Bosnia and Herzegovina

$6,916.4
3.26M
Ranking
70/ 82
Original Score

* As some Indicators can be skipped where data is unavailable, the maximum overall and Domain scores are not identical for each country. Country rankings are generated from ratios of the maximum scores and the achieved scores.

72/ 380
Executive partner
Sinopsis
Index Year
2021
Layer Scores

The Indicators have been classified by the stage of the influence process at which they occur. Some Indicators correspond to exposure to PRC influence, e.g. the presence of Confucius Institutes. Others test for pressure – such as visa denials to academics or journalists. Finally, some Indicators capture the effect of PRC influence, such as national policy changes in favor of PRC interests.
The individual Layer scores for each country are tallied and displayed via rankings.

Exposure

24%

Exposure assesses the conditions that make the target country vulnerable to PRC's influence, e.g. in terms of economic dependence, or the receiving of some form of benefit.

Pressure

0%

Pressure measures the actions that the PRC directly or indirectly exerts over the target country in order to change the behavior of people in the target country, e.g. in terms of threatening economic punishment to provoke/prevent a political decision.

Effect

16%

Effect evaluates the degree of accommodations the target country makes to the PRC, and the actual effects and impacts on the target country.

In 2021, Bosnia and Herzegovina had a GDP per capita of US$6,916.40 and a total population of 3.26 million people.

Bosnia and Herzegovina established diplomatic relations with the People's Republic of China in 1995. Bosnia and Herzegovina was ranked 67th in Reporters Without Borders' 2022 World Press Freedom Index, and partly free in Freedom House's 2022 Global Freedom Status, with a score of 53/100.

Domain Scores
Country Percentage
Index Average

Percentage scores do not suggest some degree out of a “completely influenced” level of 100%. The percentages express the country’s score out of the total achievable amount based on the Indicators for each Domain.

  • Media
    15.9% / 30.1%
  • Academia
    36.1% / 34%
  • Economy
    9.1% / 33.6%
  • Society
    11.1% / 23.6%
  • Military
    0.0% / 23.4%
  • Law Enforcement
    18.2% / 30.2%
  • Technology
    34.1% / 40.8%
  • Domestic Politics
    40.9% / 37.2%
  • Foreign Policy
    6.8% / 41%

Media

The Media Domain evaluates how PRC entities influence public debate and media coverage about the PRC in the Index country.

1.
Exposure

In my country, there are media organizations that belong to the World Chinese Media (世界华文媒体) network.

No

Answer ( 0 / 4 )

More

Skipped

2 countries chose this answer

0/ No

42 countries chose this answer

1/ Few, but insignificant

19 countries chose this answer

2/ More than a few, but insignificant

4 countries chose this answer

3/ Few, but significant

13 countries chose this answer

4/ More than a few, and significant

2 countries chose this answer

80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

Supporting Evidence

The structure section on the official World Chinese Media website contains no information that any organization from BiH is part of this network. The search in local languages also does not offer any data. Additionally, the only local online news outlet which reports on China (Kina Danas Link) was contacted, but they never responded to the question if they were members of the network.

  1. https://worldchinesemedia.com/2015/05/12/56/

    Answered by Tobiáš Lipold, Amina Celikovic, Selma Asceric, Darko Brkan, Emir Velic, Semir Dzebo, Aldin Karahasanovic and Emir Muric, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

    Hide
    2.
    Exposure

    In my country, there are journalists or media organizations which are members of the Belt and Road Media Cooperation Alliance/Union, the Belt and Road News Alliance, or other Belt and Road media networks that connected to PRC (e.g. Belt and Road Media Community, Belt and Road Journalists Network, Belt and Road News Network, or B&R TV Networks).

    Yes

    Answer ( 1 / 4 )

    More

    Skipped

    1 countries chose this answer

    0/ No

    39 countries chose this answer

    1/ Few, but insignificant

    23 countries chose this answer

    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

    4 countries chose this answer

    3/ Few, but significant

    14 countries chose this answer

    4/ More than a few, and significant

    1 countries chose this answer

    81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

    Supporting Evidence

    Above mentioned media outlets are not popular and/or influential among the local media consumers. The magazine Glas Kine is quite new, its first issue was published in December 2020. The online news website Kina Danas was launched in 2015 and it reports on various China related issues. Anyhow, it’s not a daily news website. Also, it has only around 600 followers on their official page on Facebook - which is the most popular social media in the country.

    1. http://www.kina-danas.com/
    2. http://pojasiput.ba/wp-content/uploads/2020/12/GlasKine-01-small-1.pdf

      Answered by Tobiáš Lipold, Amina Celikovic, Selma Asceric, Darko Brkan, Emir Velic, Semir Dzebo, Aldin Karahasanovic and Emir Muric, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

      Hide
      3.
      Exposure

      In my country, there are journalists, media organizations or online influencers who have attended all-expenses paid media tours in PRC.

      No

      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

      More

      Skipped

      11 countries chose this answer

      0/ No

      15 countries chose this answer

      1/ Few, but insignificant

      15 countries chose this answer

      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

      5 countries chose this answer

      3/ Few, but significant

      23 countries chose this answer

      4/ More than a few, and significant

      13 countries chose this answer

      71 countries answered this indicator; 11 countries skipped this indicator

      Supporting Evidence

      There isn’t any available online data which could support the claim, so several different organizations and institutions were contacted, including the Chinese embassy in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The only organisation which responded to our inquiries is Mediacentar Online(Link), a local organization specialized in different journalism and media training programs. They said that they don’t have any knowledge or data about local journalists, media organizations or online influencers who have attended all-expenses paid media tours in PRC. The second answer we have received was from a local online news outlet which reports on China, Kina Danas. They said that, before the Covid-19 pandemic, journalists from Bosnia and Herzegovina “were occasionally invited for a short visit to China”.

          Answered by Tobiáš Lipold, Amina Celikovic, Selma Asceric, Darko Brkan, Emir Velic, Semir Dzebo, Aldin Karahasanovic and Emir Muric, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

          Hide
          4.
          Exposure

          In my country, there are journalists, media organizations or online influencers who have received trainings from PRC state-owned media or PRC-connected entities.

          No

          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

          More

          Skipped

          3 countries chose this answer

          0/ No

          37 countries chose this answer

          1/ Few, but insignificant

          16 countries chose this answer

          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

          2 countries chose this answer

          3/ Few, but significant

          14 countries chose this answer

          4/ More than a few, and significant

          10 countries chose this answer

          79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

          Supporting Evidence

          There isn't any available online data which could support the claim.

            Supplementary Notes

            So several different organizations and institutions were contacted, including the Chinese embassy in Bosnia and Herzegovina.The only organisation which responded to our inquiries is Mediacentar Online, a local organization specialized in different journalism and media training programs. They said that they don't have any knowledge or data about these trainings.

              Answered by Tobiáš Lipold, Amina Celikovic, Selma Asceric, Darko Brkan, Emir Velic, Semir Dzebo, Aldin Karahasanovic and Emir Muric, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

              Hide
              5.
              Exposure

              In my country, PRC state-media (including print, radio, and video) is broadcasted or distributed in a local language.

              Yes

              Answer ( 4 / 4 )

              More

              Skipped

              1 countries chose this answer

              0/ No

              24 countries chose this answer

              1/ Few, but insignificant

              22 countries chose this answer

              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

              7 countries chose this answer

              3/ Few, but significant

              18 countries chose this answer

              4/ More than a few, and significant

              10 countries chose this answer

              81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

              Supporting Evidence

              Along with the above mentioned news agencies, many local media regularly publish media content produced by Chinese news agency Xinhua.

              1. https://nap.ba/news/38892
              2. https://www.capital.ba/potpisan-ugovor-o-saradnji-agencija-srna-i-sinhua/
              3. https://www.bljesak.info/vijesti/flash/fena-i-xinhua-potpisale-sporazum-o-saradnji/12670
              4. http://www.kina-danas.com/?s=xinhua

                Answered by Tobiáš Lipold, Amina Celikovic, Selma Asceric, Darko Brkan, Emir Velic, Semir Dzebo, Aldin Karahasanovic and Emir Muric, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                Hide
                6.
                Exposure

                In my country, there are local media outlets wholly or partly owned by PRC citizens or corporations.

                No

                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                More

                Skipped

                2 countries chose this answer

                0/ No

                44 countries chose this answer

                1/ Few, but insignificant

                19 countries chose this answer

                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                3 countries chose this answer

                3/ Few, but significant

                14 countries chose this answer

                4/ More than a few, and significant

                0 countries chose this answer

                80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                Supporting Evidence

                There is no available data on the claim of ownership. Anyhow, the organization “Pojas i put” (the publisher of Glas Kine) has a website section in which several state owned PRC corporations are stated as partners and sponsors of their projects.

                1. http://pojasiput.ba/partneri-i-sponzori/poduzeca/

                  Answered by Tobiáš Lipold, Amina Celikovic, Selma Asceric, Darko Brkan, Emir Velic, Semir Dzebo, Aldin Karahasanovic and Emir Muric, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                  Hide
                  7.
                  Exposure

                  In my country, there are media outlets that have delivered cheap or free contents provided by PRC state-fund media.

                  Yes

                  Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                  More

                  Skipped

                  3 countries chose this answer

                  0/ No

                  22 countries chose this answer

                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                  21 countries chose this answer

                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                  6 countries chose this answer

                  3/ Few, but significant

                  23 countries chose this answer

                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                  7 countries chose this answer

                  79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                  Supporting Evidence

                  The media outlets delivering free content from the Chinese state-owned media are Kina Danas and Glas Kine. Their sources are various state-owned media such as Xinhua, China Radio International, Global Times, China Daily and China Global Television Network.

                  1. http://www.kina-danas.com/prvi-slucaj-covid-19-lokalne-zaraze-u-francuskoj-pojavio-se-vec-se-na-kraju-prosinca/
                  2. http://www.kina-danas.com/xi-jinping-poziva-politicke-partije-da-preuzmu-odgovornost-za-dobrobit-ljudi/
                  3. http://www.kina-danas.com/kina-objavila-bijelu-knjigu-o-zaposlenju-i-radnim-pravima-u-autonomnoj-regiji-ujgura-xinjiang/
                  4. http://pojasiput.ba/wp-content/uploads/2020/12/GlasKine-01-small-1.pdf

                    Answered by Tobiáš Lipold, Amina Celikovic, Selma Asceric, Darko Brkan, Emir Velic, Semir Dzebo, Aldin Karahasanovic and Emir Muric, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                    Hide
                    8.
                    Exposure

                    In my country, there are regular PRC state-media or government advertisements inserted within local newspapers, online news websites or social media.

                    Yes

                    Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                    More

                    Skipped

                    1 countries chose this answer

                    0/ No

                    38 countries chose this answer

                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                    13 countries chose this answer

                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                    7 countries chose this answer

                    3/ Few, but significant

                    15 countries chose this answer

                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                    8 countries chose this answer

                    81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                    Supporting Evidence

                    Some advertisement of PRC government owned corporations can be found on the front page of news outlet Kina Danas.

                    1. http://www.kina-danas.com/

                      Answered by Tobiáš Lipold, Amina Celikovic, Selma Asceric, Darko Brkan, Emir Velic, Semir Dzebo, Aldin Karahasanovic and Emir Muric, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                      Hide
                      9.
                      Pressure

                      In my country, there are journalists who have had pressure exerted on them by the PRC, including (but not limited to) public denouncement, revocation of journalist ID, denial of visa.

                      No

                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                      More

                      Skipped

                      1 countries chose this answer

                      0/ No

                      57 countries chose this answer

                      4/ Yes

                      24 countries chose this answer

                      81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                      Supporting Evidence

                      There is no public data on the claim. The Chinese embassy and several other organizations and institutions were contacted, but we haven’t received any answers to support or deny the claim. The only answer we have received was from a local online news outlet which reports on China, Kina Danas (Link). They said that, in their knowledge, there are no journalists from Bosnia and Herzegovina residing in China, and that they have no record of visa denials or negative experiences from local journalists that have visited China.

                          Answered by Tobiáš Lipold, Amina Celikovic, Selma Asceric, Darko Brkan, Emir Velic, Semir Dzebo, Aldin Karahasanovic and Emir Muric, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                          Hide
                          10.
                          Effect

                          In my country, there are incidents of media outlets censoring views critical of the PRC government.

                          No

                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                          More

                          Skipped

                          4 countries chose this answer

                          0/ No

                          51 countries chose this answer

                          1/ Few, but insignificant

                          11 countries chose this answer

                          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                          3 countries chose this answer

                          3/ Few, but significant

                          9 countries chose this answer

                          4/ More than a few, and significant

                          4 countries chose this answer

                          78 countries answered this indicator; 4 countries skipped this indicator

                          Supporting Evidence

                          There is no available data of such incidents.

                              Answered by Tobiáš Lipold, Amina Celikovic, Selma Asceric, Darko Brkan, Emir Velic, Semir Dzebo, Aldin Karahasanovic and Emir Muric, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                              Hide
                              11.
                              Effect

                              In my country, there are media personalities (including reporters, journalists or commentators) or celebrities who deny the existence of human rights abuses in the PRC (e.g. a media personality that doubts there are re-education camps for Uyghurs in Xinjiang).

                              No

                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                              More

                              Skipped

                              2 countries chose this answer

                              0/ No

                              44 countries chose this answer

                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                              18 countries chose this answer

                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                              4 countries chose this answer

                              3/ Few, but significant

                              9 countries chose this answer

                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                              5 countries chose this answer

                              80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                              Supporting Evidence

                              There is no available data on the claim. On the contrary, there are however pundits that do talk about the human rights abuses in China occasionally.

                                  Answered by Tobiáš Lipold, Amina Celikovic, Selma Asceric, Darko Brkan, Emir Velic, Semir Dzebo, Aldin Karahasanovic and Emir Muric, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                  Hide

                                  Academia

                                  The Academia Domain measures how the PRC state attempts to restrict academic freedom by influencing or interfering with the Index country’s academic and educational activities.

                                  1.
                                  Exposure

                                  In my country, universities have established research partnerships with PRC-connected entities. (e.g. Huawei, Tencent or Alibaba)

                                  No

                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                  More

                                  0/ No

                                  9 countries chose this answer

                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                  11 countries chose this answer

                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                  6 countries chose this answer

                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                  31 countries chose this answer

                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                  25 countries chose this answer

                                  82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                  Supporting Evidence

                                  There is no evidence of such partnerships existing between Bosnian-Herzegovinian universities and PCR-connected entities, based on Google search of terms related to the question.

                                    Supplementary Notes

                                    Huawei did give scholarships to students of the University in Sarajevo (in the period of 2010-2014 Link and in the University of Banja Luka (since 2010 Link , 2018/2019 Link). The PCR has given scholarships to students as well (2018/2019 Link , 2019/2020 Link).

                                    1. http://old.unsa.ba/s/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=794&Itemid=348%29%2C
                                    2. https://www.unibl.org/sr-lat/univerzitet/donatori/kompanija-huawei
                                    3. https://www.hocu.ba/index.php/hocu.priliku/konkurs-za-huawei-stipendije-za-studente-univerziteta-u-banjoj-luci/
                                    4. https://agro.unibl.org/bs/program-stipendija-kineske-vlade/
                                    5. https://www.unsa.ba/en/node/1930

                                    Answered by Tobiáš Lipold, Amina Celikovic, Selma Asceric, Darko Brkan, Emir Velic, Semir Dzebo, Aldin Karahasanovic and Emir Muric, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                    Hide
                                    2.
                                    Exposure

                                    In my country, there are Confucius Institutes/Classrooms.

                                    Yes

                                    Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                    More

                                    0/ No

                                    5 countries chose this answer

                                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                                    14 countries chose this answer

                                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                    5 countries chose this answer

                                    3/ Few, but significant

                                    31 countries chose this answer

                                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                                    27 countries chose this answer

                                    82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                    Supporting Evidence

                                    There are two Confucius Institutes in BiH: One opened by the University in Sarajevo (link), the other by the University in Banja Luka (link). Both Institutes hold various activities, one of which is free Mandarin lessons. The Institute in Banja Luka even hosts competitions, and publishes some lessons about the Chinese culture online in the forms of videos, which makes them widely accessible. This Institute holds more activities and works to connect Serbian and Chinese cultures through better promotion. Lessons held at the University of Banja Luka regarding the Chinese history and culture were even broadcasted on Republika Srpska’s television RTRS (25 years of diplomatic relations between PCR and BiH, 2020, p.95). Thus being said, the Institute in Banja Luka shows significant importance, compared to the Sarajevo Institute.

                                    1. https://www.unsa.ba/novosti/konfucijev-institut-most-izmedu-akademskih-zajednica-bosne-i-hercegovine-i-kine
                                    2. https://www.ki.unibl.org/
                                    3. http://ba.chineseembassy.org/chn/sgxx/sghd/P020200930003905252470.pdf

                                      Answered by Tobiáš Lipold, Amina Celikovic, Selma Asceric, Darko Brkan, Emir Velic, Semir Dzebo, Aldin Karahasanovic and Emir Muric, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                      Hide
                                      3.
                                      Exposure

                                      My country plans to include, or does include, Chinese as a foreign language in K12 or primary education, and receives free or subsidized (e.g. offered below market price) educational books and teachers from PRC.

                                      Skip

                                      More

                                      Skipped

                                      1 countries chose this answer

                                      0/ No

                                      46 countries chose this answer

                                      4/ Yes

                                      35 countries chose this answer

                                      81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                      Supporting Evidence

                                      Not Found

                                      1. http://ba.chineseembassy.org/chn/sgxx/sghd/P020200930003905252470.pdf

                                      Supplementary Notes

                                      Apart from the classes offered by the Confucius Institutes, there are numerous courses on studying the Chinese language, such as BRAVO (Link) and Interlingua (Link) . Within the Faculty of Philosophy in the University in East Sarajevo, there is also the department for Chinese language (Link). Certain middle and secondary schools in the entity of Republika Srpska have had experimental classes of Chinese language. The classes were conducted in cooperation with the Confucius Institute in Banja Luka. However, it is unclear whether this cooperation continued after 2019/2020, and whether the books were received free from the PRC (25 years of diplomatic relations between PCR and BiH, 2020, p.74).

                                      1. https://bravo-bih.com/bravo-online-kurs-kineskog-jezika/
                                      2. https://www.interlingua.ba/kursevi/novo-kineski-jezik-a1-a2/
                                      3. https://www.ues.rs.ba/la/filozofski-fakultet-2/

                                      Answered by Tobiáš Lipold, Amina Celikovic, Selma Asceric, Darko Brkan, Emir Velic, Semir Dzebo, Aldin Karahasanovic and Emir Muric, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                      Hide
                                      4.
                                      Exposure

                                      In my country, one or more think tanks and academic research centers belong to PRC-affiliated networks/associations (such as: the Silk Road Think Tank Association, Silk Road Think Tank Network [SiLKS], Belt and Road Studies Network, University Alliance of the Silk Road, University Consortium of the 21st Century Maritime Silk Road).

                                      Yes

                                      Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                      More

                                      Skipped

                                      2 countries chose this answer

                                      0/ No

                                      40 countries chose this answer

                                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                                      17 countries chose this answer

                                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                      7 countries chose this answer

                                      3/ Few, but significant

                                      14 countries chose this answer

                                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                                      2 countries chose this answer

                                      80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                      Supporting Evidence

                                      In 2018, the Initiative “Belt and Road” (BRI) was formed in BiH. In the Collection “25 years of diplomatic relations between PCR and BiH”, it was explained as the “first specialized think-tank organization in BiH which deals exclusively with this initiative from an academic point of view while at the same time providing services to Chinese companies, such as state-owned companies (SOE), as well as small and medium enterprises (SMEs) (p. 74).” Other than that, BiH is a part of the “17+1” initiative, for which it is said to be “a concrete step for CASS in implementing the spirit of the Central Patry’s directive on strengthening the building of new think tanks”. However, these two are complementary since the “17+1” initiative is simply a mechanism of the BRI for Central and Eastern Europe.

                                      1. http://ba.chineseembassy.org/chn/sgxx/sghd/P020200930003905252470.pdf
                                      2. https://www.echo-wall.eu/guanxi-matters/chinas-new-think-tanks-europe

                                        Answered by Tobiáš Lipold, Amina Celikovic, Selma Asceric, Darko Brkan, Emir Velic, Semir Dzebo, Aldin Karahasanovic and Emir Muric, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                        Hide
                                        5.
                                        Exposure

                                        In my country, think tanks and academic research centers have received financial support from PRC-connected individuals or entities.

                                        Yes

                                        Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                        More

                                        Skipped

                                        10 countries chose this answer

                                        0/ No

                                        21 countries chose this answer

                                        1/ Few, but insignificant

                                        11 countries chose this answer

                                        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                        11 countries chose this answer

                                        3/ Few, but significant

                                        19 countries chose this answer

                                        4/ More than a few, and significant

                                        10 countries chose this answer

                                        72 countries answered this indicator; 10 countries skipped this indicator

                                        Supporting Evidence

                                        The think-tank Initiative “Belt and Road” is financed by numerous PCR-connected entities, such as Cosco Shipping, China Communications Construction Company, PowerChina, etc.

                                        1. https://pojasiput.ba/partneri-i-sponzori/poduzeca/

                                          Answered by Tobiáš Lipold, Amina Celikovic, Selma Asceric, Darko Brkan, Emir Velic, Semir Dzebo, Aldin Karahasanovic and Emir Muric, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                          Hide
                                          6.
                                          Exposure

                                          In my country, experts participate in PRC talent recruitment programs such as the Thousand Talents Program or Changjiang Scholars program.

                                          No

                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                          More

                                          Skipped

                                          3 countries chose this answer

                                          0/ No

                                          47 countries chose this answer

                                          1/ Few, but insignificant

                                          11 countries chose this answer

                                          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                          6 countries chose this answer

                                          3/ Few, but significant

                                          10 countries chose this answer

                                          4/ More than a few, and significant

                                          5 countries chose this answer

                                          79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                                          Supporting Evidence

                                          There is no evidence that experts from BiH have participated in such programs, based on available data.

                                              Answered by Tobiáš Lipold, Amina Celikovic, Selma Asceric, Darko Brkan, Emir Velic, Semir Dzebo, Aldin Karahasanovic and Emir Muric, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                              Hide
                                              7.
                                              Exposure

                                              In my country, scholars have taken trips to the PRC paid for by PRC-connected individuals or entities.

                                              Yes

                                              Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                              More

                                              Skipped

                                              13 countries chose this answer

                                              0/ No

                                              17 countries chose this answer

                                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                                              15 countries chose this answer

                                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                              11 countries chose this answer

                                              3/ Few, but significant

                                              12 countries chose this answer

                                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                                              14 countries chose this answer

                                              69 countries answered this indicator; 13 countries skipped this indicator

                                              Supporting Evidence

                                              Scholars from the Universities in Sarajevo and Banja Luka have visited the PRC numerous times (25 years of diplomatic relations between PCR and BiH, p.95). Such are the annual so-called “Summer camps of Chinese language” organized by the Confucius Institute in Sarajevo (2017, 2018, 2019)

                                              1. https://fbn.unibl.org/lat/2019/05/27/delegecija-univerziteta-u-banjoj-luci-posjetila-kinu/
                                              2. http://ba.chineseembassy.org/chn/sgxx/sghd/P020200930003905252470.pdf
                                              3. http://old.unsa.ba/s/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=3156
                                              4. https://www.unsa.ba/novosti/ljetni-kamp-kineskog-jezika-za-studente-i-srednjoskolce
                                              5. https://www.unsa.ba/index.php/novosti/poziv-za-podnosenje-prijava-za-ljetni-kamp-u-kini-2019

                                                Answered by Tobiáš Lipold, Amina Celikovic, Selma Asceric, Darko Brkan, Emir Velic, Semir Dzebo, Aldin Karahasanovic and Emir Muric, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                Hide
                                                8.
                                                Pressure

                                                In my country, organized PRC-connected student groups, such as Chinese Students and Scholars Associations (CSSAs), are involved in attempts to censor staff or students (e.g. by harassing students protesting human rights abuses in the PRC, or formally complaining about the identification of Taiwan as a country in lecture slides).

                                                No

                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                More

                                                Skipped

                                                1 countries chose this answer

                                                0/ No

                                                64 countries chose this answer

                                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                6 countries chose this answer

                                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                3 countries chose this answer

                                                3/ Few, but significant

                                                5 countries chose this answer

                                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                3 countries chose this answer

                                                81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                There is no evidence such a thing is happening, based on the online search and communication with professors from University of Sarajevo. In general, there is no reason for such censorship to happen in BiH. Based on the media articles, the society is more likely to support the people who fight against human rights abuses such as those related to the Uyghur population.

                                                    Answered by Tobiáš Lipold, Amina Celikovic, Selma Asceric, Darko Brkan, Emir Velic, Semir Dzebo, Aldin Karahasanovic and Emir Muric, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                    Hide
                                                    9.
                                                    Pressure

                                                    In my country, scholars or academics have been denied visas to travel to the PRC after expressing opinions or producing scholarship that is critical of the PRC.

                                                    Skip

                                                    More

                                                    Skipped

                                                    7 countries chose this answer

                                                    0/ No

                                                    64 countries chose this answer

                                                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                    1 countries chose this answer

                                                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                    0 countries chose this answer

                                                    3/ Few, but significant

                                                    6 countries chose this answer

                                                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                    4 countries chose this answer

                                                    75 countries answered this indicator; 7 countries skipped this indicator

                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                    Not Found

                                                      Supplementary Notes

                                                      There is no available data to answer this question.

                                                        Answered by Tobiáš Lipold, Amina Celikovic, Selma Asceric, Darko Brkan, Emir Velic, Semir Dzebo, Aldin Karahasanovic and Emir Muric, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                        Hide
                                                        10.
                                                        Effect

                                                        In my country, PRC-connected entities have been involved in school or university curriculum design, such as courses about East Asian history, modern politics, etc.

                                                        No

                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                        More

                                                        Skipped

                                                        2 countries chose this answer

                                                        0/ No

                                                        64 countries chose this answer

                                                        4/ Yes

                                                        16 countries chose this answer

                                                        80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                        No evidence suggesting this.

                                                          Supplementary Notes

                                                          There is no available data to answer this question.

                                                            Answered by Tobiáš Lipold, Amina Celikovic, Selma Asceric, Darko Brkan, Emir Velic, Semir Dzebo, Aldin Karahasanovic and Emir Muric, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                            Hide
                                                            11.
                                                            Effect

                                                            In my country, there are confirmed reports of teachers or professors avoiding the discussion of sensitive political issues (e.g. Uyghur re-education camps, Taiwan independence, Tiananmen Square Massacre).

                                                            No

                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                            More

                                                            Skipped

                                                            5 countries chose this answer

                                                            0/ No

                                                            65 countries chose this answer

                                                            1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                            1 countries chose this answer

                                                            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                            1 countries chose this answer

                                                            3/ Few, but significant

                                                            6 countries chose this answer

                                                            4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                            4 countries chose this answer

                                                            77 countries answered this indicator; 5 countries skipped this indicator

                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                            There is no evidence that suggests such things have happened, based on Google search, personal experience from studying social studies, and information from professors at the University of Sarajevo.

                                                              Supplementary Notes

                                                              As stated previously, there is no reason for such a thing to happen, especially because BiH is not involved in these issues.

                                                                Answered by Tobiáš Lipold, Amina Celikovic, Selma Asceric, Darko Brkan, Emir Velic, Semir Dzebo, Aldin Karahasanovic and Emir Muric, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                Hide

                                                                Economy

                                                                The Economy Domain measures the PRC’s economic leverage in the Index country, and how this is used to influence economic policy or corporate behavior in ways that favor the PRC.

                                                                1.
                                                                Exposure

                                                                The PRC is my country's number one trading partner (for trade in goods only).

                                                                No

                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                More

                                                                0/ No

                                                                51 countries chose this answer

                                                                4/ Yes

                                                                31 countries chose this answer

                                                                82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                According to the Agency for Statistics of Bosnia and Herzegovina (B&H), Germany was Bosnia and Herzegovina’s biggest trading partner in 2019 and 2020. The trade with Germany accounted for 12.95 % and 13.47 % of total trade in 2019 and 2020, respectively. PRC is B&H’s 7th biggest trading partner.

                                                                1. http://www.fipa.gov.ba/informacije/statistike/izvoz_uvoz/Statistika%20vanjske%20trgovine%202020%20veljaca%202021.pdf

                                                                  Answered by Tobiáš Lipold, Amina Celikovic, Selma Asceric, Darko Brkan, Emir Velic, Semir Dzebo, Aldin Karahasanovic and Emir Muric, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                  Hide
                                                                  2.
                                                                  Exposure

                                                                  PRC-connected entities own more than 50% of my country’s sovereign debt.

                                                                  No

                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                  More

                                                                  Skipped

                                                                  1 countries chose this answer

                                                                  0/ No

                                                                  77 countries chose this answer

                                                                  4/ Yes

                                                                  4 countries chose this answer

                                                                  81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                  According to the Ministry of Finance and Treasury of Bosnia and Herzegovina, the country’s total debt as of the first quarter of 2021 is 12.45 billion Bosnian convertible marks (BAM).[1] Of that debt 8.81 billion BAM is external while 3.6 billion BAM is internal. The biggest creditor of external debt is the European Investment Bank (EIB) at 2 billion BAM, followed by World Bank International Development Association (WBIDA) at 1.6 billion BAM, World Bank - International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (WBIBRD) at 1.15 billion BAM, International Monetary Fund at 912 billion BAM, and The Paris Club at 549 billion BAM.

                                                                  1. https://web.archive.org/web/20200101010000/https://www.mft.gov.ba/bos/images/stories/javni_dug/vanjski/2021/Quarterly%20overview%20of%20public%20debt%20of%20BIH%20-%20I%20quarter%20of%202021.pdf
                                                                  2. https://web.archive.org/web/20200101010000/https://www.mft.gov.ba/bos/images/stories/javni_dug/informacije/2021/april/Quarterly_report_on_external_debt_of_BH_I_quarter_of_2021._-_EN.pdf

                                                                    Answered by Tobiáš Lipold, Amina Celikovic, Selma Asceric, Darko Brkan, Emir Velic, Semir Dzebo, Aldin Karahasanovic and Emir Muric, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                    Hide
                                                                    3.
                                                                    Exposure

                                                                    The PRC is the top customer for my country’s extractive industries.

                                                                    No

                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                    More

                                                                    0/ No

                                                                    62 countries chose this answer

                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                    20 countries chose this answer

                                                                    82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                    According to the Agency for Statistics of Bosnia and Herzegovina report for 2019, the biggest importer of raw materials from Bosnia and Herzegovina was Slovenia at 89.4 million USD. PRC is not listed among the top 20 importers.

                                                                    1. https://bhas.gov.ba/data/Publikacije/Bilteni/2020/ETR_00_2019_TB_0_HR.pdf

                                                                      Answered by Tobiáš Lipold, Amina Celikovic, Selma Asceric, Darko Brkan, Emir Velic, Semir Dzebo, Aldin Karahasanovic and Emir Muric, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                      Hide
                                                                      4.
                                                                      Exposure

                                                                      In my country, PRC-related entities own, operate or substantially control critical infrastructure (e.g. ports, power plants, digital data centers, etc) or sensitive sectors (biotech, raw materials, etc.)

                                                                      No

                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                      More

                                                                      0/ No

                                                                      36 countries chose this answer

                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                      46 countries chose this answer

                                                                      82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                      While PRC-related entities are part of many infrastructure project in B&H, they do not own any of the infrastructure. Moreover, it should be noted that the majority of those projects are still in progress. Radio Free Europe, in June 2019, wrote about all the critical infrastructure projects in B&H in which PRC-related entities took part in. The private thermal power plant close to the city of Doboj in Republika Srpska (the majority Serb entity of Bosnia and Herzegovina) was the only infrastructure project that was completed at the time. 70 % of the funds (around 350 million EUR) came via the China Development Bank loan. The only critical infrastructure which may eventually fall under full control by a PRC-related entity is related to a lignite mine close to the city of Doboj. Namely, The Chinese Development Bank can take over full concession over this mine in case the current business group, owned by a Serbian businessman Vuk Hamović, cannot make the loan payments. PRC-related entities have a number of contracts signed with the authorities in Bosnia and Herzegovina regarding upcoming infrastructure projects. There is a 297 million Euro worth contract signed in 2018 with the Republika Srpska entity of Bosnia and Herzegovina regarding the building of a 40 kilometer stretch of highway between Banja Luka and Prijedor. The other major infrastructure project, the building of “Blok 7” of the Tuzla power plant, is in major danger of falling through due to the inability of the PRC-controlled entity to fulfill the obligations from the contract it signed with the government of the entity of Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina. The reason for their inability to fulfill the stipulations from the contract stems from General Electric’s pulling out of the project.

                                                                      1. https://www.slobodnaevropa.org/a/bih-china-interest-investments/30023757.html

                                                                      Supplementary Notes

                                                                      Since the question asks regarding the potential ownership of critical infrastructure by PRC-related entities, I think the appropriate answer is “NO” as there is no evidence of existing direct ownership of critical infrastructure. While PRC-related entities are involved in numerous infrastructure projects, there is no evidence that they own any of those. Nonetheless, if the “operate” part of the question should include their participation in ongoing infrastructure projects as companies conducting the construction work, then the answer should be changed to “YES” since there is plentiful evidence of them being involved in major infrastructure projects. Moreover, the contract signed regarding the building of 40 kilometers of highway is based on the understanding that the PRC-related entity would operate it for a period of time once it is completed. However, my judgment here was that since the project has not been completed yet, it should be treated as an infrastructure project that is substantially controlled or operated by a PRC-related entity. In case I have misunderstood the wording of the indicator, I would be willing to change the influence measure if it is supposed to include unfinished and future projects (or projects where PRC-related entities are taking part in as contractors).

                                                                        Answered by Tobiáš Lipold, Amina Celikovic, Selma Asceric, Darko Brkan, Emir Velic, Semir Dzebo, Aldin Karahasanovic and Emir Muric, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                        Hide
                                                                        5.
                                                                        Exposure

                                                                        My country joined (or applied to join) the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB).

                                                                        No

                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                        More

                                                                        0/ No

                                                                        27 countries chose this answer

                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                        55 countries chose this answer

                                                                        82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                        According to the list available on the website of the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank, as of June 28th, 2021, Bosnia and Herzegovina is neither a regional member, non-regional member, or a prospective member of this organization.

                                                                        1. https://www.aiib.org/en/about-aiib/governance/members-of-bank/index.html

                                                                          Answered by Tobiáš Lipold, Amina Celikovic, Selma Asceric, Darko Brkan, Emir Velic, Semir Dzebo, Aldin Karahasanovic and Emir Muric, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                          Hide
                                                                          6.
                                                                          Exposure

                                                                          In my country, major businesses are members of the Silk Road Chamber of International Commerce, or of the Belt and Road Industrial and Commercial Alliance, or of the Belt and Road General Chamber of Commerce.

                                                                          Yes

                                                                          Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                          More

                                                                          0/ No

                                                                          41 countries chose this answer

                                                                          4/ Yes

                                                                          41 countries chose this answer

                                                                          82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                          Supporting evidence: Members of the Silk Road Chamber of International Commerce include Foreign Trade Chamber of Bosnia and Herzegovina. The members of the Foreign Trade Chamber of Bosnia and Herzegovina include "companies, banks, insurance companies and other legal entities registered to conduct business with foreign countries in Bosnia and Herzegovina".

                                                                          1. http://www.srcic.com/silk-road-members/
                                                                          2. https://www.komorabih.ba/clanovi-komore-su/

                                                                          Supplementary Notes

                                                                          No Info

                                                                            Answered by Tobiáš Lipold, Amina Celikovic, Selma Asceric, Darko Brkan, Emir Velic, Semir Dzebo, Aldin Karahasanovic and Emir Muric, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                            Hide
                                                                            7.
                                                                            Pressure

                                                                            My country has been the target of PRC economic coercion (e.g. trade or investment sanctions) that was specifically tailored at products or services that are highly dependent on the PRC market.

                                                                            No

                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                            More

                                                                            0/ No

                                                                            64 countries chose this answer

                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                            18 countries chose this answer

                                                                            82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                            There is no evidence of any sanctions or economic coercion on the part of PRC targeted at Bosnia and Herzegovina or business entities in Bosnia and Herzegovina.

                                                                                Answered by Tobiáš Lipold, Amina Celikovic, Selma Asceric, Darko Brkan, Emir Velic, Semir Dzebo, Aldin Karahasanovic and Emir Muric, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                Hide
                                                                                8.
                                                                                Pressure

                                                                                In my country, local businesses have been harassed, threatened, or boycotted, due to their activities or statements in support of causes deemed unacceptable by the PRC government (e.g. Taiwanese independence, Hong Kong democracy, Tibet or Xinjiang issues, etc).

                                                                                No

                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                More

                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                65 countries chose this answer

                                                                                4/ Yes

                                                                                15 countries chose this answer

                                                                                80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                There has been no notable evidence of any businesses in Bosnia and Herzegovina that have taken a stance on any of the issues deemed unacceptable by the PRC government. Hence, no harassment, threats, or boycott ever took place.

                                                                                  Supplementary Notes

                                                                                  Bosnia and Herzegovina lacks internationally recognizable businesses and/or brands which might be pressured into potentially making a stance on the issues stated in this question. Moreover, the business community in the country does not have a strong tradition of taking stances on matters of social issues of geopolitical relevance, especially those that are perceived as “far” and “unrelated” to Bosnia and Herzegovina.

                                                                                    Answered by Tobiáš Lipold, Amina Celikovic, Selma Asceric, Darko Brkan, Emir Velic, Semir Dzebo, Aldin Karahasanovic and Emir Muric, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                    9.
                                                                                    Effect

                                                                                    My country has free-trade agreement(s) with the PRC (either bilateral or as part of regional agreement(s)) that primarily deals with trade in goods or services, including digital goods or services.

                                                                                    No

                                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                    More

                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                    51 countries chose this answer

                                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                                    31 countries chose this answer

                                                                                    82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                    According to the PRV Ministry of Commerce, there is no FTA between PRC and Bosnia and Herzegovina. Their website lists all FTAs, both active ones and those currently in the process of negotiations, that PRC signed/is negotiation with other countries. Bosnia and Herzegovina cannot be found on either list.

                                                                                    1. http://fta.mofcom.gov.cn/english/fta_qianshu.shtml

                                                                                      Answered by Tobiáš Lipold, Amina Celikovic, Selma Asceric, Darko Brkan, Emir Velic, Semir Dzebo, Aldin Karahasanovic and Emir Muric, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                      10.
                                                                                      Effect

                                                                                      In my country, central or local governments have relaxed or removed regulatory restrictions, or have established special economic zones (or free trade zones, industrial parks, etc.) to attract investments or economic participation from the PRC.

                                                                                      No

                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                      More

                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                      47 countries chose this answer

                                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                                      35 countries chose this answer

                                                                                      82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                      No evidence of this.

                                                                                          Answered by Tobiáš Lipold, Amina Celikovic, Selma Asceric, Darko Brkan, Emir Velic, Semir Dzebo, Aldin Karahasanovic and Emir Muric, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                          11.
                                                                                          Effect

                                                                                          In my country, PRC-connected entities requisitioned infrastructure or land for failure to repay debts in a timely manner.

                                                                                          No

                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                          More

                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                          2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                          76 countries chose this answer

                                                                                          4/ Yes

                                                                                          4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                          80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                          While PRC-connected entities are involved in infrastructure project in Bosnia and Herzegovina, only one of those projects has been fully completed. Consequently, there was little room for PRC-connected entities to requisition infrastructure or land. There is only one critical infrastructure project which may eventually fall under full control by a PRC-related entity and it is related to a lignite mine close to the city of Doboj.[2]

                                                                                              Answered by Tobiáš Lipold, Amina Celikovic, Selma Asceric, Darko Brkan, Emir Velic, Semir Dzebo, Aldin Karahasanovic and Emir Muric, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                              Hide

                                                                                              Society

                                                                                              The Society Domain measures the extent and effectiveness of the PRC’s efforts to advance its soft power in the Index country, including its influence over the actions and views of local organizations and citizens.

                                                                                              1.
                                                                                              Exposure

                                                                                              In my country, there are local groups or organizations with words like “Promotion of Peaceful Reunification” in their name, and they regularly publicize their views on Taiwan, Hong Kong, Tibet and Xinjiang issues.

                                                                                              No

                                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                              More

                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                              1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                              49 countries chose this answer

                                                                                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                              12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                              7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                              3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                              9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                              4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                              81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                              There is no evidence that such organizations exist in BiH, based on available data. As it is stated in the “25 years of diplomatic relations between PCR and BiH”, page 75, these topics are usually seen in the media with a negative context towards the PCR. There is not enough support amongst people for the Chinese reunification and similar domestic problems.

                                                                                              1. http://ba.chineseembassy.org/chn/sgxx/sghd/P020200930003905252470.pdf

                                                                                                Answered by Tobiáš Lipold, Amina Celikovic, Selma Asceric, Darko Brkan, Emir Velic, Semir Dzebo, Aldin Karahasanovic and Emir Muric, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                2.
                                                                                                Exposure

                                                                                                In my country, there are members and member organizations of United World Chinese Association (世界华人协会).

                                                                                                No

                                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                More

                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                62 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                4/ Yes

                                                                                                19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                Based on the available data, nobody from BiH is a member of the United World Chinese Association.

                                                                                                    Answered by Tobiáš Lipold, Amina Celikovic, Selma Asceric, Darko Brkan, Emir Velic, Semir Dzebo, Aldin Karahasanovic and Emir Muric, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                    3.
                                                                                                    Exposure

                                                                                                    In my country, labor unions cooperate on exchanges or official visits to the All-China Federation of Trade Unions (ACFTU) in the PRC.

                                                                                                    No

                                                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                    1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                    68 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                                                    13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                    81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                    Based on the available data, labor unions from BiH and the PRC do not cooperate in such way.

                                                                                                        Answered by Tobiáš Lipold, Amina Celikovic, Selma Asceric, Darko Brkan, Emir Velic, Semir Dzebo, Aldin Karahasanovic and Emir Muric, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                        4.
                                                                                                        Exposure

                                                                                                        In my country, there are local reports of personnel linked to the UFWD who make appearances at Chinese diaspora community events and activities (e.g. Lunar New Year events, Dragon Boat festival tournaments, etc).

                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                        2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                        50 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                        1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                        9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                        5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                        3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                        9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                        4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                        7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                        80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                        Chinese diaspora community organises different events, such as the celebration of the Lunar New Year in 2018 in Banja Luka, and the Mid-Autumn Festival celebrated in Sarajevo; however, in the articles, it is not stated whether anybody from the present people are linked to the UFWD, nor was is able to acquire such information via Google.

                                                                                                        1. https://bhrt.ba/u-banjaluci-proslava-kineske-nove-godine/
                                                                                                        2. http://www.kina-danas.com/fotou-sarajevu-obiljezen-kineski-festival-sredine-jeseni/

                                                                                                          Answered by Tobiáš Lipold, Amina Celikovic, Selma Asceric, Darko Brkan, Emir Velic, Semir Dzebo, Aldin Karahasanovic and Emir Muric, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                          5.
                                                                                                          Exposure

                                                                                                          In my country, there are PRC-connected professional associations that are closely engaged with their counterparts locally, such as All-China Journalists Association (中华全国新闻工作者协会), China Artists Association (中国艺术家协会), China Writers Association (中国作家协会) or All-China Women Federation (全国妇联).

                                                                                                          No

                                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                          2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                          33 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                          1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                          25 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                          8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                          3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                          8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                          4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                          6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                          80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                          Based on available data, there are no such associations closely related to similar associations in BiH.

                                                                                                              Answered by Tobiáš Lipold, Amina Celikovic, Selma Asceric, Darko Brkan, Emir Velic, Semir Dzebo, Aldin Karahasanovic and Emir Muric, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                              6.
                                                                                                              Exposure

                                                                                                              In my country, PRC-connected individuals or entities donate money or provide other types of support to religious communities and charities.

                                                                                                              Yes

                                                                                                              Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                              1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                              46 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                              4/ Yes

                                                                                                              35 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                              81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                              The Chinese Embassy in Sarajevo has in March 2020 donated equipment in the value od 30.000 KM (cc. 18.000 USD) for the Center for Support for families with children and persons with difficulties in development "Cilibri"; in May 2021 the Embassy donated desinfectants in the value od 15.000 KM to the Islamic Community in BiH; Childer’s Choir of the Chinese city of Wuxi donated 42.000 masks to BiH in June 2020. There are also several reports from previous years which support the claim, such as: food packages for people who use Red Cross’ kitchen from the Chinese Embassy in Sarajevo in 2016; Embassy donated 40.000 USD for people who were hit by floods in 2011 and 10.000 KM in 2012; Association of Chinese Entrepreneurs donated clothing and toys in 2005 for children from socially endangered families, where the value of the donation was around 320.000 KM.

                                                                                                              1. http://www.centar.ba/novost/16242/vrijedna-donacija-ambasade-nr-kine-za-djecu-sa-poteskocama-u-razvoju
                                                                                                              2. https://www.islamskazajednica.ba/index.php/vijesti/aktuelno/29896-ambasada-kine-islamskoj-zajednici-donirala-dezinfekciona-sredstva
                                                                                                              3. https://www.sarajevotimes.com/162874-2/
                                                                                                              4. https://mrsri.ks.gov.ba/aktuelno/novosti-sa-vlade/donacija-ambasade-nr-kine-paketi-sa-hranom-za-korisnike-centralne-kuhinje
                                                                                                              5. https://ckfbih.ba/pomo-crvenog-krstakria-narodne-republike-kine-stanovnitvu-u-bih-pogoenom-poplavama/
                                                                                                              6. https://www.sarajevo.ba/hr/article/1247/za-socijalno-ugrozenu-djecu-sarajeva-donacija-kineskih-privrednika

                                                                                                                Answered by Tobiáš Lipold, Amina Celikovic, Selma Asceric, Darko Brkan, Emir Velic, Semir Dzebo, Aldin Karahasanovic and Emir Muric, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                7.
                                                                                                                Exposure

                                                                                                                In my country, the PRC government or PRC-connected entities distribute entertainment products (including: drama and TV shows) or related hardwares (e.g. OTT streaming players hosting PRC media channels) freely or at a cheap price.

                                                                                                                No

                                                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                38 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                There is no available data to support the claim.

                                                                                                                    Answered by Tobiáš Lipold, Amina Celikovic, Selma Asceric, Darko Brkan, Emir Velic, Semir Dzebo, Aldin Karahasanovic and Emir Muric, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                    8.
                                                                                                                    Effect

                                                                                                                    Cultural products (such as films and TV shows) produced by my country’s production studios typically portray the PRC in a positive light.

                                                                                                                    Skip

                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                    7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                    60 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                                                                    15 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                    75 countries answered this indicator; 7 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                    Not Found

                                                                                                                      Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                      Local production of cultural products such as films and TV shows is at the moment very modest. In addition to that, it doesn’t typically reflect or is connected to portrayals of China or Chinese people. Therefore, the question cannot be answered with yes nor with no.

                                                                                                                        Answered by Tobiáš Lipold, Amina Celikovic, Selma Asceric, Darko Brkan, Emir Velic, Semir Dzebo, Aldin Karahasanovic and Emir Muric, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                        9.
                                                                                                                        Effect

                                                                                                                        In my country, celebrities regularly publish or share propaganda narratives from the PRC.

                                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                        67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                        1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                        10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                        0 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                        3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                        3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                        4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                        2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                        82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                        There is no available public data on the claim.

                                                                                                                            Answered by Tobiáš Lipold, Amina Celikovic, Selma Asceric, Darko Brkan, Emir Velic, Semir Dzebo, Aldin Karahasanovic and Emir Muric, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                            10.
                                                                                                                            Effect

                                                                                                                            In my country, the national or local governments regularly publish or share propaganda narratives from the PRC (e.g. statements from the PRC government or embassies).

                                                                                                                            No

                                                                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                            2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                            54 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                            1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                            12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                            2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                            3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                            7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                            4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                            5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                            80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                            Though local governments do have good relations with the PRC, and there are statements of support to the PRC, it cannot be seen as propaganda.

                                                                                                                              Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                              Some of the examples of politician's statements of support for PRC include: - The Presidency of BiH did not reach an agreement regarding the accession of BiH to the statement on the alleged violation of human rights in China. The unilateral moves of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, which are nothing but interference in China's internal affairs, are inadmissible, unacceptable and result in serious disruption of good and friendly relations with China - Milorad Dodik, member of the Presidency of BiH (22.6.2021 Link) - In a very short time, you have achieved impressive results in alleviating and eradicating poverty and thus made a great contribution to the fight against poverty globally. I would like to take this opportunity to thank your country for supporting us in the most difficult times. Your help has always been timely, concrete, without conditions, but above all sincere and fraternal. - Milorad Dodik, member of the Presidency of BiH (9.2.2021 Link) - Although we have been given opportunities to learn more about China through various media and technologies, I want to go there to feel that wealth, the wealth in every sense. It will be an exceptional experience for me, especially considering that I come from a smaller, different country. A visit to Beijing, Shanghai or any other city will give me the opportunity to witness a growth trend. China has succeeded in this in a very short period of time. It has made great progress in the last 50 years. That can serve as a lesson to us. - Dragan Čović, former member of the Presidency of BiH (27.8.2015 Link)

                                                                                                                              1. https://avaz.ba/vijesti/bih/661071/dodik-podrska-kini-sda-se-predstavlja-kao-zastitnica-muslimana
                                                                                                                              2. https://www.bljesak.info/vijesti/politika/dodik-kinezima-o-buducnosti/338246
                                                                                                                              3. http://www.kina-danas.com/covic-nas-posjet-kini-otvorit-ce-mnoga-vrata-za-suradnju/

                                                                                                                              Answered by Tobiáš Lipold, Amina Celikovic, Selma Asceric, Darko Brkan, Emir Velic, Semir Dzebo, Aldin Karahasanovic and Emir Muric, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                              11.
                                                                                                                              Effect

                                                                                                                              In my country, a majority of citizens have positive views of the PRC government.

                                                                                                                              Skip

                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                              7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                              50 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                              4/ Yes

                                                                                                                              25 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                              75 countries answered this indicator; 7 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                              Not Found

                                                                                                                                Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                There are no data and/or surveys which can support or deny the claim.

                                                                                                                                  Answered by Tobiáš Lipold, Amina Celikovic, Selma Asceric, Darko Brkan, Emir Velic, Semir Dzebo, Aldin Karahasanovic and Emir Muric, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                  Hide

                                                                                                                                  Military

                                                                                                                                  The Military Domain gauges the bilateral military relationship between the PRC and the Index country, including PRC efforts to influence local military personnel.

                                                                                                                                  1.
                                                                                                                                  Exposure

                                                                                                                                  My country currently imports (or receives in-kind donation of) military or law-enforcement equipment or components of equipment from the PRC.

                                                                                                                                  No

                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                  36 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                  4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                  46 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                  82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                  There has been a donation of engineering machines and vehicles to the Armed Forces of BiH in March 2021, I am not sure whether this counts as an import.

                                                                                                                                  1. http://os.mod.gov.ba/vojni-portal/default.aspx?id=35186&langTag=bs-BA&template_id=181&pageIndex=1

                                                                                                                                    Answered by Tobiáš Lipold, Amina Celikovic, Selma Asceric, Darko Brkan, Emir Velic, Semir Dzebo, Aldin Karahasanovic and Emir Muric, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                    2.
                                                                                                                                    Exposure

                                                                                                                                    My country currently exports military or law-enforcement equipment or components of equipment to the PRC.

                                                                                                                                    No

                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                    1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                    74 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                    7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                    81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                    Foreign Trade Chamber of BiH claims that in 2020 BiH exported weapons only to South Africa among the BRICS countries.

                                                                                                                                    1. https://www.akta.ba/kapital/pregled-zemalja-gdje-bih-izvozi-oruzje-i-municiju-/125021

                                                                                                                                    Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                    Inquiry sent to the Foreign Trade Chamber of BiH, no answer received.

                                                                                                                                      Answered by Tobiáš Lipold, Amina Celikovic, Selma Asceric, Darko Brkan, Emir Velic, Semir Dzebo, Aldin Karahasanovic and Emir Muric, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                      3.
                                                                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                                                                      My country co-develops or co-produces military or law-enforcement equipment with the PRC.

                                                                                                                                      No

                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                                      1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                      66 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                      15 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                      81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                      .

                                                                                                                                          Answered by Tobiáš Lipold, Amina Celikovic, Selma Asceric, Darko Brkan, Emir Velic, Semir Dzebo, Aldin Karahasanovic and Emir Muric, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                                          4.
                                                                                                                                          Exposure

                                                                                                                                          In my country, there are reports that the PRC has expressed intentions or has taken actions to establish basing.

                                                                                                                                          No

                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                                                          2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                          67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                          4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                          13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                          80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                          .

                                                                                                                                              Answered by Tobiáš Lipold, Amina Celikovic, Selma Asceric, Darko Brkan, Emir Velic, Semir Dzebo, Aldin Karahasanovic and Emir Muric, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                                              5.
                                                                                                                                              Exposure

                                                                                                                                              In my country, the People’s Liberation Army (PLA) has participated in a humanitarian relief/disaster assistance (HADR) effort.

                                                                                                                                              No

                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                                              2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                              61 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                              4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                              19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                              80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                              The PRC government has, however, donated vaccines, protective masks, etc.

                                                                                                                                              1. https://www.slobodnaevropa.org/a/kina-vakcine-bih-donacija-sinofarm/31229832.html
                                                                                                                                              2. http://www.msb.gov.ba/vijesti/saopstenja/default.aspx?id=18933&langTag=bs-BA

                                                                                                                                                Answered by Tobiáš Lipold, Amina Celikovic, Selma Asceric, Darko Brkan, Emir Velic, Semir Dzebo, Aldin Karahasanovic and Emir Muric, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                6.
                                                                                                                                                Exposure

                                                                                                                                                In my country, People’s Liberation Army (PLA) military personnel are permanently or rotationally deployed (excluding defense attaches and peacekeepers).

                                                                                                                                                No

                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                77 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                .

                                                                                                                                                    Answered by Tobiáš Lipold, Amina Celikovic, Selma Asceric, Darko Brkan, Emir Velic, Semir Dzebo, Aldin Karahasanovic and Emir Muric, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                    7.
                                                                                                                                                    Exposure

                                                                                                                                                    In my country, members of the military have received professional military education from the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                    No

                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                    48 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                    34 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                    82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                    .

                                                                                                                                                        Answered by Tobiáš Lipold, Amina Celikovic, Selma Asceric, Darko Brkan, Emir Velic, Semir Dzebo, Aldin Karahasanovic and Emir Muric, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                                                        8.
                                                                                                                                                        Exposure

                                                                                                                                                        In my country, members of the military have received peacekeeping training from the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                                                        2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                                        67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                        13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                        80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                        .

                                                                                                                                                            Answered by Tobiáš Lipold, Amina Celikovic, Selma Asceric, Darko Brkan, Emir Velic, Semir Dzebo, Aldin Karahasanovic and Emir Muric, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                                            9.
                                                                                                                                                            Exposure

                                                                                                                                                            In my country, high-ranking retired or current military and/or intelligence officers have received direct or deferred benefits from PRC-connected individuals or entities openly or covertly (e.g. have been appointed to lucrative positions as board members or consultants with PRC-invested firms, casinos, energy companies, etc.) during or in retirement from public service.

                                                                                                                                                            No

                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                                                            4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                            67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                            11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                            78 countries answered this indicator; 4 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                            .

                                                                                                                                                                Answered by Tobiáš Lipold, Amina Celikovic, Selma Asceric, Darko Brkan, Emir Velic, Semir Dzebo, Aldin Karahasanovic and Emir Muric, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                                10.
                                                                                                                                                                Effect

                                                                                                                                                                In my country, high-ranking retired or current military and/or intelligence officials advocate for more coordination with the People’s Liberation Army (PLA).

                                                                                                                                                                No

                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                68 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                .

                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by Tobiáš Lipold, Amina Celikovic, Selma Asceric, Darko Brkan, Emir Velic, Semir Dzebo, Aldin Karahasanovic and Emir Muric, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                                    11.
                                                                                                                                                                    Effect

                                                                                                                                                                    My country cooperates with the People’s Liberation Army (PLA) on military exchange exercises, including drills and war games.

                                                                                                                                                                    No

                                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                    51 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                    31 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                    82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                    .

                                                                                                                                                                        Answered by Tobiáš Lipold, Amina Celikovic, Selma Asceric, Darko Brkan, Emir Velic, Semir Dzebo, Aldin Karahasanovic and Emir Muric, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                        Hide

                                                                                                                                                                        Law Enforcement

                                                                                                                                                                        The Law Enforcement Domain measures law enforcement cooperation between the PRC and the Index country, as well as the nature and extent of PRC-related criminal activity in the Index country.

                                                                                                                                                                        1.
                                                                                                                                                                        Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                        My country currently maintains an extradition treaty, legal mutual assistance or other similar arrangements with the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                        Yes

                                                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                        32 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                        50 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                        82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                        1) Agreement on Legal Assistance in Criminal Matters between Bosnia and Herzegovina and the PRC, dated 18.12.2012. ("Official Gazette of BiH - International Agreements" number: 18/13, entered into force on October 12, 2014); 2) Extradition Agreement between Bosnia and Herzegovina and PRC, dated 18.12.2012. ("Official Gazette of BiH - International Agreements" number: 18/13, entered into force on October 12, 2014); 3) Agreement on Legal Assistance in Civil and Commercial Matters between Bosnia and Herzegovina and PRC, dated 18.12.2012. ("Official Gazette of BiH - International Agreements" number: 18/13 entered into force on October 12, 2014).

                                                                                                                                                                        1. http://www.mpr.gov.ba/organizacija_nadleznosti/medj_pravna_pomoc/bilateralni_ugovori/ugovori/default.aspx?id=3813&langTag=bs-BA

                                                                                                                                                                          Answered by Tobiáš Lipold, Amina Celikovic, Selma Asceric, Darko Brkan, Emir Velic, Semir Dzebo, Aldin Karahasanovic and Emir Muric, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                                                                          2.
                                                                                                                                                                          Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                          In my country, law enforcement authorities have signed cooperation agreements with the PRC on combatting terrorism.

                                                                                                                                                                          No

                                                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                          1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                          55 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                          4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                          26 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                          81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                          A review of signed cooperation agreements (bilateral agreements between Bosnia and Herzegovina and the PRC) was performed on the official website of the Ministry of Justice of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

                                                                                                                                                                          1. http://www.mpr.gov.ba/organizacija_nadleznosti/medj_pravna_pomoc/bilateralni_ugovori/ugovori/default.aspx?id=3813&langTag=bs-BA
                                                                                                                                                                          2. http://www.vijeceministara.gov.ba/saopstenja/sjednice/zakljucci_sa_sjednica/Archive.aspx?langTag=bs-BA&pageIndex=1

                                                                                                                                                                          Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                          In order to check whether cooperation was initiated we made an insight into all held Sessions of the Council of Ministers of BiH (for the period January 2020 to March 2021).

                                                                                                                                                                            Answered by Tobiáš Lipold, Amina Celikovic, Selma Asceric, Darko Brkan, Emir Velic, Semir Dzebo, Aldin Karahasanovic and Emir Muric, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                                                            3.
                                                                                                                                                                            Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                            In my country, PRC-connected gangs (such as Triad, 三合会) are known to be operating in my country.

                                                                                                                                                                            No

                                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                            1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                            52 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                            29 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                            81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                            There are no official (publicly available) security or intelligence reports on this issue in Bosnia and Herzegovina.

                                                                                                                                                                                Answered by Tobiáš Lipold, Amina Celikovic, Selma Asceric, Darko Brkan, Emir Velic, Semir Dzebo, Aldin Karahasanovic and Emir Muric, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                4.
                                                                                                                                                                                Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                In my country, there are reports of economic espionage targeting the private sector that were suspected to benefit PRC-connected entities.

                                                                                                                                                                                No

                                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                49 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                There are no official (publicly available) security or intelligence reports on this issue in Bosnia and Herzegovina.

                                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by Tobiáš Lipold, Amina Celikovic, Selma Asceric, Darko Brkan, Emir Velic, Semir Dzebo, Aldin Karahasanovic and Emir Muric, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                    5.
                                                                                                                                                                                    Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                    In my country, there are reports of cyber attacks targeting government, critical infrastructure, or enterprises that were suspected to be initiated from the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                                    No

                                                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                    3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                    37 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                    9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                    4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                    3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                    14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                    15 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                    79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                    There are no official (publicly available) security or intelligence reports on this issue in Bosnia and Herzegovina.

                                                                                                                                                                                        Answered by Tobiáš Lipold, Amina Celikovic, Selma Asceric, Darko Brkan, Emir Velic, Semir Dzebo, Aldin Karahasanovic and Emir Muric, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                        6.
                                                                                                                                                                                        Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                        In my country, triads are known to have threatened or used violence to coerce, intimidate or punish Chinese dissidents.

                                                                                                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                        2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                        67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                        1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                        5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                        3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                        3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                        3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                        4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                        2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                        80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                        No evidence suggesting that.

                                                                                                                                                                                            Answered by Tobiáš Lipold, Amina Celikovic, Selma Asceric, Darko Brkan, Emir Velic, Semir Dzebo, Aldin Karahasanovic and Emir Muric, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                            7.
                                                                                                                                                                                            Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                            My country has deployed video or internet surveillance systems from the PRC for law enforcement.

                                                                                                                                                                                            Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                            1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                            30 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                            51 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                            81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                            In 2018, the Border Police of Bosnia and Herzegovina, with a donation from the PRC in the amount of 9.5 million KM, renewed a part of the specialist equipment for surveillance and border checks. This equipment is still in use.

                                                                                                                                                                                            1. http://www.granpol.gov.ba/data/documents/pdf/Brosura%20za%202019.godinu.pdf

                                                                                                                                                                                              Answered by Tobiáš Lipold, Amina Celikovic, Selma Asceric, Darko Brkan, Emir Velic, Semir Dzebo, Aldin Karahasanovic and Emir Muric, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                              8.
                                                                                                                                                                                              Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                              In my country, representatives of the PRC police force have had joint patrols with local law enforcement.

                                                                                                                                                                                              No

                                                                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                              71 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                              4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                              11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                              82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                              Bosnia and Herzegovina has not signed any agreements on joint police patrols.

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answered by Tobiáš Lipold, Amina Celikovic, Selma Asceric, Darko Brkan, Emir Velic, Semir Dzebo, Aldin Karahasanovic and Emir Muric, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                  9.
                                                                                                                                                                                                  Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                  My government has detained people at the request of the PRC for committing a crime involving engagements with social movements or resistance activities in Hong Kong, Xinjiang or for other human rights or civic rights issues.

                                                                                                                                                                                                  No

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                  1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                  68 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                  4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                  13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                  81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Official judicial authorities and the Border Police did not report such detentions between January 2020 and March 2021.

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by Tobiáš Lipold, Amina Celikovic, Selma Asceric, Darko Brkan, Emir Velic, Semir Dzebo, Aldin Karahasanovic and Emir Muric, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                      10.
                                                                                                                                                                                                      Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                      My country has deported Taiwan citizens to the PRC to face prosecution.

                                                                                                                                                                                                      No

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                      2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                      71 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                      9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                      80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                      The official judicial authorities, Border police or Service for foreigner's affairs did not report such detainees in the period January 2020 to March 2021.

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answered by Tobiáš Lipold, Amina Celikovic, Selma Asceric, Darko Brkan, Emir Velic, Semir Dzebo, Aldin Karahasanovic and Emir Muric, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                          11.
                                                                                                                                                                                                          Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                          My country has extradited or has deported individuals to the PRC, although such decisions had attracted criticisms from politicians, government employees or from local or foreign NGOs.

                                                                                                                                                                                                          No

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                          61 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                          4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                          21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                          82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                          The official judicial authorities did not report such detainees in the period January 2020 to March 2021.

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answered by Tobiáš Lipold, Amina Celikovic, Selma Asceric, Darko Brkan, Emir Velic, Semir Dzebo, Aldin Karahasanovic and Emir Muric, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Hide

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Technology

                                                                                                                                                                                                              The Technology Domain gauges the PRC’s influence over the technology sector in the Index country, including the activity and financial leverage of PRC companies, use of PRC hardware, and bilateral research partnerships.

                                                                                                                                                                                                              1.
                                                                                                                                                                                                              Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                              In my country, PRC-connected entities (such as China Mobile, China Unicom or China Telecom) or their subsidiaries provide telecom services.

                                                                                                                                                                                                              No

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                              52 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                              4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                              30 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                              82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Three most known telecom companies in Bosnia and Herzegovina are still, in their biggest parts, state-owned, while the other parts of their ownership structures have no connection with PRC, as evident by the information from the link above. Other important telecom services provider, Telemach, is a part of United Group(Link), owned by BC Partners(Link), British international investment firm. Other, less popular telecom services providers have no connection to the PRC-connected entities, nor their subsidiaries.

                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. https://inforadar.ba/za-i-protiv-privatizacije-bh-telecoma-kako-ce-zavrsiti-stranacka-zlatna-koka-ciji-se-profit-godinama-topi/

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answered by Tobiáš Lipold, Amina Celikovic, Selma Asceric, Darko Brkan, Emir Velic, Semir Dzebo, Aldin Karahasanovic and Emir Muric, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                2.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                In my country, telecoms have signed agreements to adopt hardwares or technical specifications of 4G or 5G cellular networks that are produced or developed by Huawei, ZTE or other PRC enterprises.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                16 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                27 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                30 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Provided links show that two of the most popular telecoms, BH Telecom and Telemach (referred as United, it’s parent company), have used Huawei’s products in development of their 5G cellular network infrastructures. There are no sources that would prove or deny that telecom service providers other than these two have adopted hardwareres or technical specifications of 4G or 5G cellular networks produced by PRC enterprises.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. https://www.sarajevotimes.com/bh-telecom-claims-it-is-technologically-ready-to-launch-5g-network/
                                                                                                                                                                                                                2. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-unitedgroup-huawei-idUSKBN2B21WO

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answered by Tobiáš Lipold, Amina Celikovic, Selma Asceric, Darko Brkan, Emir Velic, Semir Dzebo, Aldin Karahasanovic and Emir Muric, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  3.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  In my country, telecoms have adopted hardware or technical specifications by PRC-connected entities in internet/wifi/telecommunication service infrastructure projects, in addition to 4G/5G cellular network.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  24 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  23 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  74 countries answered this indicator; 8 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  There is no evidence that would prove or deny this, but the company that produces, delivers and integrates telecommunication and information systems for the telecoms in Bosnia and Herzegovina has a partnership with Huawei (link 1 shows the list of the company's partners). Additionally, there is evidence that the BH Telecom, one of the largest telecoms in Bosnia, uses Huawei's products in their telecommunication infrastructure that is not 4G/5G cellular network (link number 2). Previously attached Reuters article (third link) thematized United Group's (Telemach) connection to Huawei. Given that they provide a wide array of telecommunication services, it is quite possible that their internet/wi-fi infrastructure projects use hardware or technical specifications by PRC-connected entities, but there is no publicly available evidence that would prove nor deny such connection.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. https://archive.ph/BwBBF
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2. https://archive.ph/kcNOL
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  3. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-unitedgroup-huawei-idUSKBN2B21WO

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by Tobiáš Lipold, Amina Celikovic, Selma Asceric, Darko Brkan, Emir Velic, Semir Dzebo, Aldin Karahasanovic and Emir Muric, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    4.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    In my country, PRC-connected entities are authorized vendors to supply tech-related equipment or services to our government, military or security services.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    28 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    53 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    All of the public procurement documents lead to local companies as authorized vendors of tech related equipment to official institutions.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      All the publicly available documents show that authorised vendors to supply tech related equipment and services to government, military or security services are local companies whose connection to the PRC cannot be traced.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answered by Tobiáš Lipold, Amina Celikovic, Selma Asceric, Darko Brkan, Emir Velic, Semir Dzebo, Aldin Karahasanovic and Emir Muric, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        5.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        In my country, central or local governments have collaboration (such as data collection or exchange agreement, or adoption of related hardwares) with the PRC government or PRC-connected entities on facial, voice recognition or other applications involving biometrics achieved by AI.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        42 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        First three links show that local governments have adopted hardwares involving biometrics achieved by AI, whilst fourth link proves donation by PRC government of such hardware to Border Police. That donation has been made in 2019. Additionally, Republika Srpska Ministry of Interior received an acknowledgement for its surveillance project from Dahua Technology. Social media posts by Dahua Technology Bosna i Hercegovina serve as another proof that Republika Srpska Ministry of Interiors surveillance project used Dahuas’ products/services. Link (pg. 17)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. http://www.centar.ba/novost/16356/opcina-centar-nabavila-termalne-kamere-za-zdravstvene-ustanove
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2. http://msb.gov.ba/vijesti/najave/default.aspx?id=18958&langTag=bs-BA
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        3. https://avaz.ba/kantoni/sarajevo/563053/opcina-centar-donirala-granicnoj-policiji-bih-termalne-kamere
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        4. http://www.granpol.gov.ba/data/documents/pdf/Brosura%20za%202019.godinu.pdf
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        5. https://mup.vladars.net/lat/index.php?vijest=22871&vrsta=saopstenja
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        6. https://www.facebook.com/dahuatechnologybosnaihercegovina/posts/992464518160755

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answered by Tobiáš Lipold, Amina Celikovic, Selma Asceric, Darko Brkan, Emir Velic, Semir Dzebo, Aldin Karahasanovic and Emir Muric, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          6.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          In my country, one or more cities have procured, or have signed contracts with PRC-connected entities to establish “smart city” systems.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          35 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          25 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Provided links show that in 2018 a Memorandum of Understanding between the City of Sarajevo and Huawei Technologies d.o.o. was signed by (now former) Sarajevo Mayor, Abdulah Skaka, and Huawei Technologies Director, Chen Chen. This joint statement defined the building of a smart and safe city. Even though these links are old, there has been no further data on this topic, so the activities defined by that Memorandum are presumably still ongoing. Link (pg. 7, light-blue box)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. https://ba.n1info.com/vijesti/a296093-zavrsen-treci-forum-inovacija-sarajevo-unlimited/
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2. http://vijeceministara.gov.ba/home_right_docs/default.aspx?id=29765&langTag=bs-BA

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answered by Tobiáš Lipold, Amina Celikovic, Selma Asceric, Darko Brkan, Emir Velic, Semir Dzebo, Aldin Karahasanovic and Emir Muric, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            7.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            In my country, financial institutions use the China Cross-Border Interbank Payment System (CIPS) clearing and settlement services system.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            63 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            18 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            There is no available online data that would prove or deny the use of China Cross-Border Interbank Payment System (CIPS) in Bosnia and Herzegovina.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answered by Tobiáš Lipold, Amina Celikovic, Selma Asceric, Darko Brkan, Emir Velic, Semir Dzebo, Aldin Karahasanovic and Emir Muric, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                8.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                In my country, PRC-connected venture capital invests in technology start-ups.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                32 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                18 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                There is no available data that would prove PRC-connected investments in technology start-ups. Additionally, a recent media article that focused on PRC’s influence on Balkans claims that “In Bosnia, for the time being, only infrastructure projects are implemented with Chinese money”.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. https://archive.ph/oikza

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answered by Tobiáš Lipold, Amina Celikovic, Selma Asceric, Darko Brkan, Emir Velic, Semir Dzebo, Aldin Karahasanovic and Emir Muric, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  9.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  In my country, companies have publicly announced that they had signed MOUs to collaborate on technological development (such as collaborations in A.I., Blockchain, Cloud Computing, Big Data) with PRC-connected entities.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  31 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Provided links show partnerships that companies from Bosnia and Herzegovina have established with PRC-connected entities.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. https://archive.ph/BwBBF
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2. https://its.ba/2021/01/15/novo-partnerstvo-sa-dahua-technology/

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by Tobiáš Lipold, Amina Celikovic, Selma Asceric, Darko Brkan, Emir Velic, Semir Dzebo, Aldin Karahasanovic and Emir Muric, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    10.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    In my country, PRC-connected entities are shareholders or developers of the top five popular social media/messaging apps, based on usage.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    44 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    36 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    We had trouble identifying top five popular social media/messaging apps in Bosnia and Herzegovina between January 2020 and March 2021. The link provided above shows currently (July 2021) most downloaded social media apps. Number one on that list is TikTok, while TikTok Lite is number five on that same list. Those numbers might have been different in the period crucial for this indey, but taking in account TikTok’s popularity, one of them for sure was in the top five between January 2020 and March 2021.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. https://appfigures.com/top-apps/google-play/bosnia-and-herzegovina/social

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by Tobiáš Lipold, Amina Celikovic, Selma Asceric, Darko Brkan, Emir Velic, Semir Dzebo, Aldin Karahasanovic and Emir Muric, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      11.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      In my country, the central or local government(s) has collaborated with the PRC on endorsing the use of BeiDou satellite navigation system.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      64 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      17 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      The provided link shows that the use of Beidou satellite navigation system is in the process of being approved by The Institute for Standardization of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Unfortunately that is the only source that connects this satellite navigation system and Bosnia and Herzegovina, and does not say whether any level of government collaborated with the PRC on endorsing Beidou’s use in Bosnia & Herzegovina.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. https://isbih.gov.ba/en/plan-rada/view/102807

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answered by Tobiáš Lipold, Amina Celikovic, Selma Asceric, Darko Brkan, Emir Velic, Semir Dzebo, Aldin Karahasanovic and Emir Muric, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Hide

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Domestic Politics

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        The Domestic Politics Domain evaluates PRC efforts to influence the political landscape in the Index country, and the footprint of PRC security companies.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        In my country, politicians or government employees at the sub-national level are signing agreements with the PRC government or state-owned enterprises.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        20 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        23 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        There have been two cases of politicians signing agreements with PRC government or state owned enterprises, but both these agreements were signed before the period this index addresses. However, activities that were defined by them are still rolling out. First agreement was signed in November 2018 between Minister of Communications and Transport, Ismir Jusko, and Vice President of Associations of companies from Central and Eastern Europe and the Nordic countries, Tian Hua, on cooperation in the field of innovation and technology between China and the countries of Central and Eastern Europe. The second agreement was signed in June 2019 between the Minister of Education and Culture of the Republic of Srpska, Natalija Trivić, and the Ambassador of China to BiH, Ji Ping. That agreement regulates providing Chinese language teachers for five schools in which Chinese is taught as an elective course.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. https://banjaluka.net/potpisan-sporazum-kina-obezbjedjuje-nastavnike-za-kineski-jezik/
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2. https://ba.n1info.com/vijesti/a296093-zavrsen-treci-forum-inovacija-sarajevo-unlimited/

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answered by Tobiáš Lipold, Amina Celikovic, Selma Asceric, Darko Brkan, Emir Velic, Semir Dzebo, Aldin Karahasanovic and Emir Muric, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          In my country, local municipalities have sister-city ties (友好城市) with municipalities in the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          23 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          There are three cities in Bosnia that have twin-city ties with cities in PRC, and those are Sarajevo, Mostar and Prijedor. Their sister-cities are Tianjin, Yinchuan and Ningbo, in that order.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. https://www.sarajevo.ba/bs/article/5778/gradovi-pobratimi-spisak
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2. https://www.mostar.ba/gradovi-prijatelji.html
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          3. https://www.prijedorgrad.org/sr-BA/medjunarodna-saradnja.html

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answered by Tobiáš Lipold, Amina Celikovic, Selma Asceric, Darko Brkan, Emir Velic, Semir Dzebo, Aldin Karahasanovic, Emir Muric and 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            3.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            In my country, politicians or government employees have taken trips to the PRC paid for by PRC-connected individuals or entities.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            22 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            16 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            16 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            73 countries answered this indicator; 9 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            There is no data that would prove or deny that PRC-connected individuals or entities paid the trips of the politicians in Bosnia in Herzegovina. Also, due to the COVID-19 pandemic, there haven’t been official trips or visits, and all international meetings and summits were held online.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answered by Tobiáš Lipold, Amina Celikovic, Selma Asceric, Darko Brkan, Emir Velic, Semir Dzebo, Aldin Karahasanovic, Emir Muric and 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                4.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                In my country, politicians or government employees visit the PRC and have meetings with PRC officials and think tanks.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                25 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                32 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                5.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                In my country, law enforcement and judicial related training offered the PRC-connected individuals or entities has been accepted by national or subnational governments.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                46 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                16 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                There is no publicly available data or information.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by Tobiáš Lipold, Amina Celikovic, Selma Asceric, Darko Brkan, Emir Velic, Semir Dzebo, Aldin Karahasanovic, Emir Muric and 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    6.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    In my country, there are reports of politicians or political parties receiving campaign donations that originate in the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    60 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    0 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    78 countries answered this indicator; 4 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Political entities are obliged to submit reports on the financing of political parties to the Central Election Commission. Inspecting the financial statements, we did not find any official evidence to support the claim that politicians or political parties receive campaign donations that originate in the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. https://izbori.ba/Default.aspx?CategoryID=60&Lang=3&Mod=4
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2. http://www.izbori.ba/Documents/2018/09/03/Praktikum_za_finansiranje_izborne_kampanje_i_politickih_stranaka-bos.pdf

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by Tobiáš Lipold, Amina Celikovic, Selma Asceric, Darko Brkan, Emir Velic, Semir Dzebo, Aldin Karahasanovic, Emir Muric and 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      7.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      In my country, groups with reported links to the United Front Work Department (UFWD) have hosted fundraisings or have provided other forms of support for government employees, politicians or parties.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      64 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      There is no publicly available data or information.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answered by Tobiáš Lipold, Amina Celikovic, Selma Asceric, Darko Brkan, Emir Velic, Semir Dzebo, Aldin Karahasanovic, Emir Muric and 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          8.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          In my country, groups with reported links to the United Front Work Department (UFWD) have made public statements opposing the candidacy of a local political candidate or party, claiming them being “anti-China”.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          78 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          0 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          0 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          There is no publicly available data or information.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answered by Tobiáš Lipold, Amina Celikovic, Selma Asceric, Darko Brkan, Emir Velic, Semir Dzebo, Aldin Karahasanovic, Emir Muric and 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              9.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              In my country, politicians or government employees have publicly expressed positive views of the PRC government.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              37 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              The ruling political parties in Bosnia and Herzegovina: the Alliance of Independent Social Democrats (SNSD Link), the Party of Democratic Action (SDA Link) and the Croatian Democratic Union (HDZ BiH Link), have signed an official Memorandum of cooperation with the Communist Party of China. Mutual cooperation, among other things, implies the obligation to strengthen exchanges and experiences in state governance.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. https://archive.ph/wip/YvCpJ
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2. https://archive.vn/wip/pbBPM
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              3. https://archive.vn/wip/gxAFS
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              4. https://archive.vn/wip/mNyJ2
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              5. https://archive.vn/DuusZ
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              6. https://archive.vn/wip/UMbeW

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answered by Tobiáš Lipold, Amina Celikovic, Selma Asceric, Darko Brkan, Emir Velic, Semir Dzebo, Aldin Karahasanovic, Emir Muric and 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                10.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                In my country, politicians or government employees have received direct or deferred benefits from PRC-connected individuals or entities openly or covertly (e.g. have been appointed to lucrative positions as board members or consultants with PRC-invested firms, casinos, energy companies, etc.) during or in retirement from public office.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                40 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                0 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                18 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                73 countries answered this indicator; 9 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Although there are certain indications in the public regarding the influence trade by politicians or that politicians have received direct or deferred benefits from PRC-connected individuals or entities covertly (tender procedures in the first place) when it comes to energy projects, the IT sector, trade and the wood sector etc. we have no concrete evidence to substantiate these allegations.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. https://archive.vn/wip/0ar6x

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answered by Tobiáš Lipold, Amina Celikovic, Selma Asceric, Darko Brkan, Emir Velic, Semir Dzebo, Aldin Karahasanovic, Emir Muric and 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  11.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  In my country, security services (安保/保安) offered by private PRC companies are contracted by national or subnational governments.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Republic of Srpska Government (Bosnia's Serb-dominated entity Republika Srpska) is in the process of concluding a contract or has already concluded several contracts in the segment of security services, health care, education and services with the China-Europe Association for Technical & Economic Cooperation Constitution (CEATEC)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. https://archive.vn/wip/AKbmH

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by Tobiáš Lipold, Amina Celikovic, Selma Asceric, Darko Brkan, Emir Velic, Semir Dzebo, Aldin Karahasanovic, Emir Muric and 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Hide

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Foreign Policy

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    The Foreign Policy Domain gauges PRC efforts to achieve diplomatic objectives by influencing key actors in the Index country.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    My country’s legislature has a joint parliamentary friendship group, committee or other forms of sub-organizations with PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    25 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    57 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    There is no such parliamentary group listed among the common or other parliamentary bodies.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. http://parlament.ba/

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by Tobiáš Lipold, Amina Celikovic, Selma Asceric, Darko Brkan, Emir Velic, Semir Dzebo, Aldin Karahasanovic and Emir Muric, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Representatives of a political party in my country’s national legislature have met officially with representatives of the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      20 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      40 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Meetings are limited to the visits from/to PRC ambassador in BiH within the given time slot research is addressing.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. http://www.kina-danas.com/delegacija-sda-bih-na-sastanku-u-ambasadi-narodne-republike-kine-u-sarajevu/
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2. https://www.kina-danas.com/covic-i-ji-odrzali-telefonski-sastanak/

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answered by Tobiáš Lipold, Amina Celikovic, Selma Asceric, Darko Brkan, Emir Velic, Semir Dzebo, Aldin Karahasanovic and Emir Muric, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        3.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        The PRC provides training to diplomats or civil servants on governance from my country (such as at 国家行政学院 or 中央党校).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        39 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        There is no publicly available data indicating this ever happened.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answered by Tobiáš Lipold, Amina Celikovic, Selma Asceric, Darko Brkan, Emir Velic, Semir Dzebo, Aldin Karahasanovic and Emir Muric, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            4.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            In my country, politicians or government employees have been pressured by PRC diplomats to change their political or diplomatic stances.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            41 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            There is no publicly available data indicating this ever happened.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answered by Tobiáš Lipold, Amina Celikovic, Selma Asceric, Darko Brkan, Emir Velic, Semir Dzebo, Aldin Karahasanovic and Emir Muric, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                5.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Citizens of my country have been detained in PRC or denied exit visas, and believed to be suffering from unfair legal treatments for political reasons, a.k.a. “hostage diplomacy”.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                61 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                There is no publicly available data indicating this ever happened.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by Tobiáš Lipold, Amina Celikovic, Selma Asceric, Darko Brkan, Emir Velic, Semir Dzebo, Aldin Karahasanovic and Emir Muric, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    6.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    The head of state, head of government or foreign minister of my country has denied Taiwan’s right to participate as a member, observer or guest in WHO.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    65 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    There is no publicly available data indicating this ever happened.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answered by Tobiáš Lipold, Amina Celikovic, Selma Asceric, Darko Brkan, Emir Velic, Semir Dzebo, Aldin Karahasanovic and Emir Muric, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        7.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        My country publicly supported the appointment of a PRC official to be the head of a United Nations agency (such as the FAO or ICAO) or other intergovernmental organizations (such as INTERPOL).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        62 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        73 countries answered this indicator; 9 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Since the voting is secret, and there is no mention of B&H’s stances on any of the aforementioned candidates, this question is hard to answer. However, as the question is about “public” support for a candidate, I do think the answer 0 is appropriate here as there is no public information indicating that they supported any of the nominees.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answered by Tobiáš Lipold, Amina Celikovic, Selma Asceric, Darko Brkan, Emir Velic, Semir Dzebo, Aldin Karahasanovic and Emir Muric, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            8.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            My government has shown support of PRC's territorial claims (such as on the South China Sea arbitration ruling issued by the UNCLOS Arbitral Tribunal in July 2016; except claims over Taiwan, which are indirectly covered in indicator 6.)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Silence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            0/ My country has rejected PRC’s claim

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            24 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2/ My country has remained silent

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            36 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            4/ My country has adhered to PRC’s claim

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            I am giving 2 as a response value not because B&H has remained silent but rather because it has remained neutral. Following the 2016 UNCLOS ruling, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of B&H had issued a statement saying it hoped that the involved parties would use the ruling as an encouragement to resolve their issues through dialogue, consultations, and negotiations in accordance with the principles of international law all the while respecting the territorial sovereignty and economic interests of everyone involved.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. https://www.klix.ba/vijesti/bih/i-to-je-moguce-nasa-drzava-vodi-brigu-o-sporu-kine-i-filipina-o-juznom-kineskom-moru/160715082

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answered by Tobiáš Lipold, Amina Celikovic, Selma Asceric, Darko Brkan, Emir Velic, Semir Dzebo, Aldin Karahasanovic and Emir Muric, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              9.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              My country has shown one of the following stances on PRC’s treatment of its Uyghur population.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Oppose

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              0/ My country has denounced PRC

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              31 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2/ My country has remained silent

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              32 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              4/ My country has voiced support to PRC’s stance

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              17 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              In October 2020, Bosnia and Herzegovina had joined 38 other states in expressing “grave concerns” over PRC’s policies in Xinjiang, Hong Kong, and Tibet. In June 2021, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Bosnia and Herzegovina joined 43 other countries in expressing concerns over reports of human rights abuses in Xinjiang and urging PRC to allow access to independent observers.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. https://www.hrw.org/news/2020/10/06/39-countries-un-express-grave-concerns-about-chinas-abuses
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2. https://geneva.usmission.gov/2021/06/22/joint-statement-on-the-human-rights-situation-in-xinjiang/

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              It is important to keep in mind the fragmented nature of B&H politics reflected in the different priorities held by the representatives of the country’s three dominant ethnic groups. Consequently, while the government has, in tis official capacity expressed concern for the state of human rights in PRC, this does not mean that all the relevant decisionmakers in the government agree with this stance. Namely, when the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of B&H joined 43 other countries in expressing concerns over reports of human rights abuses in Xinjiang and urging PRC to allow access to independent observers, it was criticized by the Bosnian Serb member of the B&H tripartite presidency. Consequently, the official response by PRC was to condemn the Ministry of Foreign Affairs headed by a Bosniak official but at the same time praise the Bosnian Serb member of the tripartite presidency who criticized the Ministry of Foreign Affairs claiming they had no right to join others in expressing concern without the approval of relevant representatives of the Bosnian Serbs.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answered by Tobiáš Lipold, Amina Celikovic, Selma Asceric, Darko Brkan, Emir Velic, Semir Dzebo, Aldin Karahasanovic and Emir Muric, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                10.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                My country has shown one of the following stances on PRC’s treatment of its Tibet population.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Oppose

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                0/ My country has denounced PRC

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2/ My country has remained silent

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                46 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                4/ My country has voiced support to PRC’s stance

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                The declarations mentioned in answer 9 both relate to Tibet, too. In them, Bosnia and Herzegovina joins others in expressing concern for allegations of widespread human rights violations in Tibet. One declaration is from October 2020, while the other is from June 2021.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. https://www.hrw.org/news/2020/10/06/39-countries-un-express-grave-concerns-about-chinas-abuses
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2. https://geneva.usmission.gov/2021/06/22/joint-statement-on-the-human-rights-situation-in-xinjiang/

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Please read the supplementary notes for answer 9. Same notes apply in this case.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answered by Tobiáš Lipold, Amina Celikovic, Selma Asceric, Darko Brkan, Emir Velic, Semir Dzebo, Aldin Karahasanovic and Emir Muric, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  11.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  My government has not publicly criticized the PRC’s imposition of the National Security Law on Hong Kong.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Oppose

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  0/ My country has denounced PRC

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  24 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2/ My country has remained silent

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  36 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  4/ My country has voiced support to PRC’s stance

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  The previously mentioned statement from October 2020, directly mentions the National Security Law on Hong Kong. B&H, alongside 38 other countries, expressed concerns over the law.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. https://new-york-un.diplo.de/un-en/news-corner/201006-heusgen-china/2402648

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Once again, please look at the supplementary note from answer 9. Additionally, it is worth to mention that the Bosnian Serb member of the B&H tripartite presidency wrote a letter directly to PCR’s president expressing his support over the National Security Law. Once again, while there is a decisive policy at the official level of Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the real foreign policy situation is more fragmented with the Bosnian Serb member of the B&H tripartite presidency being supportive of PRC policies unlike the country’s Ministry of Foreign Affairs.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by Tobiáš Lipold, Amina Celikovic, Selma Asceric, Darko Brkan, Emir Velic, Semir Dzebo, Aldin Karahasanovic and Emir Muric, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Hide
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