big Data) with PRC-connected entities.

                                                                                                                                                                                Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 2 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                31 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                Even though there are several MOU’s and agreements signed between national entities and companies or directly the PRC. Nevertheless, the consolidation of named agreements haven’t been followed.

                                                                                                                                                                                1. https://www.subtel.gob.cl/chile-y-china-firman-importante-acuerdo-bilateral-de-colaboracion-tecnologica/
                                                                                                                                                                                2. https://internacional.unab.cl/tsinghua-y-unab-firman-memorandum-de-entendimiento/

                                                                                                                                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                                                                                                                                                                  10.
                                                                                                                                                                                  Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                  In my country, PRC-connected entities are shareholders or developers of the top five popular social media/messaging apps, based on usage.

                                                                                                                                                                                  No

                                                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                  2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                  44 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                  4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                  36 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                  80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                  During the research for this question two issues came up. 1. Is there a way to link Chinese influence with Social Media use?; 2. Does Zoom count as a Social Media Platform and if so, does it have a real political influence? It accounts for 54% of communications during 2020. Tik Tok is increasing its presence in the country, but still marks very low on the average usage compared to other platforms.

                                                                                                                                                                                  1. https://www.anda.cl/uso-de-redes-sociales-en-chile/
                                                                                                                                                                                  2. https://tecnopymes.cl/2018/12/14/estas-son-las-30-aplicaciones-mas-usadas-en-chile/

                                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                                                                                                                                                                    11.
                                                                                                                                                                                    Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                    In my country, the central or local government(s) has collaborated with the PRC on endorsing the use of BeiDou satellite navigation system.

                                                                                                                                                                                    No

                                                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                    1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                    64 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                    17 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                    81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                    Beidu satellite does not have a wide used presence in the country (not such as Galileo, for example). Nevertheless, it is used and available for certain devises. Therefore, local governments have not collaborated in its dissemination.

                                                                                                                                                                                    1. https://galileoic.cl/faqs/#toggle-id-17
                                                                                                                                                                                    2. http://doc.ingenieros.cl/presentacion_navegacion_satelital.pdf

                                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                                                                                                                                                                      Domestic Politics

                                                                                                                                                                                      The Domestic Politics Domain evaluates PRC efforts to influence the political landscape in the Index country, and the footprint of PRC security companies.

                                                                                                                                                                                      1.
                                                                                                                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                      In my country, politicians or government employees at the sub-national level are signing agreements with the PRC government or state-owned enterprises.

                                                                                                                                                                                      Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 2 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                      1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                      20 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                      5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                      12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                      3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                      23 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                      21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                      81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                      Many municipalities have signed cooperation agreements and use Chinese-provided services or products. Nevertheless, some of these agreements have not gotten any public attention. Moreover, some of these agreements are signed but haven’t been driven to practical outcomes. Maybe it would be good to mark a difference between the existence of an agreement and how it manifests during execution.

                                                                                                                                                                                      1. https://www.munistgo.cl/municipio-de-santiago-y-autoridades-chinas-firman-convenio-de-cooperacion/
                                                                                                                                                                                      2. https://www.sanantonio.cl/municipalidad/noticias/item/7834-delegacion-china-de-dezhou-realizan-visita-a-san-antonio.html

                                                                                                                                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                                                                                                                                                                        2.
                                                                                                                                                                                        Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                        In my country, local municipalities have sister-city ties (友好城市) with municipalities in the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                                        Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 2 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                        1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                        10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                        1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                        10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                        19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                        3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                        19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                        4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                        23 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                        81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                        Records show that many main cities have a “sister” status with localities in China. For example, Santiago Municipality (Capital) has a sister status with Beijing. Nevertheless, most main Chilean cities have also ties with cities in Europe and the US. For example. Santiago has a sister-ties with Miami, Mississippi and Minneapolis, all in the US. Viña del Mar has sister ties with Sausalito, California, and has a neighborhood named after it. Valparaíso has sister ties with Long Beach (and has a neighborhood called Playa Ancha) and also with Shanghai and Guanzhou. Moreover, many cities have started to install sister ties with Chinese local governments and haven’t succeed or continued the process. Copiapó holds the record regarding sister cities in China, having ties with Jilin, Jiujiang, Nanchang, Ruichang, Panyu, Pingxiang and Yantai.

                                                                                                                                                                                        1. https://web.archive.org/web/20210421005609/https://www.vinadelmarchile.cl/articulo/municipio/1/5048/vina-del-mar-consolida-hermanamiento-con-ciudad-china-de-wuxi.html
                                                                                                                                                                                        2. https://www.bcn.cl/observatorio/asiapacifico/noticias/hermanamiento-santiago-beijing-resultados
                                                                                                                                                                                        3. https://www.bcn.cl/observatorio/asiapacifico/noticias/iquique-nanning-hermanamiento-avances-2009
                                                                                                                                                                                        4. https://www.latercera.com/pulso/proyeccion-del-hermanamiento-local-entre-chile-y-china/
                                                                                                                                                                                        5. https://www.bcn.cl/portal/resultado-busqueda?texto=Hermanamiento&dc_source=&npagina=1&tipo_recurso=

                                                                                                                                                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                                                                                                                                                                          3.
                                                                                                                                                                                          Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                          In my country, politicians or government employees have taken trips to the PRC paid for by PRC-connected individuals or entities.

                                                                                                                                                                                          Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                          9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                          22 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                          1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                          12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                          7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                          3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                          16 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                          4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                          16 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                          73 countries answered this indicator; 9 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                          There is official data that backups the funding of PRC sponsored trips to China and the objectives of these trips. There is also proof of these trips impacting local politicians’ views on the PRC. This is a good question to measure influence and soft power from a practical view.

                                                                                                                                                                                          1. https://www.camara.cl/transparencia/listadodeviajes.aspx
                                                                                                                                                                                          2. https://www.leylobby.gob.cl/instituciones/CT001/cargos-pasivos/166548/viajes
                                                                                                                                                                                          3. https://pcchile.cl/historico/2019/08/23/comunicado-publico-visita-a-china-de-parlamentarios-pc/
                                                                                                                                                                                          4. https://dialogopolitico.org/wp-content/uploads/2021/02/DP-Enfoque.-Cardenal.-2021.-The-art-of-making-friends.pdf

                                                                                                                                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                                                                                                                                                                            4.
                                                                                                                                                                                            Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                            In my country, politicians or government employees visit the PRC and have meetings with PRC officials and think tanks.

                                                                                                                                                                                            Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                            1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                            1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                            1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                            9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                            14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                            3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                            25 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                            4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                            32 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                            81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                            It is common for Chilean politicians to have meetings with PRC officials and Think Tanks. It is also common for them to attend to events hold or sponsored by Chinese institutions. Nevertheless, this is also true for other countries’ institutions. There should be a differentiator to confirm why it is different to meet PRC entities or, for example, western Think Tanks. This will make a stronger point in the thesis of potential impact from the PRC across the world.

                                                                                                                                                                                            1. https://www.camara.cl/transparencia/listadodeviajes.aspx
                                                                                                                                                                                            2. https://prensa.presidencia.cl/discurso.aspx?id=94863
                                                                                                                                                                                            3. https://pcchile.cl/historico/2019/08/23/comunicado-publico-visita-a-china-de-parlamentarios-pc/
                                                                                                                                                                                            4. http://cl.china-embassy.org/esp/sgxw/t1588109.htm

                                                                                                                                                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                                                                                                                                                                              5.
                                                                                                                                                                                              Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                              In my country, law enforcement and judicial related training offered the PRC-connected individuals or entities has been accepted by national or subnational governments.

                                                                                                                                                                                              Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 2 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                              1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                              46 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                              6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                              7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                              3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                              16 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                              6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                              81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                              The Police of Investigation has assisted 16 times to educational exchange between 2009 and 2013 with several national and subnational institutions in the PRC. This is part of a larger effort that includes exchange with many countries, including the US. This question should rather be in the Law Enforcement section. Also, information is not updated. For a more precise answer, researchers would need at least five months to send formal inquiries to these entities and the ministry in charge, so they can get a complete answer apart from the information available.

                                                                                                                                                                                              1. https://www.pdichile.cl/docs/default-source/revista-detective/157.pdf?sfvrsn=97291a7b_0
                                                                                                                                                                                              2. https://www.pdichile.cl/cuentapublica/2012/paginas/cooperacion_internacional.htm
                                                                                                                                                                                              3. https://twitter.com/PDI_CHILE/status/1075797984502272002

                                                                                                                                                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                6.
                                                                                                                                                                                                Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                In my country, there are reports of politicians or political parties receiving campaign donations that originate in the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                                                No

                                                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                60 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                0 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                78 countries answered this indicator; 4 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                Servel (Chile´s national electoral service) has data available about the donations for political campaigns and candidates. According to the news report from link #3, in 2015 a special government commission proposed to end corporate donations to electoral campaigns, to prevent politicians from being captured by economic interests. The suggestion became law. Today only contributions from “natural persons” are allowed, not companies. Before 2015 it was possible to make donations under anonymity, leaving huge quantities of money without a clear source. Now corporations cannot give donations, but individuals can. Local media identified the biggest donor of the last election, among them were well-known representatives from the economic elite of Chile (link #4). No mention of foreigners. Considering the huge amount of document is possible that there were donations from other countries, but more time and staff is needed to review that data.

                                                                                                                                                                                                1. https://web.archive.org/web/20210219160040/https://elecciones2021.servel.cl/gasto-y-propaganda/

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                  7.
                                                                                                                                                                                                  Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                                  In my country, groups with reported links to the United Front Work Department (UFWD) have hosted fundraisings or have provided other forms of support for government employees, politicians or parties.

                                                                                                                                                                                                  No

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                  64 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                  6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                  1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                  10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                  1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                  82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                  There isn’t any information regarding contact between the UFWD and local politicians or support to local politicians by UF members.

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                      8.
                                                                                                                                                                                                      Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                                      In my country, groups with reported links to the United Front Work Department (UFWD) have made public statements opposing the candidacy of a local political candidate or party, claiming them being “anti-China”.

                                                                                                                                                                                                      No

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                      1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                      78 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                      2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                      0 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                      3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                      1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                      0 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                      81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                      There isn’t any information regarding contact between the UFWD and local politicians or support to local politicians by UF members. There isn’t any public intervention or support from any companies, or PRC individuals during the last campaign. Moreover, the main presidential candidate has rather portrayed a positive image from the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                          9.
                                                                                                                                                                                                          Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                          In my country, politicians or government employees have publicly expressed positive views of the PRC government.

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                          2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                          12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                          1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                          11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                          7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                          3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                          13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                          4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                          37 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                          80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                          There are mixed statements regarding the PRC. Even though there has been opposition to the CCP from the more liberal actors (Jaime Bellolio and Vlado Mirosevic), other politicians (including president Piñera) have defended the CCP government.

                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. https://www.diarioconcepcion.cl/pais/2019/04/25/pinera-sobre-regimen-en-china-cada-uno-tiene-el-sistema-politico-que-quiera-darse.html
                                                                                                                                                                                                          2. https://prensa.presidencia.cl/comunicado.aspx?id=169574
                                                                                                                                                                                                          3. https://www.pauta.cl/politica/cuales-son-modelos-partidos-comunistas-mundo-daniel-jadue-derechos-humanos

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                            10.
                                                                                                                                                                                                            Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                            In my country, politicians or government employees have received direct or deferred benefits from PRC-connected individuals or entities openly or covertly (e.g. have been appointed to lucrative positions as board members or consultants with PRC-invested firms, casinos, energy companies, etc.) during or in retirement from public office.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                            9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                            40 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                            1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                            7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                            0 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                            3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                            18 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                            4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                            8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                            73 countries answered this indicator; 9 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Powerful people are involved with PRC authorities and linked companies. They tend to be less judgmental of the CCP if they have economic interests in China.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. https://www.elmostrador.cl/destacado/2019/04/18/los-negocios-de-eduardo-frei-ruiz-tagle-en-asia-el-dc-de-oro-del-presidente-pinera/
                                                                                                                                                                                                            2. https://www.ciperchile.cl/2018/08/28/eduardo-frei-radiografia-a-las-redes-que-tejio-como-embajador-en-asia/
                                                                                                                                                                                                            3. https://www.cnnchile.com/pais/hijos-sebastian-pinera-reunion-china-tecnologia_20190428/
                                                                                                                                                                                                            4. https://www.chicit.cl/sitio/?p=13482

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                              11.
                                                                                                                                                                                                              Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                              In my country, security services (安保/保安) offered by private PRC companies are contracted by national or subnational governments.

                                                                                                                                                                                                              No

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                              67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                              3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                              2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                              3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                              7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                              3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                              82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Beyond CCTV camaras, I found no presence in Chile of Chinese security services that includes Chinese people acting as private guards.

                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. https://www.publimetro.cl/cl/noticias/2019/05/08/vehiculos-seguridad-china.html
                                                                                                                                                                                                              2. https://www.munistgo.cl/lanzamiento-del-plan-plaza-segura/

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                Foreign Policy

                                                                                                                                                                                                                The Foreign Policy Domain gauges PRC efforts to achieve diplomatic objectives by influencing key actors in the Index country.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                1.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                My country’s legislature has a joint parliamentary friendship group, committee or other forms of sub-organizations with PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                25 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                57 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                There parliamentary Chile-China groups mentioned above are both in the Chamber of Representatives (Diputados). There is no official group at the Chilean Senate.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. https://www.bcn.cl/observatorio/asiapacifico/noticias/diputado-issa-kort-50-aniversario-relaciones-china
                                                                                                                                                                                                                2. https://www.camara.cl/diputados/grupo_interparlamentario_integrantes.aspx?prmId=16&prmPage=1

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Representatives of a political party in my country’s national legislature have met officially with representatives of the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  20 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  40 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  With the arrival to Chile in 2018 of Chinese Ambassador Xu Bu (2018-2020), the embassy took a much more public and proactive role, compared to the low profile thar previous Chinese ambassadors had in Chile. Currently there is a new ambassador, Mr Niu Qingbao, has been keeping an active public presence, but much less confrontational than his predecessor.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. http://iquique.chineseconsulate.org/esp/zlgdt/t1610538.htm
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hYP_JXtoUkc
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  3. https://www.emol.com/noticias/Nacional/2019/09/03/960087/China-PS-Xu-Bu.html

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                    3.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    The PRC provides training to diplomats or civil servants on governance from my country (such as at 国家行政学院 or 中央党校).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 2 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    39 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    MOFCOM annually offers scholarships for courses or for continuing education in China for Chilean public servants in subject related to commerce. But so far, at least publicly, that level of engagement has not being repeated in other Ministries. Moreover, China is one among many countries that provide this kind of service. The US, Japan and Korea offer similar programs for public officials.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. https://www.agci.cl/becas/becas-para-chilenos
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2. https://www.agci.cl/index.php/becas/becas-para-chilenos/105-encuentra-tu-beca/1693-infobecach-2/?convid=4030&tipo=1
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    3. https://www.agci.cl/sala-de-prensa/1674-china-promueve-su-programa-de-becas-para-chilenos-en-encuentro-anual

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                      4.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      In my country, politicians or government employees have been pressured by PRC diplomats to change their political or diplomatic stances.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 2 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      41 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      With the arrival of Xu Bu as China’s ambassador to Chile, there was a more public intervention from the Chinese representative, in contrast to previous Chinese diplomats in Chile. Still, the cases were just a few. There is also information of the Chinese embassy pushing to prevent meetings between the former president Michele Bachelet and the Tibetan religious Leader Dalai Lama back in the 2000s, and of the embassy pushing to get meetings or deals regarding, for example, public tenders.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. https://www.24horas.cl/programas/elinformante/xu-bu-a-jaime-bellolio-cuando-un-diputado-viola-el-principio-de-una-sola-china-yo-tengo-que-contestar-3581211
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2. https://www.latercera.com/politica/noticia/china-presiona-revertir-acuerdo-parlamentario-chile-taiwan/156557/

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                        5.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Citizens of my country have been detained in PRC or denied exit visas, and believed to be suffering from unfair legal treatments for political reasons, a.k.a. “hostage diplomacy”.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        61 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        There have been some cases of Chileans arrested in the Chinese Mainland and Hong Kong, but none of those cases were related to political reasons. One was the arrest of a Chilean with an expired visa, and the other were charges for stealing in HK.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. https://www.scmp.com/news/hong-kong/law-and-crime/article/2174125/three-chilean-women-arrested-stealing-bag-containing
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2. https://www.latercera.com/noticia/chileno-detenido-en-region-afectada-por-terremoto-permanece-en-buen-estado/?outputType=amp

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                          6.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          The head of state, head of government or foreign minister of my country has denied Taiwan’s right to participate as a member, observer or guest in WHO.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          65 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          No official from the central government has publicly express any opinion about Taiwan’s participation at the WHO. Only on some occasions, few Members of Parliament expressed support for Taiwan.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. https://cooperativa.cl/noticias/mundo/organismos-internacionales/taiwan-pide-plena-participacion-en-la-oms/2021-04-26/170332.html
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2. https://www.facebook.com/2088942894511186/videos/383140813044261

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                            7.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            My country publicly supported the appointment of a PRC official to be the head of a United Nations agency (such as the FAO or ICAO) or other intergovernmental organizations (such as INTERPOL).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            62 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            73 countries answered this indicator; 9 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            There has been no public announcement of support from Chilean authorities to Chinese candidates to head FAO, ICAO or INTERPOL. In the link above, Peruvian media indicated that for the 2019 election of Qu Dongyu as new director of the FAO, Brazil, Venezuela , Peru and Nicaragua gave their support. Besides that, no mention of Chile in this issue was found.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. https://larepublica.pe/economia/2019/06/25/fao-elige-a-viceministro-chino-qu-dongyu-como-su-nuevo-director/?ref=lre

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                              8.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              My government has shown support of PRC's territorial claims (such as on the South China Sea arbitration ruling issued by the UNCLOS Arbitral Tribunal in July 2016; except claims over Taiwan, which are indirectly covered in indicator 6.)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Silence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              0/ My country has rejected PRC’s claim

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              24 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2/ My country has remained silent

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              36 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              4/ My country has adhered to PRC’s claim

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              There haven’t been any statements from Chilean authorities in support or against China’s claims over the South China Sea. The author only found the article above with a list of countries that publicly supported China’s claims: from South America, only Venezuela is in this list.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. https://thediplomat.com/2016/07/who-supports-china-in-the-south-china-sea-and-why/

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                9.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                My country has shown one of the following stances on PRC’s treatment of its Uyghur population.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Silence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                0/ My country has denounced PRC

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                31 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2/ My country has remained silent

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                32 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                4/ My country has voiced support to PRC’s stance

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                17 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                No records of any public statement from Chilean authorities in relation to Beijing’s treatment of its Uyghur population were found. In link #2 you can find an article from the Chinese Foreign Affairs Ministry about a visit to Urumqi, Turpan and Hotan (all cities in Xinjiang) by Latin American diplomatic representatives. The article has a positive take on Xinjiang's development, with a picture showing a smiling Chilean Ambassador to China, Luis Schmidt, as part of the trip. Former Chilean president Michele Bachelet has spoken about her concerns of what is happening in Xinjiang, but those declarations were made from her current position as United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. https://www.latercera.com/politica/noticia/pinera-defiende-relaciones-diplomaticas-china-uno-sistema-politico-quiera-darse/629060/
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2. https://www.fmprc.gov.cn/mfa_eng/wjdt_665385/wshd_665389/t1876862.shtml

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  10.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  My country has shown one of the following stances on PRC’s treatment of its Tibet population.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Silence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  0/ My country has denounced PRC

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2/ My country has remained silent

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  46 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  4/ My country has voiced support to PRC’s stance

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Only a few public statements by Chilean authorities in relation to China’s policy on Tibet or the Dalai Lama have been issued in the last years. In a visit to Chile in 2006 (which lies outside the time scope of this study), the Dalai Lama’s delegation requested a meeting with then President Michelle Bachelet, but it was canceled at last minute because of internal pressure. Moreover, in 2008 after that year’s Tibet incidents, the Chinese ambassador of the time, Liu Yuqin, was interviewed and defended China’s position and condemned the reactions against her country. After asked to give their position, the Chilean Government said that they were sorry about what was happening in that area but that the Chilean Government agreed to and defended the One China Principle.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. https://www.cooperativa.cl/noticias/sociedad/religion/presidenta-bachelet-no-se-reunira-con-el-dalai-lama/2006-05-03/155027.html
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2. https://www.bcn.cl/observatorio/asiapacifico/noticias/entrevista-liu-yuquin-tibet
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  3. https://www.elmostrador.cl/noticias/pais/2008/03/27/chile-lamenta-violencia-en-tibet-pero-apoya-politica-de-una-sola-china/

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    11.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    My government has not publicly criticized the PRC’s imposition of the National Security Law on Hong Kong.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Silence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    0/ My country has denounced PRC

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    24 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2/ My country has remained silent

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    36 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    4/ My country has voiced support to PRC’s stance

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    In one of the few comments made by any Chilean government official on the issue of human rights in Hong Kong, then Chilean Foreign Minister Teodoro Ribera declared that for Beijing, the subject of Taiwan, Tibet and Hong Kong is a highly sensitive one, and specified that Chile "accepts, values and recognizes China's territorial integrity [...] in this matter there are not two readings (to its position)", he insisted.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. https://www.cnnchile.com/lodijeronencnn/entrevista-canciller-teodoro-ribera-fallo-suprema_20191009/
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2. https://www.pauta.cl/politica/intervencion-de-canciller-en-disputa-entre-embajador-y-diputado

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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